US 2056179 A
Description (Le texte OCR peut contenir des erreurs.)
Oct. 6, 193
B. F. FITCH DEMOUNTABLE TANK CRADLE I Filed Nov. 15, 1935 v 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 15
UM. 5, 1936. B, F, FlTCH DEMOUNTABLE TANK CRADLE Filed Nov. 15, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet 3' Q 70 W%/%Z Oct. 6, 1936. B. F. FITCH 2,056,179
DEMOUNTABLE TANK CRADLE Filed Nov. 15, 1955 5 Sheets Sheet 4 mm WWW Oct. 6, 1936. B. F. FITCH DEMOUNTABLE TANK CRADLE 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Nov. 15, 1955 mxmg UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,056,179 DEMOUNTABLE TANK CRADLE Benjamin F. Fitch, Greenwich, Motor Terminals Company,
Com, assignor to New York, N. 1.,
v a corporation of Delaware Application November 15, 1933, Serial No. 698,048 20 Claims. (01. 294-67) This invention, in one aspect, is concerned with a demountable tank cradle enabling tanks different forms of vehicles and transferred from one vehicle to another, as, for instance, between a railway flat car and a to be readily mounted on highway truck. While such a demountable cradle with the tank carried thereby is of general application and may transporting various liquids, for
beused to advantage in instance acids,
oils, chemicals, etc., ityis particularly valuable in the transportation of milk for city delivery, and
that aspect of the invention may be said to relate to a method of distributing milk.
The older system of means of cans which, after being creamery, received the milk, into box cars,
and then transferred to trucks distributing milk was by sterilized at the and were then put transported to the vicinity of use,
for city delivery,-all at a great labor'and expense.
The can method of transportation has been expensive, not only on account of labor, but on account of deterioration of the cans, and loss due to the adhering of cream and milk-fat to the sides of the can, thus reducing both the quantity and the quality of the delivered milk.
As an improvement on this older can system,
tanks carrying approximately three thousand gallons-have come into use, such tanks being either a permanent part of a railway equipment,
or of is mounted on a highway truck equipment. If the tank a railway ear for cheap transporthere is the expense of pumping the milk from the railway tank to a truck tank, and the expense and delay of agitating the railway car back and forth by a switch engine for perhaps half an hour to remix the milk and cream, and prevent to the tank walls.
undue adhesion It is highly important that milk tanks be thoroughly cleaned preceding each use. The custom is for a man to enter the tank through the manhole, scour it out, rinse it with a live steam, and again hose, fill it with rinse it with a chlorine solution, and the-same operation applies to a tank on a truck, after to the distributing station, requiring about one hour it hauls the load from the car this cleaning process per tank.
To avoid the expense of two sets of tanks for railway cars and city trucks, and to save the double cleaning and expense of pumping and the consequentdelays, long hauls by equipped with tanks highway trucks have come into vogue. Such long-haul highway trucking, however, is expensive; the trucks cannot service; after they reach the city be utilized for any other with their loads on the railway car,
- of the. cradle the and deliver the load, they can only ,remain idle or return empty to the creamery.
Now I have provided a system of milk transportation having the advantages of the speed and economy of rail transportation for the long haul, .5 without the expense and delay of re-pumping to truck tanks. I accomplish this by employing a demountable tank, which; after being washed and sterilized, is filled at the creamery, then placed transported to a rail head, 10 and then lifted intact to a highway truck for delivery. This demountable tank system employs a cradle which is adapted to carry existing tanks, usually cylindrical or elliptical in cross-section, and eifectively mount them on a railway fiat car, 15 or on a highway truck, as well as provide for the attachment of hoisting mechanism to effect the transfer of the tank from one vehicle to the other. The cradle is provided with anchorages corresponding to those on highway trucks and railway 'cars, so that immediately upon deposit tank becomes efiectively attached to the vehicle for transportation thereby.
