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Numéro de publicationCN103339683 A
Type de publicationDemande
Numéro de demandeCN 201280006537
Numéro PCTPCT/US2012/022443
Date de publication2 oct. 2013
Date de dépôt24 janv. 2012
Date de priorité28 janv. 2011
Autre référence de publicationCA2824080A1, EP2668652A2, WO2012103150A2, WO2012103150A3
Numéro de publication201280006537.8, CN 103339683 A, CN 103339683A, CN 201280006537, CN-A-103339683, CN103339683 A, CN103339683A, CN201280006537, CN201280006537.8, PCT/2012/22443, PCT/US/12/022443, PCT/US/12/22443, PCT/US/2012/022443, PCT/US/2012/22443, PCT/US12/022443, PCT/US12/22443, PCT/US12022443, PCT/US1222443, PCT/US2012/022443, PCT/US2012/22443, PCT/US2012022443, PCT/US201222443
InventeursA·拜拉米安, J·拉特考斯基, R·萨维奇, R·德里
Déposant劳伦斯利弗摩尔国际安全有限责任公司
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes:  SIPO, Espacenet
Final beam transport system
CN 103339683 A
Résumé
A system includes a laser system operable to provide a laser beam along an optical path and a fusion chamber coupled to the optical path. The system also includes a neutron pinhole disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber and a neutron attenuation region disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber.
Revendications(22)  Langue du texte original : Chinois
1.一种替换被放置在高辐射环境中的光学元件的方法,该方法包括: 暂停光束线的操作; 拉动缆线,以便使光学元件通过辐射墙转移; 用替换光学元件交换该光学元件; 拉动缆线,以便使该替换光学元件通过该辐射墙转移; 把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处; 把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上; 把该替换光学元件安置在运动元件上; 检验该替换光学元件的光学对准。 An alternative method of the optical element is placed in a high radiation environment, the method comprising: Pause beamline operation; pull cable, so that the optical element is transferred by radiant wall; replace the optical element of the optical switching element; pulling the cable, so that the replacement of the optical element through which the radiation transfer wall; the replacement of the optical element disposed at a first end surface adjacent to the telescope; the replacement of the optical element disposed in a first end face of the telescope; the replacement of the optical element placed on the moving element; checking the replacement optical element optically aligned. 和恢复光束线的操作。 And recovery operations beamlines.
2.权利要求1的方法,还包括: 使望远镜通气,达到室压强;和添加气体,使光学元件与望远镜的第一端面分开,其中把该替换光学元件安置在运动元件上包括抽真空,以便安置该替换光学元件。 The method of claim 1, further comprising: venting the telescope, reaches the pressure chamber; and adding gas, the first end surface of the optical element and telescope apart, wherein the replacement of the optical element arranged on the moving element comprises a vacuum to The placement of the replacement optical element.
3.权利要求1的方法,其中该光学元件包括透镜。 The method of claim 1, wherein the optical element comprises a lens.
4.权利要求3的方法,其中该透镜包括菲涅尔透镜。 The method of claim 3, wherein the lens comprises a Fresnel lens.
5.权利要求1的方法,其中该气体包括Xe气。 The method of claim 1, wherein the gas comprises Xe gas.
6.权利要求1的方法,其中该替换光学元件包括透镜。 The method of claim 1, wherein the optical element comprises a lens replacement.
7.权利要求6的方法,其中该透镜包括菲涅尔透镜。 The method of claim 6, wherein the lens comprises a Fresnel lens.
8.权利要求1的方法,其中把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处,包括使用运动磁体使该替换光学元件定位。 The method of claim 1, wherein the replacement of the optical element disposed adjacent the first end of the telescope, including the use of a magnet so that the movement of the optical element is positioned to replace.
9.权利要求8的方法,其中该运动磁体包括基于Nd的磁体或基于Sm的磁体中的至少一种。 The method of claim 8, wherein the motion comprises at least one magnet Nd-based magnet or a Sm-based magnets.
10.权利要求1的方法,其中把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上,包括对望远镜抽真空。 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the optical element is disposed in the telescope replaces a first end surface, including the evacuation of the telescope.
11.一种光学系统,包括: 有第一端和第二端的真空室; 光学装置支架,被安装到该真空室的第一端,其中该光学装置支架有安装表面; 菲涅尔光学装置,被安装到该安装表面; 缆线,附着于该光学装置支架;和第二光学元件,被安装到该真空室的第二端。 11. An optical system comprising: a first end and a second end of the vacuum chamber; optical device holder is mounted to a first end of the vacuum chamber, wherein the optical device holder has a mounting surface; Fresnel optical device, It is mounted to the mounting surface; cable, optical means attached to the holder; and a second optical element, is mounted to the second end of the vacuum chamber.
12.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该光学装置支架被放置在第一区中,该第一区以第一中子通量为特征,而该第二光学元件被放置在第二区中,该第二区以小于第一中子通量的第二中子通量为特征。 12. The optical system of claim 11, wherein the optical device holder is placed in the first zone, the first zone is characterized by a first neutron flux, and the second optical element is disposed in the second area, The second area smaller than the first neutron flux of the second neutron flux characteristics.
13.权利要求12的光学系统,其中该第一区通过包含多个狭长孔的屏蔽墙与该第二区分开。 The optical system of claim 12, wherein the first region comprises a plurality of elongated apertures through the wall of the shield separated from the second region.
14.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该缆线穿过屏蔽墙中的狭长孔,到达以降低的中子通量为特征的区。 The optical system of claim 11, wherein the cable passes through the elongated hole in the shielding wall, in order to reduce the neutron flux reaches characterized zone.
15.权利要求11的光学系统,其中该菲涅尔光学装置包括熔融石英光学装置。 The optical system of claim 11, wherein the optical means comprises a Fresnel molten quartz optical means.
16.—种系统,包括: 激光器系统,可操作以便提供沿光路的激光束; 聚变室,被耦接到该光路; 中子小孔,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间;和中子衰减区,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间。 16.- such systems, comprising: a laser system, is operable to provide a laser beam along an optical path; fusion chamber, is coupled to the optical path; neutron aperture, is disposed along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber; and neutron attenuation area, along the optical path is arranged between the laser system and the fusion chamber.
17.权利要求16的系统,其中该聚变系统包括激光惯性聚变能量室。 17. The system of claim 16, wherein the fusion system includes a laser inertial fusion energy room.
18.权利要求16的系统,其中该激光器系统包括相对于聚变室排列的多个激光放大器模块。 18. The system of claim 16, wherein the laser system with respect to the fusion chamber comprises a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in modules.
19.权利要求16的系统,其中该系统还至少包括反射镜或衍射光栅,沿光路被布置在中子小孔和聚变室之间。 19. The system of claim 16, wherein the system further comprises at least a mirror or a diffraction grating is disposed along the optical path between the orifice and the neutron fusion chamber.
20.权利要求16的系统,其中该中子衰减区包括附加的中子小孔。 20. The system of claim 16, wherein the region comprises an additional neutron decay neutron hole.
21.权利要求20的系统,还包括转向反射镜,沿光路被布置在中子小孔和该附加的中子小孔之间。 21. The system of claim 20, further comprising a steering mirror is disposed along the optical path between the orifice and the additional neutron neutron hole.
22.权利要求16的系统,其中该中子衰减区包括曲径。 22. The system of claim 16, wherein the neutron decay area includes a labyrinth.
Description  Langue du texte original : Chinois

最后光束传输系统 Finally beam delivery system

[0001] 交叉引用相关申请 [0001] CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0002] 本申请要求2011年I月28日提交的美国临时专利申请N0.61/437,177的优先权,该申请所公开内容通过引用全部合并和本文。 [0002] This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent 28 January 2011 I filed N0.61 / 437,177, filed the disclosure herein by reference in its entirety consolidation and this article.

[0003] 关于对依照联邦赞助研究和发展做出的发明的权利的声明 [0003] In accordance with Statement of federal sponsorship of research and development to make the invention rights

[0004] 遵照用于劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家安全局工作的美国能源部和劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家安全局,LLC之间的合同N0.DE-AC52-07NA27344,美国政府在本发明中具有相应的权利。 [0004] According to the contract the US Department of Energy and Lawrence Livermore National Security Agency for the Lawrence Livermore National Security Agency Work, LLC between N0.DE-AC52-07NA27344, the US government has in the present invention accordingly rights.

背景技术 Background

[0005] 依据能源信息政府机构(Energy Information Agency)和目前政府间气候变化专门小组(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC))方案的项目,预期全世界对电功率的需求,从目前的约2太瓦电功率(TWe)到2030年的4TWe,翻了一倍,并到2100年可以达到8-10TWe。 [0005] according to the Energy Information Government agencies (Energy Information Agency) and currently the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)) program of the project, expected worldwide demand for electric power, from the current about 2 TWh electric power (TWe) 2030 4TWe, doubled, and by 2100 may reach 8-10TWe. 他们还预期,在下一个30到50年,大量的电生产的需求,将由矿物燃料,通常是煤和天然气提供。 They also expect the next 30-50 years, a lot of power production needs, by fossil fuel, usually coal and natural gas are also available. 今天,煤供应世界电能的41%,并被预期到2030年供应45%。 Today, coal supplies 41 percent of world energy, and are expected to supply 45 percent in 2030. 此夕卜,来自IPCC的最近报告,已经把排放进大气的人造源的CO2,对地球行星气候有显著影响的可能性定在90%。 Bu this evening, the latest report from the IPCC, CO2 emissions from man-made sources have put into the atmosphere, the possibility of a significant impact on the climate of the planet Earth set at 90%. “一切照旧”基数线情况(“business as usual”baseline scenarios)指出,到2050年,CO2排放几乎是目前水平的两倍半。 "Business as usual" base line situation ("business as usual" baseline scenarios) noted that by the year 2050, CO2 emissions from almost two and half times the current level. 比以往更甚的是,新技术和另外的能源对满足在发达的和发展中的世界两者中日益增加的能量需求都是必不可少的,同时试图稳定和降低大气中CO2的浓度并缓解伴生的气候变化。 More than ever, the new technologies and additional energy to meet in both the developed and developing world in the increasing energy demand is essential, while trying to stabilize and reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and ease Associated climate change.

