Recherche Images Maps Play YouTube Actualités Gmail Drive Plus »
Connexion
Les utilisateurs de lecteurs d'écran peuvent cliquer sur ce lien pour activer le mode d'accessibilité. Celui-ci propose les mêmes fonctionnalités principales, mais il est optimisé pour votre lecteur d'écran.

Brevets

  1. Recherche avancée dans les brevets
Numéro de publicationUS20120157148 A1
Type de publicationDemande
Numéro de demandeUS 13/380,387
Numéro PCTPCT/EP2010/003633
Date de publication21 juin 2012
Date de dépôt4 juin 2010
Date de priorité23 juin 2009
Autre référence de publicationCN102804628A, CN102804628B, EP2282418A2, EP2282418A3, US8874158, WO2010149306A2, WO2010149306A3
Numéro de publication13380387, 380387, PCT/2010/3633, PCT/EP/10/003633, PCT/EP/10/03633, PCT/EP/2010/003633, PCT/EP/2010/03633, PCT/EP10/003633, PCT/EP10/03633, PCT/EP10003633, PCT/EP1003633, PCT/EP2010/003633, PCT/EP2010/03633, PCT/EP2010003633, PCT/EP201003633, US 2012/0157148 A1, US 2012/157148 A1, US 20120157148 A1, US 20120157148A1, US 2012157148 A1, US 2012157148A1, US-A1-20120157148, US-A1-2012157148, US2012/0157148A1, US2012/157148A1, US20120157148 A1, US20120157148A1, US2012157148 A1, US2012157148A1
InventeursMatthew P. J. Baker
Cessionnaire d'origineBaker Matthew P J
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet
Station comprising at least two transmit antennas, and a method of transmitting therefrom
US 20120157148 A1
Résumé
A method is provided of transmitting a plurality of signals from a primary station to a respective plurality of secondary stations, said primary station comprising at least two transmit antennas, wherein each of said plurality of signals is transmitted from a respective subset of said at least two transmit antennas to a respective secondary station, in which each subset is selected at least according to a predetermined characteristic of the respective secondary station.
Images(8)
Previous page
Next page
Revendications(15)
1. A method of transmitting from a primary station a plurality of signals to a corresponding plurality of secondary stations, said primary station comprising at least two transmit antennas, wherein each of said plurality of signals is transmitted from a respective subset of said at least two transmit antennas to a respective secondary station, in which each subset is selected dependent upon a predetermined characteristic of the respective secondary station.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said predetermined characteristic is an identifier of the secondary station.
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein each transmit antenna is identified by a corresponding number, and the number of the transmit antenna used for the transmission of a signal is given by (ID mod N)+1 where ID is the identifier of the respective secondary station and N is the total number of antennas available for transmission at the primary station.
4. A method according to claim 2, in which the primary station comprises just two transmit antennas, and each of the signals is transmitted by a respective single transmit antenna.
5. A method according to claim 1, in which the signals comprise Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel, F-DPCH, symbols.
6. A method according to claim 1, wherein the selection depends also on the time at which the transmission is to occur.
7. A method according to claim 6, wherein the selection depends on the time at which the transmission is to occur in that the selection depends on whether the timeslot number at which a signal is to be sent meets a given criterion.
8. A method according to claim 7, wherein the criterion is whether timeslot number is an odd number.
9. A method according to claim 6, wherein the time is determined by a frame number.
10. A telecommunications primary station configured to transmit by radio a plurality of signals, and comprising a transmitter comprising at least two transmit antennas, said station further comprising an antenna selector configured to select for each signal a subset of said at least two transmit antennas to transmit the signal, wherein for each signal the subset of antennas is selected dependent upon a predetermined characteristic of a secondary station.
11. A telecommunications primary station according to claim 10, wherein said predetermined characteristic is an identifier of the secondary station which is intended to receive the signal.