As shown in various patents of mine, (for instance, Nos. 1,'Z'12,939 and 1,814,304) I have here-' tofore provided a. system of transporting freight involving demountable rectangular bodies equipped with floor anchorages and arranged to be mounted at will on a highway truck or railway flat car. with my milk transportation system, I preferably arrange the anchorages on the same spacing and location, so that the milk tanks may be used interchangeably with my standard demountable bodies either on the railway car or truck. Accordingly, during the would ordinarily be idle, after it delivers its tankload of milk, my truck may be used for ordinary transportation with one of my standard demountable bodies, and likewise the railway car may be used for other service as soon as the tank is de- I mounted therefrom, since any one of. the flat cars equipped with anchorages may be employed for returning thetank to the creamery.
My method is. much cheaper in equipment expense and in operation than either the combined rail and truck-haul, or the long distance trucking heretofore employed. In carrying out this method I have provided, as heretofore outlined. a cradle adapted to receive and efiectively support tanks of various shapes, this cradle providing for floor anchorage and for attachment of load lifting members. The cradle having these characteristics is included within my invention, herein claimed. A pre erred form of. such cradle 55 lar view of a highway truck equipped'with a tank therein; Fig. 9 .isa base-frame comprising a pair elliptical in cross-section, this view showing the tank as being raised from, or lowered onto the truck; Figs. 4 and 5 are end viewsof the tank bodies shown in Figs. 2 and without the tank; Fig. 7 the cradle with the is an end elevation is-a sideelevation of tank mounted therein; Fig. 8 of the cradle with the tank planon a smaller scale of the cradle, the tank lines; Fig. 10 is a vertical section in a plane parallel with the side of the cradle, as indicated by theiine ilk-I on Fig. 8, and indicating the ad-- justments of the hoist attaching member and the end guard; Fig. 11 is a fragmentary transverse section .through post on line ll-ll Fig. 7; Fig.'l2 is a. horizontal section through the upper member of the cradle frame and the hoist attaching. post, as indicated by. the line l2-l2 on Fig. 7; Fig. 13 is a transverse section of the cradle adjacent the center, the tank being shown in end elevation see line l3-l3 Fig. '7; Fig. 14 is a vertical section through one of the positioning sockets, as indicated by the line [4-H 15 is a horizontal section of the cradle, just above the base frame; Fig.'16 is 'an edge view of the end portion of one of the end straps or holddown straps with its turn buckle anchorage; Fig. 1''! is an edge view of the anchored portion of one of the supporting straps. I f As shown in the drawings, my cradle has a of intermediat'ely located longitudinal sills III, with longitudinal extensions ll, end sills l2, and intermediately located transverse beams l3 comparatively near the end sills, and short longitudinal sills or side members l4 connecting the end sills with the transverse beams. All of these parts are in the same horizontal plane.
.fective connection between cradle hereinafter dwcribed In addition to the sill members above described, the base frame also carries a pair of intermediately located transverse members 23, which may be of I-beam in cross-section, and which are secured to the sills by angle plates 2| (Fig. 13) riveted or .welded in place. These beams 23 are curved to extend approximately horizontally across the iongitudinal sills Ill and curve upwardly beyond these sills until they become vertical at thesides ofthe cradle. These curved cross the intermediate porthe side truss of the and the base frame.
Each side of the cradle is composed of an open truss work; the upper chord of this, as shown,
tion of the upper chord of comprises a longitudinal pipe 30, which extends continuously from one end of the cradle proper to the other. Adjacent its ends this pipe is con-- nected with outer ends of the side sill members I 4. Likewise, at the inner ends of the sill mem-- bers it are vertical pipes 32, effectively connected at their ends to the pipes 30 and the sills I4. The connection of the vertical tubular members 3| and 32 to the horizontal tubular member 30 may readily be made by welding. At the lower ends of the vertical members I provide reinforces 33 being indicated in broken the adjustable hoist attaching on Figs. 9 and 15; Fig.