[0006] 核能,一种无碳排放的能源,自1950年以来,已成为世界能量生产的关键组分,且当前的量约占世界电力生产的16%,这是一个可以在“原则上”被增加的百分数。 [0006] The nuclear energy, a carbon-free energy sources, since 1950, has become a key component of the world energy production, and the current account for about 16 percent of the world's electricity production, this is a can "in principle" the percentage is increased. 然而。 However. 有若干因素造成它的长期可持续性的困难。 There are several factors that cause difficulties on its long-term sustainability. 这些有关因素包含:从核燃料循环带来的核材料和技术的扩散的风险;要求深埋在地质贮藏室中的长寿命放射性核废料的产生;目前对一次性的、开放的核燃料循环的依赖性;以及低成本的、低碳足迹铀矿的可用性。 These relevant factors included: the risk from the nuclear fuel cycle brought the proliferation of nuclear materials and technology; and requires deep geological storage rooms in long-lived radioactive waste generated; current dependence on one-time, open the nuclear fuel cycle ; and a low-cost, low-carbon footprint uranium availability. 单单在美国,核反应堆已经产生多于55,000公吨(MT)用完的核燃料(SNF)。 In the US alone, it has produced more than 55,000 metric tons of nuclear reactors (MT) Spent nuclear fuel (SNF). 在不远的将来,我们将有足够的用完的核燃料,把尤卡山地质废料贮藏室填满到它70,000 MT的法定极限。 In the near future, we will have enough spent nuclear fuel to Yucca Mountain geological waste storage room was filled to its legal limit of 70,000 MT.

[0007] 聚变(fusion)是将来功率产生有吸引力的能量选项,现在有两种主要的聚变发电厂方案被研发。 [0007] Fusion (fusion) is attractive for future power generation energy options, there are two main types of fusion power plant program was developed. 在第一种方案中,惯性约束聚变(Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF))使用激光、重离子光束、或脉冲功率,以便迅速压缩含有氘(D)和氚(T)混合物的小囊(capsule)。 In the first scenario, the inertial confinement fusion (Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)) using a laser, heavy ion beams or pulsed power, in order to quickly compress containing deuterium (D) and tritium (T) mixture capsule (capsule). 随着小囊半径的缩小和DT气体密度及温度的增加,DT聚变反应在被压缩的小囊中心的小斑点中被引发。 With the reduction and increase of DT gas density and temperature of the vesicle radius, DT fusion reaction in the compressed sachet small spot in the center is raised. 这些DT聚变反应产生α粒子和14.1 MeV的中子两者。 The DT fusion reaction produces both α particles and neutrons of 14.1 MeV. 聚变燃烧前缘从该斑点传播,产生显著的能量增益。 Fusion combustion front from the spot spread, resulting in significant energy gain. 第二种方案,磁性聚变能量(MFE)使用强磁场以便约束DT等离子体并产生要求维持燃烧等离子体和产生能量增益的条件。 The second scenario, the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) with a strong magnetic field in order to produce the desired restraint and maintain DT plasma burning plasma and produce energy gain conditions.

[0008]用于ICF的重要技术,最初是在加州利弗莫尔市的劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家实验室(LLNL)-本发明的受让人-的国家点火设施(National Ignition Facility (NIF))上研发的。 [0008] an important technique for the ICF, initially in Livermore, California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) - National Ignition Facility's (National Ignition Facility (NIF) - the assignee of the present invention, ) on research and development. 那里,被设计成获得热核聚变点火和燃烧的基于激光的惯性约束聚变项目,利用I到1.3 MJ的激光能量。 There, it is designed to obtain thermonuclear fusion ignition and combustion of laser-based inertial confinement fusion project, the use of I to 1.3 MJ of laser energy. 预期有量级为10到20 MJ的聚变产出。 Expected order of magnitude of 10 to 20 MJ of fusion output. 如果聚变技术独立地被用于有成本效益的功率生产,则按中心热斑聚变几何结构要求,超过200 MJ的聚变产出是被预期的。 If fusion technology independently for cost-effective power production, press central hot spot fusion geometry requires more than 200 MJ of fusion output is expected. 因此,显著技术挑战仍然是要获得由纯惯性约束聚变能量供电的经济性。 Therefore, significant technical challenges remain to be obtained from the pure inertial confinement fusion energy supply economy.

发明内容 DISCLOSURE

[0009] 按照本发明的实施例,涉及惯性约束聚变的方法和系统被提供。 [0009] According to an embodiment of the present invention relates to a method and system for inertial confinement fusion is provided. 尤其是,一种满足最高水平要求的最后光学装置光束传输系统被提供,它适合用于激光惯性聚变引擎(LIFE)系统。 In particular, an optical device to meet the final beam delivery system is providing the highest level of requirements, it is suitable for laser inertial fusion engine (LIFE) system. 该光学装置能使351nm光快速瞄准和传输通过双中子小孔并使光束会聚在靶上(如,与本文描述的实施例一道采用的靶跟踪系统,将能在点火之前最后30 μ s使击发瞄准校正)。 The optical device allows fast aiming and 351nm light transmitted through the hole and make double neutron beam to the target (eg, target tracking system according to embodiments described herein, together with adopted, will be in the final 30 μ s before firing to make firing aim correction). 本文描述的光学系统,启动靶跟踪系统和校直的诊断光束。 The optical systems described herein, target tracking system and start straightening beam diagnostics. 该最后光学装置已经被设计成对中子损害和靶冲击压强波是坚固的,同时对351nm激光束提供最小损耗。 The last pair of optical devices have been designed to neutron damage and the target pressure shock waves are strong, while the laser beam of 351nm to provide minimum loss. 替换该最后光学装置的方法也被描述。 Alternatively the final optical device described methods. 本发明的实施例还能应用于高辐射(radiation)环境中的其他光学系统。 Embodiments of the present invention can also be applied to high radiation (radiation) environment, other optical systems.

[0010] 按照本发明一实施例,一种替换被放置在高辐射环境中的光学元件的方法被提供。 [0010] is provided a method according to an embodiment of the invention, an alternative to being placed in a high radiation environment of the optical element. 该方法包含:暂停光束线的操作;拉动缆线,以便使该光学元件通过辐射墙转移;以及用替换光学元件交换该光学元件。 The method comprising: Pause beamline operation; pulling the cable so that the optical element is transferred through radiation wall; and the optical element exchange with a replacement optics. 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便使该替换光学元件通过该辐射墙转移;把该替换光学元件放置在邻近望远镜的第一端面处;以及把该替换光学元件安置在望远镜的第一端面上。 The method further comprises: pulling the cable so that the replacement of the optical element through the radiation wall metastasis; the replacement of the optical element is placed adjacent to the first end of the telescope; and the replacement of the optical element disposed in the first end surface of the telescope . 该方法还包含:把该替换光学元件安置在运动(kinematic)元件上;检验该替换光学元件的光学对准;以及恢复光束线的操作。 The method further comprising: the replacement of the optical element disposed on the moving (kinematic) element; test this alternative optical element in optical alignment; beamline operation and recovery.

[0011] 按照本发明另一个实施例,一种光学系统被提供。 [0011] According to another embodiment of the invention, an optical system is provided. 该光学系统包含,有第一端和第二端的室和被安装在到该真空室的第一端的光学装置支架。 The optical system includes, has a first end and a second end of the chamber and the vacuum chamber of the first end of the optical apparatus is mounted to the bracket. 该光学装置支架有安装表面。 The optical device holder mounting surface. 该光学系统还包含,被安装到该安装表面的菲涅尔光学装置和附着于该光学装置支架的缆线。 The optical system further comprises, is mounted to the mounting surface of the Fresnel optical device and the optical means attached to the cable holder. 该光学系统还包含,被安装到该真空室的第二端的第二光学元件。 The optical system further comprises, mounted to a second end of the second optical element of the vacuum chamber.

[0012] 按照本发明的特定实施例,一种系统被提供。 [0012] is provided according to a particular embodiment of the present invention, a system. 该系统包含:可操作以便提供沿光路的激光束的激光器系统和被偶联到该光路的聚变室。 The system includes: operable to provide a laser system along the optical path of the laser beam and is coupled to the optical path of the fusion chamber. 该系统还包含,沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间的中子小孔,以及沿该光路被布置在激光器系统和聚变室之间的中子衰减区。 The system also contains, arranged along the optical path in the laser system and the fusion neutron holes between the chambers, and are arranged along the optical path between the laser system and the fusion chamber neutron decay area.

[0013] 按照本发明一实施例,薄的菲涅尔光学装置被用作该最后光学装置。 [0013] According to one embodiment of the invention, the thin Fresnel optical device is used as the final optical device. 该最后光学装置(它可以由熔融石英制造)被安装在框架中,该框架借助垫圈(如,O型环密封圈)被密封到含有中子小孔(如,与建筑物连结的大的水泥结构)的传输望远镜。 The last large cement optical device (which may be made of fused silica) is mounted in a frame, the frame by means of a gasket (e.g., O-ring seal) is sealed to contain the neutron hole (e.g., connected with the building structure) of the transmission telescope. 在一实施例中,最后光学装置的孔径约为0.6\43父430113,有21如1^ (2800Pa)的外部压强和〜0.5m torr的内部压强。 In one embodiment, the aperture of the optical device about the last 0.6 \ 430113 Father 43, 21 such as 1 ^ (2800Pa) external pressure and the internal pressure of ~0.5m torr. 在该实施例中,约116磅的力加在光学装置的表面上。 In this embodiment, about 116 pounds of force applied to the surface of the optical device.

[0014] 本发明的实施例,按可接入方式提供可替换光学装置,无需使用没有能力以可接受的寿命耐受高辐射环境的电子装置、发动机、液压装置或诸如此类。 Example [0014] The present invention, according to provide accessible alternative optical device without the use of inability to tolerate an acceptable lifetime of high radiation environment electronics, engines, hydraulic device or the like.

[0015] 按照本发明一实施例,一种最后光学装置光束传输系统被提供,它满足与例如在LIFE中发现的与高辐射环境相关联的最高水平要求。 [0015] According to one embodiment of the invention, an optical device last beam delivery system is provided, it meets the high radiation environment such as associated with the highest level of requirements found in LIFE. 该光学装置允许351nm光缓慢瞄准和传输通过光学上透明的中子屏蔽(亦称中子小孔,它能够按双小孔配置被实施),并把光束会聚在靶上。 The optical device allows to aim and slow 351nm light transmitted through optically transparent neutron shielding (also known as neutron holes, which can be implemented by dual orifice configuration), and the light beam converged on the target. 该最后光学装置已经被设计成对中子损害和靶冲击压强波是坚固的,同时对351nm激光束提供降低的或最小的损耗。 The last pair of optical devices have been designed to neutron damage and the target pressure shock waves are strong, while the laser beam of 351nm provide reduced or minimal loss. 替换这些最后光学装置的方法也被本发明的实施例提供。 Alternatively these final optical apparatus is also provided a method embodiment of the present invention. [0016] 为数众多好处通过优于常用技术的本发明获得。 [0016] numerous benefits through superior to conventional techniques of the present invention is obtained. 例如,本发明的实施例提供的方法和系统,能在用屏蔽墙屏蔽中子源的区中实现光学装置的替换。 For example, the method and system embodiments of the present invention provides, can replace the shield wall shield neutron source region to achieve an optical device used. 在一些实施例中,用于把激光聚焦到靶上的最后光学装置,提供光的会聚以及真空屏障和/或氚屏障两种作用。 In some embodiments, for focusing the laser light on the target final optical device, to provide two light converging effect and a vacuum barrier and / or tritium barrier. 本发明的这些和其他实施例连同许多它的优点和特征,结合下面的正文和附图更详细描述。 The present invention together with these and other embodiments many of its advantages and features, combined with text and drawings described in more detail below.

