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Numéro de publicationUS2793038 A
Type de publicationOctroi
Date de publication21 mai 1957
Date de dépôt13 août 1954
Date de priorité13 août 1954
Numéro de publicationUS 2793038 A, US 2793038A, US-A-2793038, US2793038 A, US2793038A
InventeursEdrich Joseph G, Frank Sterne, Wallace Bert H
Cessionnaire d'origineEdrich Joseph G, Frank Sterne, Wallace Bert H
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet
Running target
US 2793038 A
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Description  (Le texte OCR peut contenir des erreurs.)

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INVENTORS BERT H. WALLACE FRANK STERTNE JOSEPH G. EDRICH &F. 2 7

ATTORNEYS RUNNING TARGET B. H. WALLACE ETAL May 21, 1957 Filed Aug. 15, 1954 y 1957 B. H. WALLACE ETAL. 2,793,038

RUNNING TARGET Filed Aug. 13, 1954 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 N T 0 I O 0 O O O g v E a o o g g 0 1 I 2 I I 5 g g g n O O 0 O INVENTORS BERT H. WALLACE FRANK STERNE JOSEPH G. EDRIGH ATTORNEYS May 21, 1957 Filed.Aug. 15, 1954 B. H. WALLACE ETAL RUNNING TARGET 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTORS BERT H. WALLACE FRANK STERNE JOSEPH G. EDRIGH ATTORNEYS;

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r"-"- 23 l V r LATERAL omv: rowan l I I PHASE Low spszo uomn I seoueuc: l l wmpme l2- 224 LEFT RIGHT 3 T men SPEED wmome 22s spasm came: lso MASTER OONSOLEJ nunume TARGET use INVENTORS BERT H. WALLACE FRANK STERNE ATTORNEYS RUNNING TARGET Bert H. Wallace, Kew Gardens, and Frank Sterne and Joseph G. Edrich, New York, N. Y., assignors to the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy Application August 13, 1954, Serial No. 449,806

12 Claims. (Cl. 273-105.2)

This invention relates to a device for accurately testing the combat efficiency of ground troops passing through a combat course. The device of the invention is effective with all forms of small arms such as rifie, automatic rifle and machine gun fire.

it is customary to practice firing at a target to increase proficiency in shooting. Both stationary and moving targets are provided and the trainee practices firing from several positions at these targets. Such devices are used by the armed services and law enforcement agencies in training their personnel. To provide a moving target, a trench is provided in which a person can stand concealed from view. This person holds a target above the top of the trench and Walks therealong, the trainee firing at this moving target. As is obvious, such methods are cumbersome and inelficient. Mechanical systems used are complicated in construction.

The instant device is designed to provide a means for accurately testing the efliciency of the trainee in shooting at a moving target. The invention is designed to enable a target to be moved laterally over a fixed distance, and is capable, at the same time, of being independently raised and lowered. The speed of movement of the target is carefully controlled and remote control means to record the number of hits are also provided. The device will record hits from any projectile in the range of .22 to .50 caliber and up to a rate of about 1000 rounds per minute. The target is controlled to lower when it receives its first hit, or to remain in raised position for a selected time interval, recording all hits, and lowering into concealed position after the predetermined time has elapsed.

A primary object of the invention is to provide a device for training personnel passing through a combat, or transition course.

Another important object of the invention is to train personnel in the accurate use of arms against a moving target.

Another primary object of the invention is to control the target by remotely located means.

Another object of the invention is to control the lateral position of the target, as well as the exposed or concealed positions thereof, by remote control.

Still another object of the invention is to automatically register and record hits on the target.

Yet another object of the invention is to provide means to mount a target for movement in a lateral direction.

Still another object of the invention is to control the rate of movement of the target by providing for selected speeds.

Yet another object of the invention is to automatically stop the target at its limit of travel.

And another object of the invention is to provide a time control to limit the time target remains exposed to view, during which time the trainee attempts to score as many hits as possible.

A more specific object of the invention is to provide nited States Patent 2 tubular rail means upon which the target is mounted for lateral travel.

Another specific object of the invention is to provide a cable secured to said target and extending through the rail to provide the means to move the target at a selected speed.

Yet another specific object of the invention is to pr0- vide a link construction capable of moving the target in a full free arc of rotation.

Another specific object of the invention is to provide limit switches on the tubular rails to automatically stop the target at its limit of travel.

Other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. 1 is an elevation of the invention;

Fig. 2 is a plan view of the base containing the means to operate the target (with the top or cover plate removed) and is taken on line 22 of Figure 1;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail of the mounting means for the target and is taken on line 3--3 of Fig. 1 when the target is in a partly lowered position;

Fig. 4 is a bottom view of the mounting means shown in Fig. 3 with the rails removed;

Fig. 5 is a detail of the linkage used to raise or lower the target and is taken on line 5-5 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 6 is an enlarged detail sectional vieW of the hollow rail connection and is taken on line 6-6 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 7 is a functional block diagram of the device;

Fig. 8 is a schematic of the running target lateral control circuits, and

Fig. 9 is a schematic of the control circuit for the exposure and concealment of the target.