truck, and side effectively braced to the base frame.
and 34 extending longitudinally and transversely and welded or riveted in place at the junction of the vertical members and the respective sill members. The side sill members it are braced at both ends by diagonal members 35 and 36. The member 35 may be connected at its lower end to the reinforce 33, while at its upper end this member 35 has an extension 31, which wraps around the pipe 30 and is effectively secured thereto, and thus this upper end is connected to both the pipe 30 and the vertical pipe 32. The diagonal member 36 may be connected at its lower end to the reinforce 34, while at its upper end this diagonal member 36 is connected both to the longitudinal pipe 30 an the'transverse curved member 20.
It will be understood that the construction described is the same for each end of the cradle, and it provides a base frame which has comparatively wide end portions and a narrow intermediate portion to allow for the wheels of the portions in the form of a truss The tank, whetherof the cylindrical form indicated at A in Figs. 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, and 13, or of the elliptical form A indicated in Figs. 3 and 5, is effectively suspended by my cradle without contact with the rigid parts of the cradle, and without danger of injury to the tank. This is important since these tanks frequently have a glass lining on an intermediate insulating layer, and
any breakage of the. lining prohibits the use of the tank.
To suspend the tankrl provide a series of straps 43 secured to the upper chord so of'the side truss, and extending in a curve from one side to'the other. These straps are preferably steel members faced with some fabric construction, similar, for example, to an automobile brake lining, as indicated at M, (Fig. 17). Each strap wraps around the pipe 33 and is effectively secured thereto at its ends.
As the length of the supporting straps will vary with the size and the formation of the tank, I provide a-simple means for se'curingthe strap after the length thereof is adjusted to the particular tank being mounted; that is to say, after the proper length of strap is selected its end portion is bent around the pipe 33 and the strap cut off to provide an extreme end portion which is bent backwardly in the form of a book 4!. 8. 17. Embracingthe strap below the pipe 33 is a U-shaped clip 45, which carries a crosspin 43 occupying the U-bend at the end of the strap. This'clip contacts with the underside of the pipe, and thus effectively anchors the end of the strap thereto.
' I have shown eight supporting straps 43. secured to the longitudinal pipe 33. The number of straps may be varied, according to the requirements, but there must be suflicient number to effectively support the tank and carry the load thereof.
The tank is held down on thesupporting straps 43 by top straps 50, which are steel members having suitable lining Fig. 16, like the lining ll of the supporting straps. Each of these holddown straps terminates at its end in an internally threaded flttin'g- I3.- .'--A cooperating internally h held to the pipe 33 by a strap 55 embracing the pipe and riveted to the threaded pin, therefore constitute a turnbuckle for tightening the strap. when tightened, its
1 position is held by a lock-nut 59 on the pin. A
Longitudinal shifting of the tank in the cradle" is prevented by two or more straps 60, 6| (Figs. '7 and 8) which are anchored to the upright 3| at the end of the side, and extend across the lower portion of the tank, and are tightened by turn-buckle 62 in the same manner as just described for the hold-down straps. The end straps are so located as to avoid interference with the discharge valve a of the tank, which, on account of the insulating and vitreous linings, is frequently some distance above the extreme bottom of the tank shell. 'By engaging the lower portion of the tank, they encounter a part of the tank head'well braced by the side wall and thus cannot eflect any distortion of the tank.
It will be seenthat the supporting straps, the hold-down straps, and the end straps, while effectively attaching the tankto the cradle, support the tank in such manner as will not distort it or throw any strain upon it, thus avoiding any tendency to crack the lining or otherwise injure it. Likewise, this method of support enables the same cradle to be used with tanks of various size or shapes, as indicated, for instance, by comparison of Figs. 4 and 5.