附图说明 Brief Description

[0017] 图1是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的最后光束传输系统的元件; [0017] FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram showing the components of the final beam delivery system according to embodiments of the present invention;

[0018] 图2是简化不意图,不出按照本发明实施例的最后光束传输系统; [0018] FIG. 2 is a simplified no intention, not in accordance with the present invention, the final beam delivery system of this embodiment;

[0019] 图3A是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含两个级联的中子小孔的最后光束传输系统; [0019] Figure 3A is a schematic diagram showing the final beam delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention comprising two cascaded neutrons apertures;

[0020] 图3B是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含单一中子小孔的最后光束传输系统; [0020] FIG. 3B is a schematic diagram showing the final delivery system comprising a single neutron beam apertures according to embodiments of the present invention;

[0021] 图3C是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的中子小孔望远镜的元件; [0021] FIG. 3C is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating neutron telescope aperture element according to embodiments of the present invention;

[0022] 图4A是对一组退火(annealing)条件的熔融石英光学装置中的透射率(transmission)作为波长函数的简化曲线; [0022] FIG 4A is a set of annealing (annealing) conditions, molten quartz optical apparatus transmittance (transmission) as a function of wavelength for a simplified curve;

[0023] 图4B是在熔融石英光学装置中的吸收作为温度函数的简化曲线; [0023] FIG. 4B is absorbed in the molten quartz optical apparatus as a simplified function of temperature curve;

[0024] 图5是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的入射到最后光学装置上的冲击压强波形; [0024] FIG. 5 is a simplified graph showing the incident in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention to the impact pressure waveform on the final optical device;

[0025] 图6A是等高线曲线,示出靶点火冲击在最后光学装置中引起的应力; [0025] FIG 6A is a contour graph showing the target due to thermal shock stresses in the final optical device;

[0026] 图6B是等高线曲线,示出受靶点火冲击的最后光学装置的最大位移; [0026] Figure 6B is a contour graph showing maximum displacement by the thermal shock final target optical apparatus;

[0027] 图7A是按照本发明实施例的最后光学装置换出(changeout)系统的简化示意图; [0027] FIG. 7A is a final optical device according to an embodiment of the present invention, a simplified schematic diagram swapped out (changeout) system;

[0028] 图7B是按照本发明实施例的用于最后光学装置替换品的包含在屏蔽墙中的曲径式(labyrinth)中子屏障的光学装置通路(optical pass-thru)的简化示意图; [0028] FIG. 7B is a simplified schematic diagram of an optical device used in the final replacement is included in the shield wall of the labyrinth (labyrinth) neutron optical barrier device path (optical pass-thru) embodiment according to the present invention;

[0029] 图8A是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的有机械安装可重复性和有真空能力的系统; [0029] FIG. 8A is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an embodiment of the installation according to the invention with a mechanical vacuum capability and reproducibility of the system;

[0030] 图8B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的系统,该系统包含来自该系统的任何一对窗口模块的独立可移除性; [0030] Figure 8B is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an embodiment of the system according to the present invention, the system includes a removable independently of any pair of window module from the system;

[0031] 图SC是简化流程图,表明按照本发明实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的方法; [0031] FIG. SC is a simplified flow chart illustrating the method of exchanging final optical device in a high radiation environment, an embodiment of the present invention;

[0032] 图9A是简化示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的到达屏蔽墙之间区域的激光器机架曲径式保养入口; [0032] FIG. 9A is a simplified schematic showing laser labyrinth rack inlet maintenance arrival embodiment according to the present invention the area between the wall of the shield;

[0033] 图9B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明另外的实施例的激光器机架曲径和中子小孔的结构; [0033] Figure 9B is a simplified schematic diagram showing a laser according to the present invention, the frame structure of the labyrinth and neutron apertures another embodiment;

[0034] 图10是图解,示出按照本发明实施例的作为时间函数的靠近靶室中心的环境的 [0034] FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating an environment close to the center of the target chamber as a function of time in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.

演变; Evolution;

[0035] 图1lA是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的由于逆韧致辐射(Bremstrahlung)吸收,作为离激光入口孔的距离函数的激光透射率;和 [0035] FIG 1lA is a simplified graph showing since the inverse bremsstrahlung (Bremstrahlung) absorbed from the laser as a function of distance from the entrance aperture of the laser transmittance of an embodiment of the present invention; and

[0036] 图1lB是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明实施例的铅蒸汽中SRS信号的饱和。 [0036] FIG 1lB is a simplified graph showing the saturated vapor lead SRS signal according to embodiments of the present invention. 具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0037] 本发明的实施例涉及聚变反应室。 [0037] Embodiments of the present invention relates to a fusion reaction chamber. 本发明的实施例可应用于能量系统,这些能量系统包含,但不限于,激光惯性约束聚变能量(Laser Inertial-confinement FusionEnergy (LIFE))引擎、诸如混合聚变-裂变LIFE系统的混合聚变-裂变系统、产生IV反应堆、整体式快速反应堆、磁约束聚变能量(MFE)系统、加速器驱动系统、以及其他。 Embodiments of the present invention may be applied to energy systems, the energy systems include, but are not limited to, laser inertial confinement fusion energy (Laser Inertial-confinement FusionEnergy (LIFE)) engine, such as hybrid fusion - fusion-fission hybrid LIFE System - fission systems produce IV reactors, fast reactors integral magnetic confinement fusion energy (MFE) system, accelerator driven systems, and others. 在一些实施例中,该能量系统是LIFE引擎的混合版本,是混合聚变-裂变LIFE系统,诸如在2008年9 月30 日提交的标题为“Control of a Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-FissionPower Plant”的国际专利申请N0.PCT/US2008/011335中描述的,该专利公开的内容,在所有场合通过引用全文合并于本文。 In some embodiments, the energy system is a hybrid version of the LIFE engine is a hybrid fusion - fission LIFE system, such as the title September 30, 2008 filed "Control of a Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-FissionPower Plant" international Patent Application N0.PCT / US2008 / 011335 as described in the patent disclosure, in all cases incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0038] 本发明的实施例,为系统元件免受中子注量(fluence)的损害提供保护,该中子注量很可能能够限制光学装置的寿命。 [0038] Embodiments of the present invention, the system components from neutron fluence (fluence) damage protection, the neutron fluence is likely to limit the life of the optical device. 最后光学装置是有高风险的光学装置之一,它除耐受激光能量外,还要耐受表I中描述的所有问题。 Finally, the optical device is one of the high risk of the optical device, which in addition to withstand laser energy, but also to withstand all the questions I described. 该最后光学装置直接暴露于来自靶室的气体(主要是氙,但有氦、氢、氘、氚、铅、碳的靶混入物)和靶弹片(shrapneI)。 The final optical device is directly exposed to the gas chamber from the target (mainly xenon, but helium, hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, lead, carbon mix-target) and the dummy sheet (shrapneI). 对一些利用LIFE设计的商业发电厂,基数输出功率是1950MW。 LIFE design for some commercial use in power plants, the base output power is 1950MW. 离子和X射线被靶室中的氙气吸收,留下来自聚变反应的14MeV中子的1560丽,它在最后光学装置的地方产出1.5 X IO1Vm2.sec的平均辐照量。 Ion and X-rays are absorbed by the target chamber xenon, leaving 1560 Korea 14MeV neutrons from the fusion reaction, which is the average amount of radiation output of 1.5 X IO1Vm2.sec place last optical device. 此外,在最后光学装置的地方,除了21torr的基数压强外,还有产生〜0.53torr压强的压强波。 Further, in place of the final optical device, in addition to 21torr base pressure, there ~0.53torr pressure generating pressure waves. 最后,该光学装置被放置在被耦接到靶室外围区(blanket)中与点火的气体膨胀和液体锂流动相关联的振动的环境中。 Finally, the optical device is placed in the target chamber is coupled to the peripheral region (blanket) in the gas expansion and vibration environment and liquid lithium flows associated with the ignition. 在一些LIFE设计中,这借助机械上使第一墙和外围区与真空室外围区去耦而被减轻,该真空室被连接到光导管组件。 LIFE in some designs, by means of which the upper wall and the peripheral region of the first machine with the vacuum chamber and the peripheral region is reduced decoupling, the vacuum chamber is connected to the light pipe assembly. 外围区中的光束线孔径也起作用以便衰减入射到最后光学装置上的气体冲击。 The peripheral region of the beam line also acts to attenuate incident on the aperture to the gas impact on the final optical device. 该最后光学装置被设计成经受得住剩余的威胁,并有效地使〜3J/cm2的351nm激光(与光束垂直)透射和聚焦。 The final optical devices are designed to withstand the remaining threats and effectively ~3J / cm2 of 351nm laser (the beam vertical) transmission and focusing.

[0039] [0039]

把发射量*__威胁的性质__如何对付_ The emission amount * __ __ how to deal with the nature of the threat _

中子~ IO21/秒=2x1013原子位移损坏和核嬗变热退火和设计光学装置 Neutron ~ IO21 / sec = 2x1013 atomic displacement damage and nuclear transmutation thermal annealing and design of the optical device

__n/cm2-s___能容忍_ __n / cm2-s ___ tolerate _

带电粒~ 10% = 280 MW的离子位移、溅射表面使室气体中的离子停止 Ion displacement of charged particles ~ 10% = 280 MW, the sputtering surface so that ions in the gas chamber stopped

_±_ ~60keV麦克斯韦单位加热/消融__ _ ± _ ~ 60keV Maxwell unit heating / ablation __

X射线在15 Hz上〜12% =表面加热和消融 在室气体和光束管中使 X-rays at 15 Hz ~ 12% = the surface heating and ablation in the gas chamber and the beam pipe manipulation

__340 MW = 0.5 JZcm2___之衰咸(停止)_ __340 MW = decline of 0.5 JZcm2___ salty (stop) _

Y射线<1% 化学键的断裂 热退火和设计光学装置 Y ray <1% thermal annealing break chemical bonds and design of the optical device

____能容忍_ ____ Can tolerate _

气体冲~4 kPa的过压强持续作用于最后光学装置的光学装置的机械设计和/击__5-10 ms ( 20-40 kPa-s ) 机械应力__或反向气流_ Gas rushed ~ 4 kPa pressure over the continuing role of the mechanical design of the optical apparatus final optical device and / strike __5-10 ms (20-40 kPa-s) mechanical stress or reverse flow in _ __