12. A telecommunications primary station according to claim 10, wherein the antenna selector operates such that each transmit antenna is identified by a corresponding number, and the number of the transmit antenna used for the transmission of a signal is given by (ID mod N)+1 where ID is the identifier of the respective secondary station and N is the total number of antennas available for transmission at the primary station.
13. A telecommunications primary station according to claim 10, wherein the antenna selector also receives input data dependent on the time at which the transmission is to occur and is configured to make the selections dependent also upon said input data.
14. A telecommunications secondary station configured to determine from which antenna of a primary station comprising at least two transmit antennas a signal is received, the antenna of the primary station having been selected dependent upon a predetermined characteristic of the secondary station, the secondary station being operative to select for use in demodulation an expected phase reference in respect of the antenna determined.
15. A telecommunications secondary station according to claim 14, in which the signal comprises an F-DPCH symbol and the predetermined characteristic is an identifier of the secondary station.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to telecommunications, in particular to wireless telecommunications.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
  • [0002]
    In known multiple-antenna transmission systems, such as those using transmit diversity and many multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) schemes, transmission power is shared approximately equally between the transmit antennas, in order to enable a balanced pair of power amplifiers to be used and equally loaded.
  • [0003]
    However, in some circumstances transmission of a signal from two antennas can have detrimental consequences due to destructive interference. An example of such a situation occurs with the transmission of a signal known as the Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) in the Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) system defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), see in particular 3GPP Technical Specification 25.211, Version 8.5.0, Section 5.3.2.6. The F-DPCH consists of a single symbol of information (constituting a transmitter power control (TPC) command) transmitted at regular intervals. Each individual TPC command can take a different value. It is therefore not possible to apply known Space-Time Block Code (STBC) transmit diversity techniques to this channel, as STBC techniques require pairs of symbols on which to operate. Consequently in current versions of the WCDMA specifications, the same F-DPCH symbol is defined to be transmitted from both antennas simultaneously. This ensures that the transmission power is balanced between the antennas, but has the drawback that destructive interference will occur at some locations (although constructive interference will be experienced at others). This means that a mobile user terminal in some locations will experience very poor signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the F-DPCH, possibly even losing synchronisation, as the synchronisation criterion is defined with reference to the quality of the Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) in WCDMA.
  • [0004]
    Some other transmit diversity schemes do not suffer from this problem, such as closed loop schemes which adapt the phase of the transmissions from at least one antenna dynamically. However, such schemes require feedback which increases complexity and may not work well when the coherence time of the radio channel is short.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0005]
    The reader is referred to the appended independent claims. Some preferred features are laid out in the dependent claims.
  • [0006]
    An example of the present invention is a method for transmitting a plurality of signals from a primary station to a respective plurality of secondary stations, said primary station comprising at least two transmit antennas, wherein each of said plurality of signals is transmitted from a subset of said at least two transmit antennas, in which said subset is selected at least according to a predetermined characteristic of the respective secondary station.
  • [0007]
    In some embodiments, the primary station is a base station and the secondary stations are user terminals.
  • [0008]
    In some embodiments, the problem of destructive interference is avoided by transmitting each F-DPCH to an individual user terminal from a different respective single antenna. In some embodiments the different F-DPCHs are assigned substantially equally to the different antennas in order to maintain a balance of transmission power.
  • [0009]
    The inventor realized that in some embodiments each user terminal's F-DPCH is assigned to a corresponding antenna deterministically based on a known characteristic of the user terminal.
  • [0010]
    This approach has advantages over an alternative proposal of using explicit signalling to indicate which antenna is assigned to each user terminal (to enable each user terminal to know which phase reference to use to demodulate the signal) because such additional signalling would add complexity and overhead.