In order to protect the end of the tank during transfer or transportation, and protect the discharge valves on such end, I provide adjustable guards at each end. These guards are preferably made of pipe sections which may be se cured together by threaded fittings. Thus, each guard, as shown, comprises a horizontal intermediate pipe lll, terminating in two T-fittings H, the outer sleeves of which are inclined up wardly. Into these inclined portions extend diagonal pipes 12 which terminate in elbows 13 aligned with the upper chord 80 of the side truss. Mounted in the other opening of the elbow 13 v are short pipe extensions I4. Similar pipe extensions 15 are mounted in the longitudinal openings of the, T's 'll,'and slidably occupy stationary tubes 11, secured to the longitudinal sill extensions ll of the base frame. I
It will be seen that the end guard described provides an adjustable skeleton construction which may be telescoped with reference to the cradle to' occupy a proper position beyond the end of the tank. The guard is held in this position I by suitable cross pins I8 (Fig. 10) and 19 (Fig. 15) passing through the respective extensions 16,
I5, and the pipes they occupy. These pins may.
themselves beheld in place by suitable cotter pins, not shown. The adjustable guard described isteifective in preventing end blows, which might happen during the transfer or transportation of the tank, from reaching the tank itself.
- I provide suitable means adjustable for dif fer'ent-sized tanksfor the attachment of the lifting mechanism. As shown, there extends into each vertical tube 32 of the side truss an upright,
tubular member 80 (Figs. 7, 10, "and, 11) ,the upper end 8| of which is flattened about an enlarged lower end of a hook 82, thus attaching the tubular member to the hook. The member 80 slides through an opening in the embracing strap 31 of the diagonal member 35 and through the pipe 30 into the pipe 32,
The vertical lift post 80 is lockedin its desired position by means of a key 85, which is shown as having a pair of tongues-extending through any pair of a number of openings 86 in the upright pipe 32, and through registering openings 81 in the post 80. One of the tongues of the key may have an opening in its end to receive a cotter pin, not shown. The connecting portion of the double tongue 85 is bent around the pipe 32, so as to be out of the way.
' The upper end of the vertical lift post 80, whatever its position, is braced by a diagonal member 90, secured to such upper end, and secured at the lower end of the diagonal member to a clip 92, slidably embracing the pipe 30 and clamped by a bolt 93. The two posts all, on opposite sides of the cradle are braced by a cross-bar 95, which is secured to the post 80 and to the diagonal member 90. I have illustrated, for instance, a cap screw 96, passing through the flattened portion of the post 80, and through the diagonal bar 86), and threaded. into the cross pipe 95. w It will be seen that the hook is effectively braced laterally and longitudinally. The cross-rod stands above the tank in such position as to be out of contact with it, but it is desirable that it be only a short distance above the tank, and that the lift posts do not project to an unnecessary height; the adjustment by means of removable key 85 provides for this. When a tank of less height is employed, the loosening of 'the clip bolt 93 and the removal of the key allows the post at to be lowered. It is secured in its new position by a replacement of the key in other holes 86, Bi, and the reclamping of the clip 92 in its new position.
To enable the cradle to interlock eflectively A with the railway car or truck, as thecase may be,
I provide sockets within the corners of the base frame, which are adapted. to receive projections rising from the vehicle after the manner of my Fatent Number 1,772,939, issued August 12th, 1930. As shown in Figs 9, 14, and 15 of the present application, the socket Q is made by an upwardly pressed portion of a gusset plate Ifll, secured to the end sill l2, and the longitudinal sill member M. This gusset plate may also be secured to, or form a part of, the reinforcing member 33, which, as shown in Fig. 15, has vertical, longitudinal and transverse webs engaging the side and end sill members.
The cavity of the socket I00 is preferably cylindrical for a short distance and then conical. I provide a horizontal longitudinal opening through the cylindrical portion of the cavity which is adapted to be occupied by a pin I permanently but movably attached to the cradle by a chain 106; *If it is desired to lock the cradle to the vehicle, the pins I05 may be passed through the openings in the socket wall and through corresponding openings in the projections of the vehicle, and the pin sealed by a car seal passing through an opening! in the end portion of the pin; These locking pins provide against any possible uplifting eifect of surging liquids in tanks not fullyloaded, as well as to furnish assurance by the seal that the tank has remained in place throughout the period covered thereby.