[0040] 表1.最后光学装置所受威胁 [0040] Table 1. Finally, the optical device threats

[0041] 最后光束传输系统包含被用于使光束从变频器出口传输到靶室中心的光学装置。 [0041] The final beam delivery system comprising a light beam is used for transmission from the drive to the optical apparatus target chamber outlet center. 该最后光学装置系统是坚固的、可用的,可以传送激光通过光学上透明的中子屏蔽(亦称中子小孔,因为激光能传播通过该小孔,没有实际光学损耗),并经受得住来自靶室的多种威胁。 The final optical device system is robust, available, it can transmit laser light through an optically transparent neutron shielding (also known as the neutron hole, because the laser can be transmitted through the aperture, no actual optical loss), and withstand from a variety of threats to the target chamber. 参考图2,该最后光束传输系统包含光学装置MlO和所有后面的光学装置。 Referring to Figure 2, the final beam delivery system comprising an optical device MlO and all subsequent optical devices. 除了351nm的激光注量外,LlULGl和FLl都暴露于中子照射,而FLl,该最后光学装置,暴露于祀点火引起的额外机械冲击和靶弹片中。 In addition to 351nm laser fluence outside, LlULGl and FLl are exposed to neutron irradiation, and FLl, the last optical device dummy exposed to additional mechanical shock and fire caused the film to worship. 图2示意示出最后光学装置传输,不同于NIF结构,后者利用楔形聚焦透镜和安装在紧靠变频器的碎片(debris)屏蔽。 Figure 2 illustrates schematically an optical device last transmission, unlike the NIF structure, which make use of the wedge focusing lens installed in close proximity to the inverter and debris (debris) shield. 为保护激光器系统和操作人员免受中子照射,被称作中子小孔的装置被使用。 To protect the laser system and operators from neutron irradiation, known as neutron orifice device is used. 该中子小孔是在三米厚的混凝土屏蔽墙中的小的(〜Icm)孔,它允许光通过,但吸收从靶室逃逸的大部分中子。 The neutron hole is small (~Icm) hole in the concrete shield walls three meters thick in, which allows light to pass through, but absorb most of the escape from the target chamber neutrons. 如果该小孔位于伽利略中继望远镜的焦点位置,则该小孔的孔径能够被变成最小(理论上与1«光束线中的小孔有相同大小),从而使被透射的中子最少,同时完全透射激光。 If the hole is located in the focal position of the telescope Galileo relay, the aperture can be turned into the smallest aperture (theoretically 1 «beam line holes have the same size), thereby enabling the transmission of neutron least, while fully transmitted laser.

[0042] 图3A是示意图,示出按照本发明实施例的包含两个级联的中子小孔的最后光束传输系统。 [0042] Figure 3A is a schematic diagram showing the final beam delivery system according to an embodiment of the present invention comprising two cascaded neutrons apertures. 虽然该系统能够被称为“两中子小孔”系统,但应当理解,该系统利用两组中子小孔。 Although this system can be referred to as "two neutron hole" system, it should be understood that the system uses two sets of apertures neutrons. 如图3A所示被设计的系统,遭受的辐射剂量,利用两个级联的中子小孔,被衰减到0.04rem/年。 3A, the system is designed, the radiation doses suffered by two cascaded aperture neutrons, is attenuated to 0.04rem / years. 应当指出,最后光学装置326/320不仅聚焦,而且使光束从第二中子小孔中继望远镜(包含聚焦透镜314和菲涅尔透镜(型号2a)316以及匹配聚焦透镜315/菲涅尔透镜318)的轴,偏转到靶室中心386。 It should be noted that the final optical device 326/320 focus not only, but also from the second neutron beam aperture telescope relay (including a focus lens 314 and a Fresnel lens (model 2a) 316 and 315 to match the focusing lens / Fresnel lens 318) axis, deflected into the center of the target chamber 386. 因为最后光学装置(即,菲涅尔透镜(型号2b) 326和匹配最后光学装置(即,菲涅尔透镜(型号Ib)) 320使激光束偏转,所以它只作为中子的散射源起作用,从而阻止射出的中子穿过在位置上(at location)的中子小孔。来自小孔330的中子的透射谱,将是被粗糙地准直的中子束,这些中子在经过小孔结构的一些准直之后,被周围屏蔽材料和外围区散射。如图3A所示,在位置332上的第二中子小孔的轴,再次从位置330上的第一中子小孔的轴偏转,阻止来自第二小孔的射出中子穿过第一小孔。使用这种技术,中子剂量能够被衰减到这样的强度,以致人类在激光器机架长久工作是可能的。 Because the last optics (ie, Fresnel lens (model 2b) 326 and match the last optics (ie, Fresnel lens (Model Ib)) 320 deflect the laser beam, so it only acts as a neutron scattering sources , thereby preventing the emitted neutrons passing through the position (at location) neutron hole. transmission spectra of neutrons from the hole 330, it will be roughly collimated neutron beam, and these neutrons after After some of the collimated holes structure, it is surrounded by shielding material and the peripheral region scattering, on the position of the shaft 332 of the second aperture neutrons, again from a first position 330 as shown in Figure 3A neutron aperture shaft deflection, to prevent neutrons emitted from the second aperture through the first aperture. Using this technique, the neutron dose can be attenuated to such an intensity that the human in the laser it is possible to work a long time frame.

[0043] 在一实施例中,激光器机架310A和310B,包含2.2m宽X 1.35m高X10.4m长的1«激光器/放大器。 [0043] In one embodiment, the laser frame 310A and 310B, comprising 2.2m wide X 1.35m high X10.4m long 1 «lasers / amplifiers. 这些激光器机架,能产生有435mm正方形光束尺寸、适合聚变应用的激光束。 These lasers racks, can produce a 435mm square beam size, the laser beam applied for fusion. 此外,在一些实施例中,内部锥体324以26.9°的角度为特征,而外部锥体322以47.25°的角度为特征,但这些具体角度不是本发明要求的。 Further, in some embodiments, the internal angle of 26.9 ° to the cone 324 is characterized and the external cone 322 at an angle of 47.25 ° was characterized, but these specific angle is not required of the present invention. 作为例子,在其他实施例中,锥体角度是30°和50°。 By way of example, in other embodiments, the cone angle is 30 ° and 50 °.

[0044] 该最后传输光学系统的光学设计,同时满足许多要求,包含:瞄准和集中到靶室中心上的入射靶的能力;有效地传输351nm光到靶室中心;以及把能量聚焦进靶空腔的激光入口孔(LEH)。 [0044] Finally, the optical design of the optical transmission system, while meeting many of the requirements, comprising: targeting and ability to focus the target is incident on the center of the target chamber; 351nm light transmitted efficiently to the target chamber center; and focus the energy into the target space laser inlet bore (LEH). 为达到这些目的,图1所示的反射镜MlO和Mll被用于保持集中在最后传输光学装置上,并缓慢瞄准该靶。 To achieve these purposes, Figure mirrors MlO and Mll shown in Figure 1 is used to keep focused on the last transmission optical devices, and slowly aim the target. 透镜L9、HO和Lll除了传输光束通过第一中子小孔外,还用来消除(null out)菲涅尔最后光学装置引起的色散,该色散相对于传统的凸透镜有相反的符号。 Lens L9, HO and Lll addition to transmission through the first neutron beam aperture, but also to eliminate the dispersion (null out) Fresnel final optical device caused the dispersion compared to conventional lens has the opposite sign. 光栅LGl补偿由菲涅尔最后光学装置的偏转(衍射)引起的时域上的歪斜,并且还用来提供要求的中子小孔I和2之间的偏转。 Skew domain LGl compensated by the deflection grating (diffraction) caused Fresnel final optical device, and also to provide the required neutron holes 2 between I and deflection. 由此在颜色和时域二者上完全被补偿,该菲涅尔光学装置能够把351nm驱动激光束聚焦进靶的LEH。 Thereby completely compensated in both color and time domain, the Fresnel optical device capable of driving the 351nm laser beam is focused into a target of LEH.

[0045] 本发明的实施例利用数个光学元件之一作为最后光学装置,该最后光学装置包含:掠入射金属反射镜(GMM)、椭圆面反射镜、薄菲涅尔光学装置、或诸如此类。 Example [0045] The present invention utilizes a plurality of optical elements, as a last one of the optical means, the last optical apparatus comprising: a metal grazing-incidence mirrors (GMM), ellipsoidal mirror, thin Fresnel optical device, or the like. 在利用GIMM或抛物面反射镜的实施例中,附加的真空窗被包含在中子空间滤波器前面的最后光学装置的设计上游中(如,紧接着)。 GIMM or using a parabolic reflector embodiment, additional vacuum window is included in the design of neutron spatial filter upstream front end of the optical device (eg, immediately). 该光学装置除其他外,适合用于两个目的:保证望远镜焦点上的真空,以便激光能够被透射;以及作为氚屏障起作用。 The optical means, inter alia, suitable for two purposes: to ensure that the focus of the telescope on the vacuum, so that laser light can be transmitted; and acts as a barrier tritium. 图1所示菲涅尔光学装置,作为最后聚焦光学装置和作为真空屏障二者起作用。 Figure 1 Fresnel optical device, as the last focusing optics and act as a vacuum barrier both shown. 通过把该最后光学装置做成薄的,中子引起的吸收能够被降低到数个百分点的水平。 By the last optical device made of thin, absorbing neutrons can be reduced to the level of a few percentage points.

[0046] 虽然与中子小孔相关联的两个中继望远镜的光轴之间的角度形成约60°角度的夹角,但这不是本发明要求的,而其他实施例利用望远镜之间的不同角度。 [0046] Although the angle of the optical axis of the neutron two relay telescope aperture is formed between the associated angle of about 60 ° angle, but this is not required by the present invention, between the telescope while other embodiments use different angles. 在一些实施例中,第一中继望远镜沿水平平面取向,而第二中继望远镜沿竖直平面取向,该两个光轴之间成直角。 In some embodiments, the first relay telescope oriented along a horizontal plane, and the second relay telescope along a vertical plane oriented at right angles to the optical axis between the two. 除了出示的那些取向外,其他取向也被包含在本发明的范围之内。 In addition to those presented orientation, other orientations are also included within the scope of the present invention. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that there are many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0047] 图3B是不意图,不出按照本发明一实施例的包含单一中子小孔的最后光束传输系统。 [0047] FIG. 3B is no intention, no final neutron beam delivery system comprises a single aperture according to an embodiment of the present invention. 参考图3B,激光光源350A到350N,被提供在第一区351。 3B, the laser light source 350A to 350N, is provided in the first region 351. 来自激光光源350A到350N的光,被引向例如厚度全部是3米的屏蔽墙352。 Light from the laser light source 350A to 350N, for example, is directed to a thickness of 3 m of all shielding wall 352. 一组中子小孔353A到353N,被提供在该屏蔽墙352中,使激光辐射在用一组光学系统(如,一组N个的中继望远镜)会聚之后,能穿过该屏蔽墙。 A set of neutron hole 353A to 353N, is provided in the shielding wall 352, after the laser irradiation optical system with a set (e.g., a set of N relay telescope) converge, to pass through the shield wall. 因此,当该系统被称作“单一中子小孔”系统时,能够被理解为利用单一组中子小孔,而不是两组中子小孔。 Thus, when the system is called "single neutron orifice" system, it can be understood as the use of a single set of neutron holes, rather than two neutron hole.