  • [0011]
    The present invention also relates to corresponding apparatus.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0012]
    Embodiments of the present invention will now be described by way of example and with reference to the drawings, in which:
  • [0013]
    FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a radio access network according to a first embodiment of the invention,
  • [0014]
    FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating in further detail the base station shown in FIG. 1,
  • [0015]
    FIG. 3 is a flowchart illustrating operation of the base station shown in FIG. 2,
  • [0016]
    FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a base station according to a second embodiment of the invention,
  • [0017]
    FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating operation of the base station shown in FIG. 4,
  • [0018]
    FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a base station according to a third embodiment of the invention, and
  • [0019]
    FIG. 7 is a flowchart illustrating operation of the base station shown in FIG. 6.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0020]
    As shown in FIG. 1, an example radio access network 3 includes a primary station 4, namely a wireless telecommunications base station 6, and user terminals 8, two of which are shown for simplicity. A base station is sometimes referred to as a NodeB. A user terminal is sometimes referred to as a User Equipment, denoted “UE”. The base station 6 has two antennas 10 for radio communications with the user terminals 8. The base station is also connected to a core network 12.
  • [0021]
    As shown in FIG. 2, the base station includes a Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) symbol generator 14 that is connected to an antenna selector 16. The selector includes an input 18 from the F-DPCH generator 14. The antenna selector 16 is also connected to a transmitter-receiver 20 which is itself connected to two antennas 22,24, respectively denoted Ant1 and Ant2.
  • [0022]
    In use, a UE identity decoder 26 decodes a user terminal identifier in a signal received from a user terminal (or from the core network), and forwards that decoded identifier to the antenna selector 16.
  • [0023]
    In this example, the user terminal identifier is its Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier (C-RNTI). In another otherwise similar example, the user terminal identifier is the International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI).
  • [0024]
    An example of how the base station 12 operates in selecting which antenna to use for transmitting the F-DPCH symbols will now be described. User terminals with an odd value of the identifier have their F-DPCH symbols assigned to the first transmit antenna of the base station while user terminals with an even value of the said identifier have their F-DPCH symbols assigned to the second antenna. This approach will now be explained in more detail with reference to FIG. 3.
  • [0025]
    As shown in FIG. 3, the core network 12 instructs (step a) the base station 6 to transmit a F-DPCH symbol to the particular user terminal. The base station then determines (step b) the characteristic of the user terminal, namely its C-RNTI which is a user terminal identifier, from signals received from the user terminal (or core network). The antenna selector 16 then selects the antenna by determining (step c) whether the identifier (which is a numerical) is odd (as opposed to even). If yes (step d) then the first antenna (Ant1) is selected (step e). Conversely, if no (step f), then the second antenna (Ant2) is selected (step g).
  • [0026]
    In this example, it can be considered that the identifying number of the antenna to be used for the transmission to a particular user terminal is given by (ID mod N)+1 where ID is the identifier of the user terminal and N is the total number of antennas available for transmission at the base station. ID mod N is the integer remainder of integer division of ID by N. In this two antenna example, N=2 and the identifying number (1 or 2) of the antenna to be used to a user terminal is given by (ID mod N)+1. Accordingly, in this example if the user terminal ID is odd then Ant2 is selected, but if the user terminal ID is even then Ant1 is selected.
  • [0027]
    On average, and particularly where large numbers of user terminals are present, such a mechanism ensures that the transmission power is divided approximately equally between the antennas.
  • [0028]
    As regards reception by user terminals of Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) symbols transmitted from the base station, each user terminal knows its own identifier a priori and therefore calculates, in similar fashion, which of the antennas of the base station, the base station will use for downlink transmission of F-DPCH symbol to that user terminal. Accordingly, the user terminal uses the phase reference expected in respect of that antenna in demodulating of the F-DPCH symbol.
  • Also Using Time in Antenna Selection
  • [0029]
    In another embodiment, antennas can be selected in a time-dependent manner. For example, as shown in FIG. 4, in an otherwise similar embodiment to that described above, time slot number 28 at which transmission will occur is used as additional input to the antenna selector 16′.