It will be understood fromthe description given that the cradle above shown is comparatively light, considering the size thereof, and is.
still strong and stiff. Being composed primarily of piping and structural shapes, it' may be cheaply manufactured. The method of mounting the tank in the cradle effectively secures the tank in permanent position in the cradle without sub-- jecting the tank to unnecessary stresses. -By
providing the open space intermediately at the ample free space into which the upper portion of the truck wheels may extend. The longitudinal intermediate sills of the base frame are adapted to register with the longitudinal sills on the truck frame, so that the load may be directly supp rted by the truck chassis.
The positioning members on the cradle, matching with hooks on my standard demountable bodies, enable the cradle with its tank to be mounted at once on any truck or flat car, equipped for those bodies. This provides for the interchangeable use of the tank with the standard demountable' bodies, enabling the employment of the truck or flat car for useful work at a time when the cradle with its tank is demounted therefrom. It will be noticed also that the cradle has a flat base, so that it may'readily be supported on any station platform on which it may stand during cleaning or loading or at other times when it is not mounted on the vehicle. The cradle is accordingly adapted for varying conditions of use, depending upon the nature of the industry in which it is employed.
1. A tank cradle comprising in combination a base frame and upstanding sides with longitudinal beams at their tops, straps secured to the beams on the opposite sides and depending therefrom in curves, a tank resting on said straps,
and other straps extending over the top of the tank for holding the tank down on the lower straps, said straps cooperating to carry the tank in such manner that it may sway within narrow limits between the upstanding sides, but out of contact therewith.
2. A portable tank cradle unit comprising in combination a substantially rigid frame including a base'and upstanding sides, means on the frame adapted to'engage a hoist for raising the cradle, the sides including longitudinal beams extending substantially the entire length of the cradle, a horizontal tank suspended from the beams, bracing means connecting the beams to the. base and comprising strut members extending substantially upright between the beams and base on respective sides of the tank, and transverse strut members connecting the beams and base, the latter strut members extending beneath the tank.
' 3. A tank cradle comprising a base and substantially rigid upstanding sides, each of said sides including a horizontal pipe, straps connected at their opposite ends to said pipes and depending therefrom, a horizontal tank resting on said straps, said. pipes being disposed substantially at the median horizontal plane of the tank, and other straps oppositely connected with the pipe and passing over the tank to cooperate with the lower straps in securing the tank in position for limited lateral swaying movement with respect to the frame.
4. The combination of a base frame, upstanding sides, straps secured to the sides and extending in curves across the space above the base frame, each strap being bent around a member of the side and having its end portion terminating in 6 upwardly extending hook, a clip embrac g the strap and having a pin occupying the hook, said clip engagingv the underside of the side member which the strap' embraces, and a tank resting on the, straps in which pomtion the weight of the tank locksuthe clipsto their re spective side members.
i 5. In atank cradle, having a base and sides, metal straps depending'between the sides, fabric frame and sides, a tank above the base frame andbetween the sides, and a guard beyond the end of the tank connected intermediately with the base frame and having inclined end portions extending across the tank ends at the corners of the cradle and connected with the upper part of the sides.
'l. The combination of a cradle having a base frame and sides, means carried by the sides for suspending a tank between the sides, and telescoping extensions of the cradle for protecting the tank ends and means. to fasten said extensions rigid with the cradieframe. I
8. The combination of a cradle having a base frame and sides, cradle lift hooks carried by the sides, means for supporting a tank above the base frame and partially between the sides, said base frame and sides having longitudinally extending open-ended pipes, and end guards having longitudinal members telescoping into said open-ended pipes.
