US 2348074 A
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May 2, 1944. c. J. LAMBERTSEN 2,348,074
BREATHING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 16. 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Inve nL'or: C. 3'. Lqmberfszn y 19444 c. J. LAMBERTSEN BREATHING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 16 1940 3 Shee'ts-Sheet 2 Inventor-:- C.J'. Lumber-Esau.
y 2, 1944- v c. J. LAMBERTSEN 2,348,074
BREATHING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 16, 1940 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Inventor- CJI Lambzrtsen Patented May 2, 1944 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE v 2,348,074 BREATHING APPARATUS Christian J. Lambertsen, Philadelphia, Pa. Application December 16, 1940, Serial No. 310,242 4 Claims. (or. 128142) My invention relates to breathing apparatus for delivering it in a suitably regulated stream for use under. water and in noxious gases, and to a point within the breathing line where the has for its object to provide means for supplying pure oxygen will be suitably mixed with rea limited amount of oxygen carried by a light breathed gases and'at the same time go to the easily attached harness so that a wearer of the breather in an efiectlve form and build up an apparatus may descend to very considerable advance charge of oxygen at the end of exhaladepths of water and remain at such depths for tion to be taken into the lungs immediately upon a sufilcient length of time to make aproper search restoring inspiration. for the recovery of bodies of persons drowned or p It is a further object of my invention to mount drowning, recover objects and the like. l0 all of the various instrumentalities upon a har- The apparatus also can be efiectivelyused for ness adapted to slip over the upper part of the similar searching purposes in regions where there body and to be easily attached thereto, in conare noxious gases such as are found in mines junction with a breathing mask made waterwhere explosions have occurred, wells, rooms and tight, and with an exhaling valve that'is waterspaces that have been shut for a long time and tight, and which mask is adapted to be held upon rooms and spaces filled with smoke or other unthe face of the wearer. breathable contaminations following or in com The full objects and advantages of my invennection with fires. tion will appear in connection with the detailed Ordinary diving apparatus requires a regular description thereof and its novel features by diving suit and helmet and suitable a r pumps which the abov nqted advantageous results are for supplying the requisite amount of air to the secured will be particularly pointed out in the wearer, also a crew, at least one man to operate claims. the pumps. Such dividing apparatus, from its In the drawings illustrating an application of very nature, cannot be available in the vast mamy invention in one form: jority of cases of' need, such as above outlined, Fig. l is a front elevation view showing the apparticularly in inland regions. My apparatus, paratus as worn. however, involving, as itdoes, only a snlall outlay Fig; 2' is a similarly disposed rear view. for expense and capable of being quickly put on Fig. 3 is a side sectional view through the and taken on by the wearer, unassisted by any breathing apparatus.
crew members, and being entirely self-contained Fig. 4 is a sectional elevation view'through the in the supply ofoxygen, is well adapted to meet reducing valve for delivering oxygen from a th eneral need which cannot be suppli d by compressed oxygen tank to the breathing line.
regulation diving pp at Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional view showing t is a particular o j t f my nv n ther the means of connecting the breathing tube to fore, to provide a breathing unit adapted to supth reducing valve.
P y Oxygen which ha ounte O 8- ess Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on line 6--B of structure easily applied to the body all of the F 3 m nt ssa y t pp y xy en to the Fig. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 1-1 of wearer in a. closed breathing circuit. Fig
Inasmuch a the cir i x ept for a small Fig. 8 is a sectional view through one of the amount of escape of exhalations, isclosed, I also rebreathing bags d t t b leading t w provide means for permitting full exhalationand Fig 9 Shows a modified form of rebreathjng inhalation, and it is an object of my invention bag and oxygen supply and means of securing to provide such means so related to the pressure th absorber container in the system. at any depth to which the wearer may go as to Fig. 10 is an enlarged view partly in sectionmaintain the breathing at a properly adjusted showing the manner of connection of the reducpressure. I ing valve to the compressed,oxygen tank.
It is a further object of my invention to cause As illustrated, a supporting harness is provided the gases which are inhaled and exhalted to pass comprising a front plate It] to which is secured through means for withdrawing from it its car- 5i) shoulder straps II and I! connected by a breast bon dioxide content, specifically a reservoir oi strap 13. The shoulder straps II and I2 are carbon dioxide absorbing material, such as soda further connected by a back strap M leaving an lime. ample opening between shoulder'straps II' and It is a further object of my invention to prol2 andbetweenbreast strap I 3 and back strap vide means for carrying a supply of oxygen and H. The shoulder straps and I: are continued belowplate it in extensions l5 and I6, Fig. 1, which are secured to a waistband strap I1 adapted to be secured ar'ound the waist of the wearer by an end tab I3 passing through a buckle I9, Fig. 1.