  • [0030]
    For example, the antenna number is then given by ((ID+TSN)mod N)+1 where TSN is the timeslot number in which the transmission occurs. As previously, mentioned, ID is the identifier of the user terminal and N is the total number of antennas available for transmission at the base station. This additional input causes the transmission to a particular user terminal to switch systematically across the antennas over time, enabling some switched antenna diversity to be achieved. In the case of the F-DPCH symbols, this would not improve the reliability of any one individual Transmit Power Control (TPC) command, but it would have the advantage of improving the reliability on average, and therefore helping to avoid the user terminal losing synchronisation.
  • [0031]
    As shown in FIG. 5, the core network 12 instructs (step a′) the base station 6′ to transmit a F-DPCH symbol to the particular user terminal. The base station then determines (step b′) the characteristic of the user terminal, namely its Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier (C-RNTI) which is a user terminal identifier, from signals received from the user terminal (or core network). The base station then determines (step c′) the time slot number in which the F-DPCH symbol is to be sent.
  • [0032]
    The antenna selector 16′ then selects the antenna as follows. First the antenna selector 16′ determines (step d′) whether the identifier (which is numerical) is odd (in other words not even). If no (step e′), then the antenna selector determines (step f′) whether the time slot number is odd. If the timeslot number is not odd (step g′), the first antenna (Ant1) is selected (step h′). Conversely, if the timeslot number is odd (step i′), then the second antenna (Ant2) is selected (step j′).
  • [0033]
    On the other hand if the determination at step d′ is that yes, the identifier is odd (step k′), then the antenna selector determines (step l′) whether the time slot number is odd. If yes (step m′) then the first antenna (Ant1) is selected (step n′). Conversely, if no (step o′), then the second antenna (Ant2) is selected (step p′).
  • [0034]
    In another alternative embodiment (not shown), frame number is used in place of time slot number.
  • Using a Pseudo-Random Number in Antenna Selection
  • [0035]
    In a further embodiment, a pseudo-random number is used in place of the time slot number (TSN), the pseudo-random number being derived from a known or deterministically-derivable sequence available at both the base station and the user terminal. The pseudo-random number may for example be provided by hashing functions, which are a useful family of functions for this purpose.
  • [0036]
    As shown in FIG. 6, in an otherwise similar embodiment to that described in the section above, a pseudo-random number from a pseudo-random number generator 30 is used as the additional input to the antenna selector 16″. For example, the antenna number is then given by ((ID+PRN)mod N)+1 where PRN is the pseudo-random number. As previously mentioned, ID is the identifier of the user terminal and N is the total number of antennas available for transmission at the base station.
  • [0037]
    As shown in FIG. 7, the core network 12 instructs (step a″) the base station 6″ to transmit a F-DPCH symbol to the particular user terminal. The base station then determines (step b″) the characteristic of the user terminal, namely its C-RNTI which is a user terminal identifier, from signals received from the user terminal (or core network). The base station then determines (step c″) the pseudo-random number generated in respect of the F-DPCH symbol to be sent. The antenna selector 16″ then selects the antenna as follows. First the antenna selector 16′ determines (step d″) whether the identifier (which is a numerical) is odd (as opposed to even). If no (step e″) then the antenna selector determines (step f′) whether the pseudo-random number is odd. If no (step g″), the first antenna (Ant1) is selected (step h″). Conversely, if yes (step i″), then the second antenna (Ant2) is selected (step j″).
  • [0038]
    On the other hand if the determination at step d″ is that yes, the identifier is odd (step k″), then the antenna selector determines (step l′) whether the pseudo-random number is odd. If yes (step m″) then the first antenna (Ant1) is selected (step n″). Conversely, if no (step o″), then the second antenna (Ant2) is selected (step p″).
  • Some Other Variants
  • [0039]
    In the above examples, a user terminal identifier is used as an input to the antenna selector. In some other embodiments some other known characteristic of user terminals is used to differentiate between them.