Referring to Fig. 1, the invention is indicated generally at 10 and comprises a remote control panel 12 connected, by cable means 14, to a target control base 16. Target 18 rides on rail assembly 20, which assembly is in turn operatively connected to control base 16.

The moving target trainer 10 is assembled as shown in Figure 1 and is secured to the ground in any desired manner. Rail assembly 20 comprises a pair of tubular rail members 22 and 24, welded together in spaced apart relation at 26. While rail members 22 and 24 may be constructed of a single piece of tubular stock, problems of storage and portability may make it expedient to construct the rails in several sections. In assembling, the ends of the tubes are carefully aligned and are secured together. End support 28, intermediate supports 30, and drive box 32, housing the target control structure 16, retain rail assembly 20 in spaced, parallel relation to the ground. Supports 30 are adjustable at 34 to enable the rail members to be retained horizontally level. End support 28 is provided with a pillow block member 36 which aligns with a hollow end shaft 38 secured to the outer extremity of lower rail 22. Upper rail 24 is narrower than rail 22 and is slightly shorter in length. Emergency stop switches 40 are mounted in any manner, as by bolts 42, at each end of rail 22. They are positioned a short distance inwardly from the free extremities of the rail. In this manner, target 18 cannot override the length of the rail 22, but is automatically stopped at this limit of travel.

Rail 22 is secured for rotation with tubular drive shaft 44 by means of drive coupling 46 and coupling disk 48. Disk 48 is secured to tube 22 at 50 and is bolted at 52 to coupling member 46. Shaft 44 extends through drive assembly 32 into tubular rail member 22 and is designed to provide means for expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature, if desired. l

Figures 1, 3 and 4 disclose in detail the means to mount and retain target 18 on rail assembly 20. Carriage 54 is the carrier assembly for target 18 and comprises a pair of plates 56 which are held apart in spaced relation by means of tie rods 58 extending through suitable apertures in the plate members.

Bracket 59 is bolted at 60 to plates 56 at a suitably cut-out portion and spans the space between them. A

dampener plate 62 is secured at 64 to target 18 in position between bracket 59 and the target. Dampener 62 serves to deaden the sound when a round strikes the target. When desired, a rubber covering 65 is attached to target 18 to further aid in deadening the sound when a round strikes the target. Target 18 is secured to bracket 59 at 66, extending vertically above rail assembly 20 and is parallel thereto.

Plates 56 are provided with circular cut-out sections 68 and 70, and are designed to adjustably receive tubular rails 22 and 24, respectively. U-shaped apertures 72 receive idler roller bearings 74 mounted for rotation and are adapted to bear against the tubular rails. Rail 24 is centered within space 70 by means of bearing adapters 76. Each adapter 76 comprises a threaded shaft section 78 terminating in a forked end section 80. Each adapter is alike in construction and a description for one applies to the others as well. Roller wheel 74 is rotatably received Within fork 80 by means of a threaded bolt 82 extending through tapped holes 84 in fork 80. Plate 56 is bored at 86 to enable adapter 76 to extend therethrough. Lock nuts 88 retain adapter 76 within the plate member. Compression spring 90 resiliently urges adapter 76 and roller 74 against rail member 24. After rail member 24 is centered, lock nuts 88 are adjusted on shaft 7-8 with slight play permitted. Compression means 90 urges roller 74 into engagement with rail member 24. Any imperfection on rail 24 is automatically compensated for, since spring 90 permits adapter 76 to retract, while bearing 74 remains constantly in contact with tubular rail 22.

Rail 24 extends through opening 70 in a manner similar to rail 22. Slot 92 joins openings 68 and 70 to provide a passage for spacing members 26 and enables carriage 54 to carry target 18 from one extreme on rail assembly 20 to the opposite end. Limit switch arm 94 is secured to plates 56 beneath target 18 and engages limit switch 40, one at each end of rail 24, to stop the lateral movement of target 18. An emergency switch 95 is secured, one at each end of rail 24, beyond switches 40, to act as an emergency stop, in the event target 18 overruns the stop provided by limit switch 40.

The active target area is preferably of steel in the form of a silhouette. A microphone 96 is secured near the bottom of target 18 and produces a signal when a hit is made, the impact sound produced being transmitted through the metal. Any type of microphone may be used, as desired. One form of microphone will cause a diaphragm to be vibrated by the impact of a projectile on target 18 with the main body stationary. The resultant changes in the air gaps between the core and diaphragm causes a variation in the reluctance of the magnetic circuit, and a signal is produced. This signal is transmitted to master console 12 by means of cable 97. Dampener 62 on target 18 is generally of plywood and serves to dampen the impact sound so that it will decrease to zero within the time interval between hits.

Figure 1 illustrates remote control panel 12. Switch 98 represents the function switch and is the means by posed for the timeinterval determined by the operator and then will automatically lower. When the target reaches its fully exposed or fully concealed position, the corresponding pilot lamp 104 will become lighted.

Hits are indicated at 106 and may be electrically reset to zero by operation of resetlever 108. Timer 110 permits the selection of any time interval for which the target will remain exposed.