The shoulder-straps II and I2 are also at their back secured to the waistband I1.
A second back strap 23 is secured to the shoulder straps II and I2, Fig. 2. This has portions 2i and 22 which extend beyond the respective margins ofthe shoulder straps II and I2 and are secured to tabs 23 and depending from the shoulder straps II and I2 adjacent their points of union with the back strap I4.-
A pair ofrebreathing bags as a d 20, Fig. 2. V
are connected by tubes 21 and 23 that pass under *not claim the structural features of this exhaling valve as my invention and have illustrated it here for the purpose of shdwing its operation in 1 the combination which does constitute my invention.
the arms or the wearer, as shown, with apparatus later to be described, at the front of the harness, and the upper end of these tubes and the rebreathing bags 23 and 23 are in turn supported by clamp members 29 and 33 surrounding the tubes and secured to the tabs 23 and 24, as shown in F18. 2.
Details of the rebreathing bag are shown in F18. 8 wherein a union 3I receives the neck 32 of the reb'reathing bag, and the clamp 33 (or-29) locks the tube and rebreathlng bag to the tab 24 3| which extends up into the rebreathing bag and is provided with a suitable number of side perforations 33 and a top perforation 33.
As shown in Fig. l, the tubes 21 and 23 are secured by clamps 31 and 33 to the waistband l1 and are connected together by a T-union 33. The union 39 is connected by a tube 43 with the centrally opening neck 4I of a casing 42 which is secured by a clamp 43 to the plate III. The casing 42 is provided with a central nipple 44 forming an outlet opening 43. Within the chamber 43 of casing 42 are perforated partitions 41 and 43. Upon partition 43 rests a body 49 of absorbent material such as soda lime. It will be noted that the end'plates 33 and SI of casing 42 are conical in shape so there are spaces 32 and 33 above the perforated partition 41 and below partition 43 respectively. I
Secured to nipple 44 is a main breathing tube 54 preferably corrugated and which may be reinforced by metal rings 55, Fig. 3, to certainly guard against collapse. The tubes 21 and 23 may be similarly corrugated and reinforced. The tube 54 is connected to union 36 and in turn the union 53 is connected to an outlet tube 51 of .the top of .the mask at 65 and runs over the head of the wearer as indicated at 36 and is secured by a buckle 31 with a second tab 63 fastened at 39 to the back band 63. With this form of mask the nose and mouth of the wearer are encased in a chamber 13 opening directly below The valve 12 is provided with a cap 13 threaded as indicated at 13 upon a cylindrical member 11, Fig. '7, there being thus formed a chamber 13 within the space limited by the cap 15 and the threaded extension 11. A boss 19 is held in engagement with the top 33 of the cap 13, and surrounding this boss is a compression spring 3| which engages a flange portion 32 surrounding I the top of boss 19. The boss 19 has a threaded portion 33 extending through an opening 34 in the ca top 33 and is secured in position by a nut 35 th eaded on said extension 33.
Across the opening 33 within nipple extension 13 is positioned a perforated disc 31 and held to float freely within the threaded extension 11 is a disc 39 of highly flexible material such as lastex, which is adapted, on inhalation, not only to seal against the raisedvalve seat edge 33, butalso to I seal against the perforated disc 31, thus giving a much larger sealing area than is true of the customary valve, sealing against a single annular ridge. The flexible disc 33-is held against the valve seat 33 by contact with the face of a disc member 143 having a stem l4l passing through an aperture in the center of boss 19. The degree of pressure of the spring may be varied as desired by means of the cap 30 which carries on its face a series of calibrations (9 to "13," as given) designated by the numeral I43,
Fig. 6. The calibrations areadapted to register with a pointer I44 fast on the extension 14. It is also true that the spring 3| is of a diameter such that it exerts its pressure directly above the annular edge 33, thus additionally insuring effective sealing action. The extension 11 is provided with a multiplicity of laterally opening apertures for permitting discharge of a certain small percentage of exhaled air.
It will be apparent from the above description that. breathing, so far as inhalation goes, must come from entirely within the system, since the exhaling valve structure, above defined, is such as to instantly shut at! any ingress of fluid through the valve, which of course it must do when the apparatus is submerged in water. It follows that for maintaining life a supply of oxygen must be introduced into the breathing passage.