  • [0040]
    In some of the specific examples, the base station has just two antennas (N=2). In some other embodiments, the total number N of antennas available for transmission at the base station may be larger, e.g. 3,4,5 . . . The number of the antenna used for the transmission to a particular user terminal may be given by (ID mod N)+1 where ID is the identifier of the user terminal and N is 3,4,5 . . .
  • [0041]
    In the above examples, the primary base station is a base station and the secondary stations are user terminals. In some embodiments, the primary station can be a user terminal and the secondary stations can be base stations.
  • General
  • [0042]
    The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from its essential characteristics. The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description. All changes that come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.
  • [0043]
    A person skilled in the art would readily recognize that steps of various above-described methods can be performed by programmed computers. Some embodiments relate to program storage devices, e.g., digital data storage media, which are machine or computer readable and encode machine-executable or computer-executable programs of instructions, wherein said instructions perform some or all of the steps of said above-described methods. The program storage devices may be, e.g., digital memories, magnetic storage media such as a magnetic disks and magnetic tapes, hard drives, or optically readable digital data storage media. Some embodiments involve computers programmed to perform said steps of the above-described methods.
Citations de brevets
Brevet cité Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US6104710 *15 mai 199715 août 2000Nec CorporationRadio selective paging receiver with time setting which avoids receiver noise
US6295005 *19 mai 199925 sept. 2001Nec CorporationRadio selective-calling receiver with deferring function informing received contents and method thereof
US7062295 *13 juin 200313 juin 2006Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Radio communication system and scheduling method
US7206577 *22 mars 200417 avr. 2007Nokia CorporationMethod and apparatus for receiving site selection diversity transmit (SSDT) signal in a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) system
US7356089 *5 sept. 20038 avr. 2008Nortel Networks LimitedPhase offset spatial multiplexing
US7408907 *15 août 20035 août 2008Cisco Technology, Inc.System and method for management of a shared frequency band using client-specific management techniques
US7447502 *14 janv. 20054 nov. 2008Research In Motion LimitedScheme for providing regulatory compliance in performing network selection in a foreign country
US7710950 *25 avr. 20074 mai 2010Research In Motion LimitedSystem and methods for originating a SIP call via a circuit-switched network from a user equipment device
US7751352 *14 sept. 20046 juil. 2010Lg Electronics Inc.Control signal transmitting method in multi-antenna system
US7760712 *11 août 200620 juil. 2010Research In Motion LimitedSystem and method for managing call continuity in IMS network environment
US7853217 *17 août 200614 déc. 2010Panasonic CorporationWireless communication terminal apparatus and CQI selecting method
US7916681 *7 déc. 200529 mars 2011Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)Method and apparatus for communication channel error rate estimation
US8200229 *28 avr. 200612 juin 2012Nokia CorporationApparatus, method and computer program providing enhanced fractional dedicated physical channel downlink power control during soft handover
US8243660 *21 juin 200714 août 2012Samsung Electronics Co., LtdMethod of transmitting scheduling request in mobile communication system and terminal apparatus for the same
US8295779 *31 oct. 200923 oct. 2012Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and apparatus for wireless transmissions using multiple uplink carriers
US8331426 *14 juin 201011 déc. 2012Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.Method, system and apparatus for improving throughput performance of space division multiple access system
US8358614 *31 oct. 200922 janv. 2013Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and apparatus for handling uplink transmissions using multiple uplink carriers
US8400935 *31 oct. 200919 mars 2013Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and an apparatus for providing control information for multi-carrier uplink transmission
US8457647 *10 janv. 20084 juin 2013Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ)Selection of transmit mode during a random access procedure