[0048] 穿过该组中子小孔353A到353N的光,反射离开图示实施例中的抛物面反射镜360,入射在菲涅尔光学装置362和364上。 [0048] The group neutron through apertures 353A to 353N of the light, reflected off of the illustrated embodiment of the parabolic reflector 360, 362 and the Fresnel optical device 364 is incident. 在一些实施例中,菲涅尔光学装置362和364之间的距离,足以使抛物面反射镜360能被定位在突出部分361下面。 In some embodiments, the distance between the Fresnel 362 and 364 of the optical device, sufficient parabolic mirror 360 can be positioned below the projecting portion 361. 在被菲涅尔光学装置364聚焦后,光被聚焦到靶386上。 In focus are Fresnel optical device 364, the light is focused onto the target 386.

[0049] 靶386上产生的中子,沿所有方向,包含锥体368方向,穿过墙366和365之间的空间传播出去。 Neutrons generated in the [0049] target 386, in all directions, including the direction of the cone 368, 366 and 365 through a wall space between the spread out. 锥体368左侧的中子,被墙366反射或吸收。 Neutron cone 368 on the left side wall 366 is reflected or absorbed. 在一实施例中,墙363和突出部分361定义锥体368的角度扩展。 In one embodiment, the walls 363 and 361 define cone angle of the projecting portion 368 of the extension. 虽然中子入射在菲涅尔光学装置364上,但墙365阻止中子入射在菲涅尔光学装置362上。 Although the neutron incident on the Fresnel optical device 364, but the wall 365 to prevent neutrons incident on the Fresnel optical device 362. 因为中子被包含在墙363和突出部分361之间,只有单一组中子小孔被需要用于把区351中的中子密度降低到可接受水平。 Because neutrons are comprised between 363 and protruding wall portion 361, only a single group neutron hole is a need for the reduced area of 351 neutron density to an acceptable level.

[0050] 图3C是简化示意图,示出按照本发明一实施例的中子小孔望远镜的元件。 [0050] Figure 3C is a simplified schematic diagram illustrating an embodiment of the device according to the embodiment of the invention, the neutron aperture telescope. 如图3C所示,第一望远镜370使光聚焦通过第二屏蔽墙372,以便穿过第二中子小孔374。 3C, the first light focusing telescope 370 by a second shielding wall 372, in order to pass through the second aperture 374 neutrons. 该光通过菲涅尔光学装置376A被折射,该菲涅尔光学装置376A形成第二中继望远镜370的元件。 The light passes through the optical device 376A is refracted by the Fresnel The Fresnel optical apparatus 376A is formed a second relay telescope 370 elements. 该第二中继望远镜380使光聚焦,通过初级屏蔽墙(未示出),以便穿过位置382A上的第一中子小孔。 The second relay telescope 380 so that light is focused by the primary shielding wall (not shown), so that through the first neutron hole 382A on the position. 通过图显而易见,多个平行的光路,由提供多个穿过初级和次级屏蔽墙的中子小孔的本发明的实施例提供,这些中子小孔如中子小孔374B所示,来自该中子小孔374B的光被菲涅尔光学装置376B收集。 FIG apparent by a plurality of parallel optical paths, by providing a plurality of through primary and secondary neutron shielding wall apertures embodiment of the present invention, such as those neutrons neutron orifice holes 374B shown, from The neutron hole 374B of the light is collected by the Fresnel optical device 376B.

[0051] 穿过位置382上第一中子小孔的光,入射在菲涅尔光学装置384A上,菲涅尔光学装置384A收集并把该光聚焦到靶386上。 The [0051] 382 through the first neutron hole position light incident on the Fresnel optical device 384A, 384A Fresnel optical device and sends the collected light is focused onto the target 386. 因为菲涅尔光学装置376A和384A中存在的两个光栅结构,接收来自点光源的光并把光聚焦到对应的点光源,所以这些菲涅尔光学装置的制造被简化,使高质量制造过程能被利用。 Because the Fresnel optical device 376A and 384A two grating structures that exist, receives light from a point source and the light is focused to the corresponding point light source, so making these Fresnel optical device is simplified, so that high quality manufacturing process It can be used. 为了制造这些光栅,点光源被用于定义该光栅结构,因为穿过该光栅的光,是作为点光源发出并终止在点光源。 In order to make these gratings, light source is used to define the grating structure, since the light passing through the grating, is to issue and terminate at a point light source as a point source. 如图所示,光栅正在接收发散的光并产生被接收光的会聚。 As shown, the grating being received divergent light and convergent light generated is received. 这样,光栅的曝光能够用点光源完成。 Thus, the exposure of the grating can be completed with a point light source. 按照本发明的实施例,各种不同锥体角度能够被利用,例如,靶386和菲涅尔光学装置384A之间的内部锥体的26.9°的角度,以及靶386和菲涅尔光学装置384B之间的外部锥体的47.2°的角度。 According to the embodiment of the present invention, various cone angles can be used, for example, the target 386 and the cone angle of the internal Fresnel optical device 384A between 26.9 °, and the target 386 and the Fresnel optical apparatus 384B 47.2 ° angle between the outer cone.

[0052] 按照一些实施例,该制造过程与其他体系结构相比,由于点光源能够在光栅定义过程中被利用,所以得到改进。 [0052] In accordance with some embodiments, the manufacturing process in comparison with other architectures, since the point light source can be utilized in the grating definition process, so improved. 作为例子,如图3C所示实施例中使用的被制造的菲涅尔光学装置,与使发散光束准直的菲涅尔光学装置相比较,有降低的像差。 As an example, the Fresnel optical device is fabricated using embodiment examples shown in Figure 3C, so that compared with the divergent beam collimating Fresnel optical apparatus, there is reduced aberration.

[0053] 发明人注意到,熔融石英中中子引起的吸收,在相当适中的中子照射水平上饱和,且该吸收能够借助升高基底的温度而被部分地退火,如图4A所示。 [0053] The inventors have noticed that neutrons fused silica absorption saturation in the fairly modest level of neutron irradiation, and the absorption of possible means of increasing the temperature of the substrate is partially annealed, shown in Figure 4A. 在一实施例中,5.3mm厚的熔融石英基底,被用于菲涅尔光学装置,它足以作为21torr的靶室和约0.5mtorr的中继望远镜之间的真空屏障起作用。 In one embodiment, 5.3mm thick molten quartz substrate, Fresnel optical device is used, it is sufficient as a barrier to the relay telescope target chamber vacuum of about 21torr 0.5mtorr between work.

[0054] 发明人已经确定,如果足够厚度的光学装置(如,5.3_厚的光学装置)被保持在〜580° C,则吸收损耗被降低到〜0.5%。 [0054] The inventors have determined that, if a sufficient thickness of the optical device (e.g., a thickness of the optical apparatus 5.3_) is maintained at ~580 ° C, the absorption loss is reduced to ~ 0.5%. 如图4B所示,熔融石英光学装置的吸收作为温度的函数变化。 Absorption 4B, the molten quartz optical apparatus as a function of temperature variation. 加热能够通过使用光束加热、产生〜3.4MW的外部加热器、或它们的组合实现。 Heating through the use of a light beam heating, to produce ~3.4MW external heater, or a combination thereof. 在不使用加热器的实施例中,发明人已经确定,单独的光束加热,将升高光学装置的温度到〜518° C,有〜3.5%的相关联的透射率损耗,这样可适合于一些应用。 In embodiments without the use of a heater, the inventors have determined that a single beam is heated, the elevated temperature of the optical device according to ~518 ° C, there ~3.5% of transmittance loss associated, so that may be suitable for a number of Applications. 按照本发明一实施例,5.3_厚的熔融石英菲涅尔光学装置被用于最后光学装置,尽管本发明的实施例不限于该特定厚度。 According to one embodiment of the invention, the Fresnel 5.3_ thick fused silica optical device is an optical device for the final, although the embodiments of the present invention is not limited to this particular thickness. 其他厚度也能够被使用。 Other thicknesses can also be used.

[0055] 图4A是曲线图,示出按照本发明一实施例的作为最后光学装置波长函数的校正透射率百分率。 [0055] FIG. 4A is a graph showing the optical device as a function of wavelength final correction percentage transmittance according to an embodiment of the present invention. 图4B是示出5.3mm厚熔融石英光学装置的激光吸收对温度的曲线。 Figure 4B shows a 5.3mm thick quartz optical laser fusing apparatus absorption versus temperature.

[0056] 参考图4A,被中子损坏的石英的退火过程,表明作为退火过程的结果,是351nm透射率中的巨大变化。 [0056] 4A, the damaged neutron quartz annealing process, indicating that as a result of the annealing process is 351nm transmittance of great changes.

[0057] 除中子威胁外,由靶点火产生的冲击波将入射在最后光学装置上。 [0057] In addition to the neutron threat, the shock wave generated by the target of the fire incident in the last optical device. 图5是简化曲线图,示出按照本发明一实施例的入射在最后光学装置上的冲击压强波形。 Figure 5 is a simplified graph showing the incident in accordance with one embodiment of the invention of the impact pressure waveform on the final optical device. 图6A是等高线曲线,示出靶点火冲击在最后光学装置中引起的应力。 6A is a contour graph showing the target due to thermal shock stresses in the final optical device. 图6B是等高线曲线,示出受靶点火冲击的最后光学装置的最大位移。 6B is a contour graph showing maximum displacement by the thermal shock final target optical device. 如图6A和6B所示,在最后光学装置中出现约2 um的位移和约40,000帕斯卡的应力,这对本文描述的设计是可接受的。 As shown in FIG. 6A 6B, appears for about 2 um displacement of about 40,000 Pascal stress in the final optical device, the design of which is described herein is acceptable.