To efiect this a tank 9| containing a suitable amount of compressed oxygen is held in a stirrup 92 which is secured to loops 93 and 94, in turn fastened respectively upon the straps 22 and I1. A buckle strap 95 secures the tank 9| in the pocket thus formed. A valve 96 positioned at the top of tank 9| is adapted to be opened after the apparatus has been put on, being conveniently positioned for reach of the hand over the shoulder.
Secured to a connector 91 extending from the neck 93 of tank BI is a reducing valve 99 which is provided with a duct I00, Fig. 10, leading therefrom. This duct leads to a chamber IOI, Fig. 4. A second chamber H0 is closed by a flexible diaphragm I02 engaged by a follower I03 contacted by a strong compression spring I04. A valve disc I in chamber IOI is adapted to engage a valve seat I 05 and has connected therewith a pusher pin I01 which engages the diaphragm I02 and follower I03 so that the pressure of spring I04 tends to push the valve plate I05 away from the valve seat I06 and permit flow of gas to chamber IIO, through passages 7 III, from whence it may feed through port I08 and chamber I09 to delivering tube H3. The pressure of the gas upon diaphragm I02 will counteract the pressure of spring I04 and cause the gas to be delivered to tube H3 at a suitably predetermined reduced pressure in a well known way. i
The oxygen tube I I3, as clearly shown inFig. 1, is held by a clamp II4 to breathing tube 28 and is connected at II5 with a connector tube elbow II6 which makes a right angle turn in passageway 55, Fig. 6. To the elbow connector H6 is secured a flexible tube II1 which has its end II8 close to the opening 86' into thetinhaling valve I2. An opening H9 is also provided in the side of tube 1.
As shown in detail in Figs. 4 and 5, particularly in Fig. 5, chamber I09 in valve block I20 is provided with a threaded opening I2I. Within the opening I2I is screwed an externallythreaded extension I22 of a connector block I23, to the end of which the delivery tube H3 is secured, the connector block being formed with a nut portion I24, as clearly shown. The extension I22 is provided with a chamber I25 in which is a block I26 formed with a threaded boss I21 which is screwed into an internally threaded central opening I28 in the block I23. A small aperture I29 leads centrally through the block from chamber I25 and connects with a larger aperture I30 which in turn connects with. aperture I.3I leading through to the inside of tube H3. The aperture I29 constitutes a limit port, which controls the rate of flow of oxygen at the delivery pressure set so as to deliver the proper volume'of oxygen into the breathing line. A sealing washer I32 is engaged by block I26. A filter pad I33 closes the top of chamber I25 be tween it and chamber I09 thus filtering all oxygen which passes into the breathing line to prevent dust or metal flakes passing to the lungs.
In place of the rebreathing bag arrangement shown in Fig. 1, a variant for use in toxic atmospheres is illustrated in Fig. 9, whereby the casing 43 is directly connected to shoulder straps II and I2 by a metallic .clamping member I34. From the lower end of the casing 43 is suspended a rebreathing bag I35. The oxygen tube I I3 is carried downwardly to the bottom of bag I35, as indicated at I36.
The advantages of my invention will be apparent from the foregoing description thereof. The construction can be donned with extraordinary rapidity, it being necessary only to put together and pull up three buckle strap members I8--I9, 63 and 01, then turn on the oxygen through manipulation of knob 96 and the apparatus is ready for use either for a descent under the water or for movement into a space filled with noxious vapors. Owing to the fact that the flexible breathing bags are subject to the same pressure as is the chest and body of the wearer, breathing will in effect be at normal pressure; that is, the internal and external pressures on the lung cavity will be balanced at Theentire arrangement is one of balance. Normally it will be adjusted in weight so that when submerged its buoyancy balances its sinking tendency. However, obviously weights can be added to permit walking under a body of water where desired.
The breathing of the wearer is normal and comfortable. Although the face and eyes and ears are exposed as shown, obviously protectors covering the eyes and ears may beemployed if that is desirable. In breathing, exhalation will take place normally to fill the rebreathing bags, to be followed by.some exhaust through the exhalation valve I2 of those gases most heavily charged with carbon dioxide. The exhalation going to the rebreathing bags will meet the stream of oxygencoming from the end H8 and side opening II9 of tube II! and will carry some of said oxygen along with it through the absorber material 49 where carbon dioxide will be removed. The resulting mixture in the rebreathing bags and as it comes to the wearer's ,lungs will contain an amount of oxygen in excess of that required for the needs of the wearer under the most severe conditions of exertion, yet
there is subs'tantiallyno waste of oxygen so the tube I ll will be taken into the lungs, This operation may be repeated as long as the supply of oxygen from tank 9| is available. Obviously the length of time which the apparatus may be used may be varied as conditions require by varying the size of the oxygen tank 9|. The exhaling valve is not only adapted to operate so as to expel exhalation most heavily charged with carbon dioxide, but this also relieves excess pressure 'within the'system from over-distension of the rebreathing bags. Further, when the apparatus is employed under water the exhaling valve, while permitting escape of exhalation, will absolutely seal against inlet of water upon inhalation or when breathing is not taking place.