US8484530 *17 févr. 20129 juil. 2013Motorola Mobility LlcMulti-antenna configuration signaling in wireless communication system
US8559982 *16 juin 201115 oct. 2013Wi-Lan, Inc.Systems and methods for location positioning within radio access systems
US8660086 *4 mai 201025 févr. 2014Nokia CorporationMethod and apparatus for admission control and forced handover in a multi-layer network configuration
US20040248618 *13 juin 20039 déc. 2004Isamu YoshiiRadio communication system and scheduling method
US20060246907 *28 avr. 20062 nov. 2006Nokia CorporationApparatus, method and computer program providing enhanced fractional dedicated physical channel downlink power control during soft handover
US20060276227 *2 juin 20057 déc. 2006Qualcomm IncorporatedMulti-antenna station with distributed antennas
US20070135166 *9 déc. 200514 juin 2007Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Apparatus and method for channel estimation without signaling overhead
US20070253368 *22 juin 20071 nov. 2007Research In Motion LimitedApparatus, and associated method, for facilitating initiation of channel allocation to communicate data in a radio communication system
US20070293224 *19 juin 200720 déc. 2007Interdigital Technology CorporationMethods and system for performing handover in a wireless communication system
US20080004058 *21 juin 20073 janv. 2008Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method of transmitting scheduling request in mobile communication system and terminal apparatus for the same
US20080063116 *10 sept. 200713 mars 2008Hitoshi YokoyamaMobile terminal, radio communication apparatus and radio communication method
US20080181177 *7 nov. 200731 juil. 2008Qualcomm IncorporatedMethod and apparatus for srns relocation in wireless communication systems
US20090067345 *5 sept. 200812 mars 2009Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaRadio terminal, radio system, and program
US20100113004 *31 oct. 20096 mai 2010Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and apparatus for wireless transmissions using multiple uplink carriers
US20100157895 *31 oct. 200924 juin 2010Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and apparatus for handling uplink transmissions using multiple uplink carriers
US20100246516 *12 mars 201030 sept. 2010Interdigital Patent Holdings, Inc.Method and apparatus for performing uplink transmit diversity
US20110111790 *18 janv. 201112 mai 2011Lennart AnderssonMethod and Apparatus for Communication Channel Error Rate Estimation
US20110158205 *30 juin 201030 juin 2011Niemasz Jr John WMethod And Apparatus For Concerted Signal Transmission On Multiple Antennas
US20110249767 *13 oct. 201013 oct. 2011Qualcomm IncorporatedMethod and apparatus for reference signal sequence mapping in wireless communication
US20130155984 *13 févr. 201320 juin 2013Interdigital Patent Holding, Inc.Method And An Apparatus For Providing Control Information For Multi-Carrier Uplink Transmission
US20130203419 *31 janv. 20138 août 2013Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)Method, Apparatus and Computer Program for Cell Identification
US20130235834 *30 avr. 201312 sept. 2013Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson (Publ)Selection of Transit Mode During a Random Access Procedure
WO2008135975A2 *30 avr. 200813 nov. 2008Visonic Ltd.Wireless communication system
Référencé par
Brevet citant Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US9407467 *23 oct. 20142 août 2016The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyMethod and apparatus for transmitting and receiving information wirelessly using intensity interferometry
US20150110206 *23 oct. 201423 avr. 2015The Government Of The United States Of America, As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyCapacity of an Intensity Interferometry Channel
Classifications
Classification aux États-Unis455/517
Classification internationaleH04B7/06
Classification coopérativeH04B7/0602, H04B7/0691
Classification européenneH04B7/06B, H04B7/06H2
Événements juridiques
DateCodeÉvénementDescription
8 mars 2012ASAssignment
Owner name: ALCATEL LUCENT, FRANCE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BAKER, MATTHEW P. J.;REEL/FRAME:027825/0770
Effective date: 20120121
30 janv. 2013ASAssignment
Owner name: CREDIT SUISSE AG, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:LUCENT, ALCATEL;REEL/FRAME:029821/0001
Effective date: 20130130
Owner name: CREDIT SUISSE AG, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:ALCATEL LUCENT;REEL/FRAME:029821/0001
Effective date: 20130130
30 sept. 2014ASAssignment
Owner name: ALCATEL LUCENT, FRANCE
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:CREDIT SUISSE AG;REEL/FRAME:033868/0555
Effective date: 20140819