[0058] 该光学装置能够被安装在框架中,该框架能够用垫圈密封被密封到含有中子小孔的传输望远镜,该框架是被连接到建筑物的大的水泥结构。 [0058] The optical device can be mounted in a frame, the frame can be sealed with a gasket seal to contain neutron transport telescope aperture, the frame is connected to the building of large concrete structures. 在一实施例中,熔融石英光学装置的孔径约为0.53X43X49.65cm3 (在30°的角度上是43cm孔径),有21torr (2800Pa)的外部压强和0.5mtorr的内部压强,这导致在光学装置表面上134磅的力。 In one embodiment, the aperture molten quartz optical means about 0.53X43X49.65cm3 (at an angle of 30 ° on a 43cm diameter) with 21torr (2800Pa) 0.5mtorr external pressure and internal pressure, which results in the optical device 134 pounds of force on the surface. 在如图5所示的〜135 us冲击脉冲期间,附加的0.5torr(70Pa)入射到最后光学装置上。 During the impulse ~135 us in Figure 5, the additional 0.5torr (70Pa) incident on the final optical device. 为理解该脉冲对5.3_厚光学装置的机械作用,使用Shell模型(对薄的基底有用的有限单元栅格技术),按四等分对称(quarter symmetry)的模型被建立。 In order to understand the pulse of mechanical action 5.3_ thick optical device for using Shell model (for thin substrates useful finite element grid technology), press quartered symmetry (quarter symmetry) model is established. 至于边界条件,与垫圈的接触点被模型化为刀口滚筒(knife-edge rollers)(只垂直于光学装置被支承)。 As the boundary conditions, and the contact point of the gasket is modeled roller blade (knife-edge rollers) (only perpendicular to the optical device is supported). 第一模态频率是131Hz。 The first modal frequency is 131Hz. 由于脉冲引起的光学装置的应力和位移,在图6中示出。 Because of stress and displacement caused by optical means pulse, shown in Figure 6. 最大有效表面应力是40600Pa。 The maximum effective surface stress is 40600Pa. 最大位移是2.62X10_6m (2.62um)0该最大位移和最大有效表面应力二者,在约6ms时出现在分析中。 The maximum displacement is 2.62X10_6m (2.62um) 0 to the maximum displacement and the maximum effective surface stress both at about 6ms appears in the analysis. 这些结果指出,最后光学装置存活率不受冲击波的威胁,且该最大表面位移对激光焦斑没有显著影响。 These results indicate that the survival rate of the optical device from shock last threat, and the maximum surface displacement no significant effect on the laser focal spot. 应当指出,最后光学装置的安半圈装能够被设计成避免模态频率上的谐振,或由于先前的射击和/或支承装备液体流动(如,外围区、冷却,或诸如此类)引起建筑物的振动。 It should be noted that the safety of the final half turn mounted optical device can be designed to avoid the resonant mode frequencies, or due to previous fire and / or support equipment fluid flow (eg, peripheral areas, cooling, or the like) caused buildings vibration. 对该振动的无源阻尼机构的工程,能够在该最后光学装置的谱的基础上实施,该工程包含根据该室的环境和机械安装硬件设计的作用。 The passive vibration damping engineering organization, it is possible on the basis of the spectrum of the final optical device on the implementation of the project according to the chamber containing the environmental and mechanical mounting hardware design role.

[0059] 如图6A所示,全局最大有效表面应力是4.6 X 104,全局最小是零。 [0059] as shown in FIG. 6A, the global maximum effective surface stress is 4.6 X 104, the global minimum is zero. 如图6B所示,最后光学装置的全局最大位移是2.62 X 10-6m,而全局最小位移是-2.47 X 10_6。 As shown in Figure 6B, the final global maximum displacement of the optical apparatus is 2.62 X 10-6m, while the global minimum displacement is -2.47 X 10_6. 这些值不准备成为对本发明实施例的限制,只是提供本发明各个不同实施例中遇到的应力和位移的例子。 These values are not ready to become a limiting embodiments of the present invention, the present invention is to provide an example of the stress and displacement of various embodiments encountered.

[0060] 本发明的实施例,为在辐射热环境中最后光学装置(以及两个中子小孔之间的其他光学装置)的替换,提供方法和系统。 [0060] Embodiments of the present invention, in order to replace the last optics (optical devices and other small holes between two neutrons) in radiant heat environment, a method and system. 对第一级,没有电子装置能在该环境中存活,并将有低的MTTF。 The first stage, there is no electronic device can survive in this environment, and have a low MTTF. 替换硬件将有非常大的MTTF,因为这些部件的失效将要求工厂停工(影响工厂可用性),以便能接近在靶室周围的高辐射区域中的硬件。 Replacement hardware will have a very large MTTF, because the failure of these components will require plant shutdown (affecting plant availability), in order to be close to the hardware in a high radiation area surrounding the target chamber.

[0061] 图7A是按照本发明一实施例的最后光学装置换出(changeout)系统的简化示意图。 [0061] FIG. 7A is an optical device according to the last embodiment of the invention is to swap out a simplified schematic diagram (changeout) system. 图7A所示系统,提供双光学装置替换能力和经由缆线驱动720进入高辐射区域的简单机械替换。 The system shown in Figure 7A, providing double capacity and replace the optical device 720 via cable driver into the high-radiation area of simple mechanical replacement. 图7B是按照本发明一实施例的最后光学装置替换品的光学装置通路(opticalpass-thru)的简化示意图,该通路包含在屏蔽墙中的曲径式中子屏障。 7B is a simplified schematic diagram of an optical device in accordance with the final replacement of one embodiment of the present invention an optical path means (opticalpass-thru), which is included in the path of the labyrinth wall shield neutrons barrier. 本发明的一些实施例,能由菲涅尔光学装置的几何形状,例如,一侧40cm或50,但只有5mm厚和相关的低重量而被实现。 Some embodiments of the present invention, can be by the geometry of the Fresnel optical devices, e.g., 40cm or 50 side, but only related to 5mm thick and low weight are realized. 菲涅尔光学装置705薄的本性,还能实现通过细的曲径730移除,如图7B所示。 Fresnel optical device 705 thin nature, it can be achieved by removing fine paths 730, shown in Figure 7B.

[0062] 如图7A所示,用于替换薄菲涅尔光学装置705的系统被提供,它不利用在高辐射区域中的任何液压的或有发动机的装置。 [0062] As shown in Figure 7A, the optical system used to replace the thin fresnel apparatus 705 is provided, it does not utilize any hydraulic pressure in the high radiation area or engine means. 如图7A和7B所示,该系统和方法,使用有滑轮或滚轮的缆线,引导被损坏的菲涅尔透镜,通过屏蔽墙中弯曲的狭长孔(slit),离开高辐射环境,该狭长孔作为中子曲径(labyrinth)起作用,但允许最后光学装置的交换。 As shown in FIG. 7A, the system and method 7B, using the cable pulley or roller guide Fresnel lens from being damaged by shielding wall curved elongated hole (slit), leaving a high radiation environment, the elongated As neutron hole labyrinth (labyrinth) work, but allow the exchange of the final optical device. 这些曲径之一的近视图,以适合中子模型的示例性实施例中所用的尺寸,示出于图7B中。 Close-up view of one of these paths to an exemplary embodiment of the neutron suitable model used in size, is shown in Figure 7B.

[0063] 参考图7B,光学组件穿过曲径,以阻止中子穿过与光学组件通道关联的墙。 [0063] with reference to Figure 7B, the optical assembly through the labyrinth to prevent neutrons pass through the wall of the optical components associated with the channel. 如图1所示,为激光束的通道提供的中子小孔,相互成一定角度取向,以阻止中子作为未被偏折的中子穿过最里面的小孔。 1, the neutron hole provided for the passage of the laser beam, oriented at an angle to each other, to prevent deflection of the neutron neutrons as not through the innermost hole. 光学组件能穿过曲径,该曲径作为曲径形状的功能而阻挡中子。 Optical assembly can pass through the labyrinth, the labyrinth labyrinth shape functions as a barrier neutrons. 参考图7B,在一些实施例中,该曲径有15cm的宽度和〜150cm的曲率半径,为300cm厚的墙提供300cm的入口和出口端口之间的距离。 With reference to Figure 7B, in some embodiments, the labyrinth has a width and curvature radius of 15cm ~150cm provided 300cm distance between the inlet and outlet ports to 300cm thick wall.

[0064] 虽然为清晰目的而没有在图7A中示出,本发明的实施例使用两个缆线系统(每一菲涅尔光学装置705 —个),缆线被附着在每一光学装置的顶部和底部(即,共4条缆线走过墙中的两个曲径式狭长孔)。 [0064] Although for clarity purposes are not shown in FIG. 7A, an embodiment of the present invention uses two cable systems (each Fresnel optical device 705-- a), the cable is attached to each of the optical device The top and bottom (ie, a total of four cables through the walls of the two labyrinth elongated hole). 在其他实施例中,其他的实施方案能够被利用。 In other embodiments, other embodiments can be utilized. 如图7A所示,箭头702A示出替换期间左方光学装置的运动,而箭头702B示出替换期间右方光学装置的运动。 7A, the movement of the left arrow 702A shown during the replacement of the optical device, and the arrow 702B shown during the movement of the right side of the optical device replacement.

[0065] 虽然图7B所示曲径是连续弯曲的结构,但这不是本发明实施例的要求。 Requirements embodiment [0065] Although the labyrinth and 7B is continuously curved structure, but this is not the present invention. 在其他实施例中,如图7C所示的之字形曲径被利用。 Zigzag paths in other embodiments, as shown in Figure 7C is utilized.