As above pointed out the' harness is particularly adapted for rapid and simple donning and is designed to flt individuals of different sizes and shapes. The position of the rebreathing bags at the shoulders of the wearer keeps them from interfering with the movements of the wearer and at the same time gives quick response to the wearer's breathing, the large tubular passageways running from the rebreathing bag being particularly effective for permitting ready flow of breathing gases to and from the rebreathing bags. The breathing tube from the soda lime container is reinforced with metal of lead to give some needed weight to the apparatus for descending under the water.
The entire arrangement is such as to be com-' fortably and easily worn leaving the body of the wearer entirely unhampered. The breathing arrangement is such that adequate oxygen is supplied freed from undesirable quantities of carbon dioxide for periods of time determined whatever depth in the water the wearer may go. 76 by the size of the oxygen-containing tank, which alsooperates as'a weightfor aiding the wearer to descend to desired depths'in the water, and, taken'in connection with the .lead plate and absorber casing at the'front oi thebody, produces a balanced distribution. of weight under the water.
While a principal us of the apparatus is in connection with searches and work under water, it is obvious that it can be used for, respiration in any space where there is toxic or poisonous gases or deficiency of oxygen.
Although the apparatus can be used in exactly the form adapting it for use under water, the'modification oi. Fig. 9 may be-employed in atmosphere. where water pressure and bouyancy does not require balance of arrangement and of weight distribution, which, however, are essential for use of the apparatus atrany considerable depth of water.
1. Breathing apparatus for uk under water andin noxious gases, comprising a harness having front and rear portions and adapted to be readily secured on the upper part of the body,
a mask with means for securing the mask upon theiface of a wearer so as to be gas-tight and water-tight, a breathing tube secured to the front of the harness, -a pair ofextensions from said breathing tube running around and to the back of the harness, a rebreathing bag supported by each of said extensions at the back of the harness, an oxygen tank removably carried, in a vertical positiontas worn at the center of the back of the harness; means for supplying a regulated volume of oxygen to the breathing tube, andan exhalation valve for permitting escape of some exhalation gas: against water pressure and automaticallysealing against such pressure upon inhalation.
2. Breathing apparatus for use under water and in noxious gases, comprising a harness hav-- ing front and rear portions and adapted toibe readily secured on the upper part of the body, a breathing tube includingitherein a casing holding a body of carbon dioxide absorbent material such as soda lime supported at the center of the front of the harness, a mask with means for securing the mask upon the face of a wearer so as to be gas-tight and water-tight having breathing connection with said breathing tube,
a pair of extensions from said breathing tube running around and to the back of the harness, a rebreathing bag supported by each of said exposition to be.readily removed and applied to the body of the wearer by a belt adapted to be secured around theiwaist of the wearer, a mask removably secured in sealing relation upon the face of the wearer, a breathing tube connected with the mask and including an expanded casing forming a chamber holding a body-"of carbon dioxide material such as soda lime, ..-said breathing tube and easing secured along the vertical central front of the harness, a rebreathing bag a secured to the back of the harness and having connection with the breathing tube below the absorber casing at the belt of the wearer, an oxygen tank removably supported along the vertical center of the back 01' the harness, an
exhalation valve opening into abreathing tube close to the mask, and an oxygen supply tube extending from the oxygen tank into the breathing tube above and close to the sorber casing and extending through the breathing tube to discharge oxygen close to but below the exhaling valve. I
4. Breathing apparatus for use under water, comprising a harness having'iront and rear portions passing over the shoulders and held in position to be readily removed and applied to the body of the wearer by an adjustable belt passing around the waist of the wearer, a weighted plate secured to the frontpart of the harness above the: belt, a carbon dioxide absorber casing secured to said plate at the center of the front of the harness, a mask sealed on the face of the wearer, a breathing tube extending therefrom and connected on each side of the absorber casing, a rebreathing bag supported at the back of the harness and having connection with said breathing tube below the absorber casing, an oxygen tank removably carried at the center of the back of the harness, and means for deliver- "ing-oxygen from the tank to the breathing tube tensions at the back of the harness. adjacent above the absorber casing, the arrangement of tank and plate and parts carried by the plate being relatively such as to give balanced distribution of weight.
CHRISTIAN J. LAMBERTSEN.