9. In a cradle adapted to carry a tank,.the combination of a base frame and sides. said base frame having intermediately located longitudinally extending open ended pipes adjacent the endof the frame and said sides having openended pipes adjacent their tops, and a telescoping end guard standing clear of the tank and having intermediately located lower longitudinal members adapted to telescope with the pipes of the base frame and extreme upper longitudinal members adapted to telescope with the pipe of the sides. i
10. The combination of a cradle having a base frame with upstanding sides, vertical posts hav-- ing hoist engaging members at their upper ends, means for adjustably securing the posts to the sides, transverse braces between the posts of opposite sides, a tank below the transverse braces and above the base frame and extending partially between the sides, and means carried by the sides for suspending said tank and at the same time permitting it to shift with respect to the cradle.
11. In a cradle of the character described, the combination of a base frame, sides connected to the base frame, means for supporting a tank above the base frame and partially between-the sides, the sides including upright tubular members, lifting posts telescoping into said tubular members, the tubular members and lifting posts having openings adapted to register, and keys adapted to occupy the openings for supporting posts at different elevations. 12. A cradle having a base frame and sides, a tank, members extending from side to side of the cradle for supporting the tank, vertically adjustable lifting members extenifing upwardly from the sides, diagonal braces leading from the upper ends of the vertical members downwardly to the sides, means for adjustably clamping the lower ends of such diagonal braces to thesides,
and a cross bar connected to thevertical lift members on opposi sides.
'13. A cradle adapted for interchangeable mounting on a railway car or truck, said cradle having a base frame with intermediate side openings into which the truck wheels may -extend, upstanding sides carried by the base frame, arid means extending from one side to the other for supporting a tank, together with positioning means whereby the cradle is retained on the carrier on which it is deposited.
14. In a cradle of the character described, the combination of a base frame having a pair of intermediately located longitudinal side sills, transverse end sills, transverse intermediate members adjacent the end sills, and longitudinal sill members at the ends of the intermediate members and the end sills, said base frame having an open space on the outer sides of the intermediate longitudinal sills and between the intermediate cross sills into which the wheels of the truck may extend, and side members connected to the base frame, and means for carrying the tank partially between the side members.
15. A cradle for carrying a tank comprising a base frame having longitudinal intermediate sills and transverse end sills, sides having longitudinal members connected by uprights with the end portions of the end sill, and transverse upwardly bent members secured intermediately to the intermediate longitudinal sills, and secured at their ends to the longitudinal members of the sides.
16. In a cradle, the combination of a base frame having intermediately located longitudinal sills and transverse end sills, sides connected to the end sills, upwardly-curved intermediatelylocated transverse beams intermediately connected to the longitudinal sills and connected at their ends to the sides, a horizontal tank supported between the sides and above said curved beams and means carried by the cradle to position it on a support.-
17. A tank carrier unit, comprising interconnected spaced upright substantially rigid frame members, a horizontal tank disposed between the frame members in spaced relation thereto, a setqof transverse flexible straps oppositely anchored to the frame members and passing beneath the tank to yieldingly suspend it, and anabove the base frame and forming rigid struts for the sides between said connections.
19. A tank cradle unit, comprising a tank adapted to contain liquid, a cradle on which the tank is mounted, hoist attaching means on the cradle comprising lift barsextending above the top of the tank, a rigid frame work for supporting said means, said framework including diagonal bracing members extending from said bars to the cradle longitudinally of the cradle, and horizontal members connecting said bars and extending over the tank, whereby the eradle and tank can be lifted as a unit without danger of damaging the tank..
20. In a portable tank cradle unit, comprising a base frame, and upstanding sides, suspending means secured to the sides extending transversely above the base frame, and a tank resting on said means, means cooperating with the suspending means to secure the tank, said tank having bulging ends, and retaining means supported by the cradle and extending from side to side thereof in face to face contact with said bulging ends below the horizontal median plane of the tank to prevent endwisemovement of the tank in the cradle while permitting removal of the tank from the cradle without disturbing said retaining means. g
\ BENJAMIN F.