[0066] 在一些实施例中,因为最后光学装置中没有调整能力,所以安装硬件能实现精确运动替换。 [0066] In some embodiments, the optical device is not because the last adjustment capacity, so installing hardware can replace precise movement. 在出示的实施例中,这是借助建立如图8A所示望远镜端面805获得的,在那里,铁磁钢球825 (如,基于Nd的磁体,或其他高的强度对质量比的磁体,诸如基于钕铁硼的磁体、基于钐钴的磁体或其他类似的磁体)被安装进表面,以便为菲涅尔光学装置模块提供运动对准点827,也如图8A所示。 In the present embodiment, which is established by means of the end face shown in Fig. 8A 805 telescope obtained, where ferromagnetic steel ball 825 (e.g., Nd magnets, or other high intensity ratio based on the mass of the magnet, such as NdFeB-based magnet, a samarium cobalt-based magnet or similar magnet) is mounted into the surface, in order to provide motion Fresnel optical device module alignment point 827, also shown in Figure 8A. 在其他实施例中,该运动支架被颠倒,磁体和运动对准点被提供在相反的元件上(即,磁体被安装在LRU上,而对准点在望远镜端面上)。 In other embodiments, the movement of the carriage is reversed, the magnet and motor alignment point is provided on the opposite element (ie, the magnet is mounted on the LRU, and alignment points at the end face of the telescope). 如图8A所示,基于Nd的高能力磁体(它可用其他合适的高的强度对质量比的磁体替换),菲涅尔光学装置,以及真空垫圈830,全都一起作为一排可替换单元,被安装在最后光学装置框架807上。 8A, the Nd-based magnet of high capacity (it can be used other suitable high intensity magnet on the mass ratio of replacement), Fresnel optical device, and a vacuum gasket 830, all together as a replaceable unit row is The optical device is mounted on the frame 807 final. 该精确框架能够由刚性材料,诸如有缆线附件840的不锈钢制成。 The frame can be made of a rigid material accurately, such as the cable attachment 840 has a stainless steel. 为使窗口模块能独立移除,两对缆线驱动器被提供,如在图8B的正视图所示。 In order to remove the window module can independently drive the two pairs of cables are provided, as shown in the front view of FIG. 8B. [0067] 参考图8A,该望远镜端面包含钢的法兰盘,该法兰盘在一端包含同样由钢制成的运动结节(kinematic nodule)825。 [0067] 8A, the end face of the telescope contains a steel flange, the flange at one end contains the same motion made of steel nodules (kinematic nodule) 825. 钢的使用,可使图8A所示元件具有与其他室元件类似的寿命。 The use of steel enables device shown in FIG. 8A and the other chamber element having a similar service life. 可替换的元件,都被安装到该钢法兰盘,例如最后光学装置815(如,熔融石英菲涅尔透镜,它能够被脱机安装,以提供微观对准能力)、用于在表面建立真空密封的垫圈830、基于Nd的磁体827、用于在替换和修理操作时把组件移进和移出该系统的缆线附件830、诸如此类。 Alternatively the element, are mounted to the steel flange, e.g., the last optical device 815 (e.g., fused silica Fresnel lens, it can be off-line installation, the ability to provide a microscopic aligned), for establishing a surface vacuum sealing gasket 830, Nd-based magnets 827 for the replacement and repair operations when the assembly into and out of the cable attachment 830 of the system, and so on. 在一些实施例中,两个组件被并排地提供,并使用两个独立缆线系统,左方的组件将向左方换出,而右方的组件将向右方换出。 In some embodiments, the two components are provided side by side, and to the use of two separate cable systems, the components will be left on the left swapped out, and the right component to the right will be swapped out. 如图8B所示,独立的一对缆线852和854,允许窗口模块能在两侧独立地移除。 8B, a separate pair of cables 852 and 854, allowing the window module can be independently removed on both sides. 在一些实施方式中,垫圈是任选的,因为一些实施例对该系统的各部分不利用真空环境。 In some embodiments, the gasket is optional, because some portions of the system according to the embodiment does not utilize a vacuum environment. 在这些实施例中,光学装置能够被安装,但不对中子小孔密封,因为在光学装置两侧不存在压强差。 In these embodiments, the optical device can be installed, but does not seal the hole neutrons, as in the optical device does not exist on both sides of the pressure difference. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that there are many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0068] 图SC是简化流程图,示出按照本发明一实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的方法。 [0068] FIG. SC is a simplified flow chart illustrating the method of exchanging final optical device in a high radiation environment, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. 该方法800包含:暂停操作(810);任选地使望远镜通气,达到室压强(812);以及任选地添加另外的Xe气,使透镜像“打嗝” 一样离开望远镜端面(814)。 The method 800 comprises: pausing operation (810); optionally telescope ventilation chamber pressure reached (812); and optionally adding additional Xe gas, so that the mirror lens "hiccup" left end surface of the same telescope (814). 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便通过辐射墙收回最后光学装置(816);以及在中子小孔#1和中子小孔#2之间的区中,使用机器人交换最后光学装置(818)。 The method further comprising: pulling the cable, in order to recover the final wall by optical radiation means (816); and a hole in the neutron neutron hole # 1 and # 2 region between the last optical switching apparatus using the robot (818 ). 该方法还包含:拉动缆线,以便把替换最后光学装置放置在望远镜端面之前(820);使用磁体,以便把最后光学装置拉进运动位置(822);任选地抽真空,以便把最后光学装置安置在运动装置上(824);按需要检验对准和重新使光束瞄准(826);以及恢复操作(828)。 The method further comprising: pulling the cable, in order to replace the last end face of the optical device is placed before the telescope (820); using a magnet, so as to finally pull into the movement position of the optical device (822); optionally evacuated to the final optical device placed on the movement means (824); needed to re-examine the alignment and aim the beam (826); and recovery operations (828). 虽然在出示的实施例中,运动装置被利用,但这不是本发明的实施例要求的,而其他对准技术也包含在本发明的范围之内。 Although in the present embodiment, the movement means to be used, but this is not the embodiment of the present invention requires, while the other alignment techniques are also included within the scope of the present invention.

[0069] 应当明白,图SC中出示的具体步骤,是提供按照本发明一实施例的在高辐射环境中交换最后光学装置的具体方法。 [0069] It should be appreciated that the specific steps presented in Figure SC is to provide a specific method for exchanging final optical device in a high radiation environment, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. 按照另外的实施例,其他步骤的序列也可以执行。 According to a further embodiment, other sequences of steps may also be performed. 例如,本发明另外的实施例可以按不同的次序执行上面列举的步骤。 For example, another embodiment of the present invention can perform the steps listed above in a different order. 此外,图8C中所示个别步骤,可以包含多个子步骤,这些子步骤可以按适合于该个别步骤的各种不同次序执行。 In addition, individual steps shown in FIG. 8C, can contain multiple sub-steps, these sub-steps can be adapted to a variety of different execution order of the individual steps. 另夕卜,附加的步骤可以依赖于具体应用被添加或移除。 Another evening Bu, additional steps may depend on the specific application to be added or removed. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that there are many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0070] 虽然密封光学装置的具体方法,相对于图SC被提供,但本发明的实施例不受这些方案的限制。 [0070] Although the specific method sealed optical device is provided with respect to FIG. SC, but limited to the embodiments of the present invention is not limited to these programs. 在其他实施例中,推-拉密封被作为阀利用,与金属罐(canister)的密封类似。 In other embodiments, the push - pull seal is, and metal cans (canister) as a valve seal similar use. 因此,本发明的实施例为在一定距离上,借助对阀的一侧排气和其后换出(changingout)光学装置,提供密封的建立。 Thus, embodiments of the present invention is at a distance, with one side of the exhaust valve and the subsequent swap out (changingout) optical device provided for establishing a seal. 通过致动控制杆,密封能够随着光学装置支架被紧顶着法兰盘而被建立。 By actuating lever, seal with the optical device can be tight against the flange bracket is set up. 为了释放该密封,该控制杆被沿相反方向致动,使光学装置支架能按类似金属罐顶盖的方式,从法兰盘离开。 In order to release the seal, the lever is actuated in the opposite direction, so that the optical device can stand in a similar way to the roof of metal cans, from flange to leave. 本领域熟练的技术人员应当认识到有许多变化、修改和代替。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that there are many variations, modifications and substitutions.

[0071] 图8C所示方法,允许磁性运动安装的被动式方法,以便在跨越多个维护操作(servicing operation)中保持对准。 [0071] The method shown in Figure 8C, the method allows passive magnetic motion installed in order to span multiple maintenance operations (servicing operation) to maintain the alignment. 所有可膨胀的部件能够立刻从该福射环境中移除,无需使发电厂为直接保养停工。 All expandable member can be removed from the immediate environment blessing shot, without taking the plant to direct maintenance downtime. 所有要求的气动真空阀、有发动机的缆线驱动、以及机器人光学装置交换,被限制在中子小孔#1和#2之间的区域。 All required pneumatic vacuum valve, an engine-driven cable and optical means exchange robot, is limited to the region between the neutron hole # 2 and # 1. 该区域和接入(access),在图9A中示意示出。 The region and the access (access), in Fig. 9A illustrates schematically. 提供真空和氚屏障二者的气锁门920,被定位在曲径940的入口,该曲径940保持激光器机架的辐射水平对人员是安全的。 Providing both vacuum and tritium gas barrier lock 920, 940 is positioned at the entrance of the maze, the labyrinth 940 rack holding the laser radiation levels are safe for people. 机器人维护车辆930能够为供应新材料(光学装置和/或硬件)进入,以替换部件。 Robotic vehicle 930 be able to maintain the supply of new material (the optical device and / or hardware) to enter, to replace the component. 这些相同的车辆能够被用于载运屏蔽容器中用完的部件,送至工厂中辐射有害废料场所,以便回收和/或处置。 These same vehicle can be used for carrying casks of spent parts sent to the plant radiation hazardous waste sites for recycling and / or disposal. 如图9A所示,在最后光学装置通过曲径被移出,进入更低辐射区域911之后,车辆能通过联动装置(interlock)移除光学装置。 9A, the optical device is removed by the last labyrinth, into a more low-emissivity region 911, the vehicle can linkage (interlock) removal of the optical device.

[0072] 本发明的实施例是如此操作,以致该环境的压强是低的(〜21t0rr),这样将防止几乎所有最轻粒子仍然悬浮在室气体中,从而促进洁净度。 [0072] Embodiments of the present invention is to do so, so that the pressure of the environment is low (~21t0rr), which would prevent almost all of the lightest particles are still suspended in the gas chamber, so as to promote cleanliness. 气体清洗喷嘴能够被定位在最后光学装置的区中,气体清洗喷嘴的最终目的有两个:为使室气体受靶点火的“爆喷(puff)”偏移,提供反向气流压强;以及在该最后光学装置被替换和在操作期间保持洁净度,还提供低压强“空气刀”清洁它。 Gas washing nozzle can be positioned in the region of the final optical device, the gas cleaning nozzles ultimate goal is twofold: to make the target chamber gas fire by "spray burst (puff)" offset, to provide reverse flow pressure; and The final optical device to be replaced and maintaining cleanliness during the operation, also offers low pressure "air knife" clean it. 该清洗气流流率的控制,能够用位于初级屏蔽墙外侧低辐射区域中的气动阀实现。 The purge control air flow rate, it is possible to use shield wall is located outside of the primary low-radiation area, pneumatic valve implementation. 在保养操作期间,该清洗气压强能够被简单地增加到使最后光学装置的气体清洁能满足要求为止。 During maintenance operations, the clean air pressure can be easily added to the gas cleaning final optical device can meet the requirement.

[0073] 该系统除了提供长寿命的和可替换的最后光学装置外,本发明的实施例还解决位于中子中间的光学装置的有关问题。 [0073] The system in addition to providing long life and the last optical device alternative embodiments of the present invention also addresses located in the middle of the neutron optical device related issues. 这些光学装置(如图9中出示的Lll和LGl)和它们的有关硬件,是处在辐射环境中,该环境构成对光学装置的威胁并限制接入和保养能力。 These optical devices (Fig. 9 show the Lll and LGl) and their related hardware, is in radiation environments, pose a threat to the environment and to limit access to the optical device and maintenance capabilities. 初始中子学的计算表明,中子小孔#2 (初级屏蔽墙926中的小孔925)显著衰减1.5XlO17n/m2sec的入射剂量。 Calculation of neutron science suggests that the neutron hole # 2 (primary shielding wall 926 holes 925) significantly attenuated entrance dose 1.5XlO17n / m2sec of. 这些中子似乎高度被准直,这样将使相对简单的中子废物(dumps)能被用于限制中子小孔之间区域中的中子通量。 These neutrons seems highly collimated, so that would make relatively simple neutron waste (dumps) can be used to limit the area between the neutron flux neutron hole. 有发动机的车辆930和有电子装置的致动器,将被允许进入该区域提供维护,而一些部件可以被允许在该区域中永久工作。 The vehicle has an engine 930 and an electronic device actuator, are allowed to enter the area to provide maintenance, and some components may be allowed to work in the area permanently. 早已在该区域中的光学装置的维护,更加直截了当,并能够用与标准洁净度约定相称的处置方法实施。 The optical device is already maintained in this area, more straightforward, and can be used with the standard of cleanliness stipulated proportionate method of disposal.

[0074] 图9B是简化示意图,示出按照本发明另外的实施例的激光器机架曲径和中子小孔体系结构。 [0074] Figure 9B is a simplified schematic diagram showing a laser according to the present invention, additional paths racks and neutron orifice architecture embodiment. 如图9B所示,被提供的体系结构,使用单组中子小孔(如,图9B中出示的一组四个中子小孔950)提供中子屏蔽。 9B, the architecture is provided using a single set of neutron apertures (e.g., FIG. 9B show a set of four apertures 950 neutrons) providing neutron shielding.

[0075] 在不出的实施方案中,在大气压强下并利用空气环境的激光器/放大器,被提供在激光器机架955中。 [0075] In embodiments not, and the use of air environment under strong laser / amplifier is provided in the laser frame 955 in the atmospheric pressure. 来自激光器/放大器的光,用光学装置引导,穿过包含该单组中子小孔950的屏蔽墙952。 Light from the laser / amplifier with an optical device guidance through holes containing the single group neutron shielding wall 950 952. 利用如图所示的其他光学装置,该激光束在穿过该组中子小孔之后,按围绕墙956和958的之字形方式被引导,入射在靶室960上。 Utilizing other optical means, as shown, the laser beam after passing through the orifice neutron group, by surrounding walls 956 and 958 is guided in a zigzag manner, chamber 960 is incident on the target. 在示出的实施方案中,靶室960是在21torr,有作为聚变反应结果产生的氙和氚的混合物。 In the illustrated embodiment, the target chamber 960 is in 21torr, a mixture of fusion reactions as result of xenon and tritium. 曲径区域962大体上与靶室的大气条件相同,为21torr,有Xe和T的混合物。 The same atmospheric conditions labyrinth region 962 is substantially the target chamber for 21torr, a mixture of Xe and T's. 靶室960中产生的向曲径区域962传播的中子,被墙958和956阻挡,因而不能按相当大的密度到达中子小孔。 The neutron propagation paths region 962 generated in the target chamber 960, 958 and 956 is a barrier wall, and therefore can not reach the orifice by relatively large neutron density.

[0076] 为了替换包含最后光学装置970的光学装置,缆线/轨道引导系统980被提供,以便使光学装置能移除和替换,如贯穿本说明书的更完全的描述。 [0076] Finally, in order to replace the optical means comprises an optical device 970, the cable / track guide system 980 is provided so that the optical device can be removed and replaced, as described more fully throughout the present specification. 在光学装置的使用寿命之后,使用该缆线/轨道引导系统980,随着光学装置沿屏蔽墙982被路由,并通过还充当氚屏障的气锁门984被抽出,于是光学装置被移除。 After the service life of the optical device using the cable / track guide system 980, with the optical device 982 is routed along the wall of the shield, and by also acting as a barrier tritium gas lock 984 is withdrawn, the optical device is then removed. 在通过气锁门984被抽出之后,机器人光学装置替换车辆990,能够被用于移除用完的光学装置和传送新的光学装置。 After passing through the air lock 984 is withdrawn, the robot vehicle to replace the optical device 990, the optical device can be used to remove the used and new optical transmission devices. 机器人光学装置替换车辆所处环境,能够是大气,例如空气的压强。 The optical apparatus in which replacement robot vehicle environment, the atmosphere can be, for example, air pressure.

[0077] 再次参考图1,该最后光束传输系统,提供引导351nm激光到祀室中心的机构。 [0077] Referring again to FIG. 1, the final beam delivery system, provide guidance 351nm laser to worship center of the chamber body. 与某些其他聚变技术系统(如,NIF)相反,该室不是高真空。 And some other fusion technology systems (eg, NIF) Instead, the chamber is not high vacuum. 在一些实施例中,该室被有意地用保护机构,诸如g/cm3的氙气体填充,以保护室墙抵御离子和X射线。 In some embodiments, the chamber is intentionally a protective mechanism, such as xenon gas g / cm3 is padded to protect the chamber wall against ion and X-rays. 按15Hz的靶点火,也把靶的成分(氢、氘、氚、氦、碳、铅,诸如此类)添加到该气体混合物,因为真空系统通常在下一次射击之前,一般不替换所有气体。 15Hz target by fire, but also the composition of the target (hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, helium, carbon, lead, and so on) is added to the gas mixture, because before the vacuum system is usually the next shot, generally do not replace all the gas. 因此,光束通过该复杂气体混合物传播的详细分析,已经被施行,以提供有关该光束动力学(如,由于非线性过程产生的丝化现象(filamentation)或散射)的信息。 Therefore, the beam through a detailed analysis of the complex gas mixtures communication, has been implemented to provide information about the beam dynamics (eg, due to the silk phenomenon (filamentation) nonlinear process occurring or scattering) of information. 该分析在一个实施方案中,开始于传播2TW、15ns、0.351 um的激光束,通过靶室中心附近的数十cm的Xe/Pb等离子体以及数米在最后光学装置出发的气体。 The analysis in one embodiment, the start to the propagation 2TW, 15ns, 0.351 um laser beam, through dozens of Xe cm near the center of the target chamber / Pb plasma and optical devices in the last few meters of gas starting. 该靶室环境的产生和演变,被示出在图10中。 Generation and evolution of the target room environment, is shown in Figure 10.

[0078] 参考图10,在激光射击之前,气体处在〜0.5eV的有5%的铅混合的非电离状态。 [0078] Referring to Figure 10, before the laser shot, the gas in ~0.5eV a 5% lead mixed non-ionized state. 当激光脉冲的下缘开始加热靶时,等离子体球形成,它在激光脉冲期间生长到〜25cm的范围。 When the lower edge of the laser pulse begins to heat the target, a plasma ball is formed, which grow during the laser pulse to ~25cm range. 在〜Iu s后,该等离子体已经因辐射而冷却为中子气体的热混合物,它继续辐射,直到下一次靶射击。 After ~Iu s, the plasma has cooled due to radiation and thermal neutron gas mixture, which continues radiation, until the next target shooting.

[0079] 激光与气体及膨胀的等离子体的相互作用,在表2给出,其中这些相互作用以类型表征,而对光束作用的评估被给出。 [0079] laser interaction with gas and the expansion of the plasma, are given in Table 2, which characterize these interactions to type, and to assess the role of the beam is given. 大多数作用已被充分理解,并与实际靶气体混合物和温度环境有关。 Most effects are well understood, and the actual target gas mixture and temperature environment. 应当指出的是,光束的主要损耗机理,似乎是包围靶的等离子体球中电离的气体。 It should be noted that the main loss mechanism beam, the target seems to be surrounded by gas ionized plasma ball. 该透射率损耗作为与靶距离的函数,在图1lA中示出,并且在351nm上引起0.5%的可忽略损耗。 The transmission loss as a function of the distance of the target, shown in FIG. 1lA and causes a negligible loss of 0.5% on 351nm. 在其中整个室被保持在电离的极端情形下,该损耗对6 ug/cm3的情形,只增加到1.5%。 Wherein the entire chamber is maintained under extreme circumstances ionization, the loss of 6 ug / cm3 case, only increased by 1.5%. 感兴趣的第二种损耗机理,是来自靶空腔铅气体的受激喇曼散射。 The second loss mechanism of interest is stimulated Raman scattering from the target cavity lead gas. 电子受激喇曼散射(从束缚电子的散射)过去已经用热管(碱蒸汽)中的染料激光被广泛研究。 Electron stimulated Raman scattering (scattering of electrons from bound) past the heat pipe (alkali vapor) in the dye laser has been used extensively studied. >60%的转换效率已对约Itorr的铅蒸汽被观察到。 > 60% conversion efficiency of about Itorr lead vapor is observed. 发明人已经确定,LIFE小光束的强度-长度结果(product)是这样大,以致在该激光脉冲的Ins之后,相关增益指数将达到阈值的10倍(G〜30)。 The inventors have determined that the intensity of the beamlets LIFE - length of the result (product) is so great that after the laser pulse Ins, dependent gain index to reach 10 times the threshold value (G~30). 这将导致SRS介质的完全饱和。 This will result in a fully saturated SRS medium.

[0080] 参考图11B,在0.02torr上的SRS的lmj,对应于每原子〜I个光子。 [0080] reference to FIG. 11B, lmj SRS on 0.02torr, which corresponds to each atom ~I photons. 这样,如果在靶区域的激光照明体积中的所有可用铅原子都被激发,结果等于整个LIFE激光系统(所有光束)的〜20kJ,它将等效于使激光脉冲形状上的第一“前哨脉冲”能量加倍。 Thus, if all of the available volume of lead atoms in the laser illumination of the target area are excited, the result is equal to the entire LIFE laser system (all beams) ~20kJ, it is equivalent to the first "sentinel on the pulse laser pulse shape "Energy doubled. SRS损耗等于〜0.83%的光束线损耗。 SRS loss is equal to ~0.83% of the beam line losses. 根据这些值,入射光束的表观损耗,对本文讨论的6 ug/cm3的所有作用情形下,是非常合理的〜1,33-2.33%。 Based on these values, the apparent loss of the incident beam, under all circumstances action discussed herein 6 ug / cm3, it is very reasonable ~1,33-2.33%. 应当指出,以前的分析不包含光束开始重叠地传播(在空腔LEH附近)的最后一厘米,这部分是用动能分析(energetics analysis)解决的。 It should be noted that, before the start of the analysis does not include the beam propagation overlap (in the vicinity of the cavity LEH) is the last one centimeter, which is part of the kinetic analysis (energetics analysis) resolved.

[0081] [0081]

Figure CN103339683AD00151

[0082] 表2.激光焦点与靶气体的相互作用 [0082] Table 2. Interaction with the target gas laser focus

[0083] 还应当理解,本文描述的例子和实施例只为说明的目的,借鉴它们,各种修改或变化将向本领域熟练技术人员提出,而这些修改或变化,被包含在本申请的精神及权限与所附权利要求书的范围之内。 [0083] It should also be understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are only for purposes of illustration, draw them, various modifications or changes will be made skilled in the art, and such modifications or variations are included within the spirit of the present application within the scope and authority of the appended claims.

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Classifications
Classification internationaleG21B1/25
Classification coopérativeG21B1/23
Événements juridiques
DateCodeÉvénementDescription
2 oct. 2013C06Publication
25 mai 2016C02Deemed withdrawal of patent application after publication (patent law 2001)