The controls for the running target are found in speed switch 112 and lateral direction switch 114. Switch 112 provides for the selection of two speeds for the lateral motion of the running target. With the switch set on Fast, the running target will move at a basic speed predetermined by a pulley arrangement at the target. When set on Slow, the speed of the running target is reduced to one-half the basic speed setting. Switch 114 controls the direction of movement for target 18.

Where desired, a plastic writing platform 116, attached to console 12, may be utilized by the operator.

Referring to Figure 7, when the target is hit by a projectile, the impact sound or vibration produced is picked up by microphone 96 attached to target 18, and is transmitted by cable 97 to master console 12. In console 12, the signal is amplified at 118 and is used to fire a thyratron 120, which momentarily energizes the hit relay 122. One set of hit relay contacts operates the Hit counter 106, which registers the hit. If switch 98 is on Hit, another set of hit relay contacts closes the circuit to Lower control line, causing the target to become concealed. If switch 98 is on Time, pressing Raise button actuates switch 124 to raise the target and start Timer 110. After the timer has completed its present interval, it closes the circuit to the lower control line, and the target is lowered to its concealed position. When switch 98 is turned to Man, both hit relay 122 and timer are disconnected from the lower control line and the target can be lowered only by manual operation of Lower button 102; When Reset lever 108 of any channel is depressed, reset impulser 126 produces a series of impulses which are applied to Hit counter 106 to reset it to zero.

Running target 18 is mounted on carriage 54 which rides on ball bearings over the two-tube rail 20. The target is raised and lowered by rotating the entire rail by means of a crank and lever mechanism indicated generally at 128 in box drive assembly 32. Provision is made for the expansion and contraction of the rail due to temperature variations. A locating fork 130 (see Figs. 2 and 6) is secured by suitable fastening means 132 to the frame of drive assembly 32 and overlies rocker arm support 134. Locating fork 130 includes depending tongues on fingers 136 positioned at each end of rocker arm support 134 in slightly spaced relation. Shaft 44 retains support 134 in keyway 138. Keyway 138 is slightly longer than support 134 so that a limited sliding movement is possible in the event expansion, due to temperature conditions, takes place. Such movement is limited by the position of fingers 136.

which the operator may select the conditions which con- Pivotally secured to support 134 at 140 i rocker arm 142 (see Figs. 2 and 5), which retains in pivoted relation at 144 a bell-crank lever 146. Lever 146 is connected to motor 148 through reduction gearing 149 and has secured thereon a limit switch cam 150 adapted to actuate up limit switch 162 and down limit switch 176 to control rotation of rail assembly 20. Cam 150 is tightened on lever 146, as shown at 154. Motor 148 is non-reversible and is provided with a magnetic brake. When target 18 reaches the raised position upon rotation of tubular rail 22, up limit switch 162 becomes inactive. In the down position ofthe target the limit switch 176 stops further movement.

A schematic illustration of the control and indicating circuits for exposing and concealing target 18 is shown in Fig. 9. Wl 1en :Raise switch' 100 'is pressed, raise line 158 is grounded, energizing relay 160 in target base 32 through the up limit switch 162 and resistor 164. Contact set 166 of relay 160 holds the relay closed after Raise button 100 is released. Contact 168 in relay 160 closes the circuit to motor control relay 170, which operates, applying power to target motor 148. When the target raises to its fully exposed position, the up limit switch 162 is actuated, breaking the circuit to relay 160. Simultaneously switch 162 grounds line 158, thereby energizing the Raise indicator lamp. During the interval when Raise button 100 is released and relay 160 is still operated (while the target rises), partial voltage is applied through resistor 164 to light the Raise indicator lamp.

When Lower switch 102 is pressed, the lower line 172 is grounded, energizing relay 174 through down switch 176 and resistor 178. Contacts 180 and 182 operate similarly to the Raise contacts and operate motor control relay 170. In a similar manner, Lower lamp 102 is lighted. In addition, control line 172 may be grounded by two other means. With function switch 98 on Hit, contact set 184 of the Hit relay grounds the line when the relay operates due to a hit on the target. When function switch 98 is set on Time, line 172 is grounded through normally closed contact set 186 of the time relay.

Terminal board 188 is designed to compactly retain the required relays, terminals, etc. The lateral movement of target 18 is controlled through operation of lateral drive motor 190. A plurality of pulleys 192, here illustrated as four in number, are rotatably mounted on motor 190 in conventional manner in order to provide for a choice of speed ratios. A complementary number of pulleys 194 are mounted on a shaft 196, retained in pillow blocks 198, and are adapted to be rotated by means of a suitable belt 200 to operate a steel drive chain cable 202. Cable 202 draws target carriage 54 along the rail at a speed set by preselection of the belt 200 on the fourstep pulley combination. Cable 202 is in endless construction and is trained around drive sheave 204, which i mounted on pulley shaft 196 for rotation therewith, and extends through box 32 and between idler rollers 206 to target 18. Clevis means 208 are secured to plates 56 and are slotted at 210 to retain the ends of cable 202 therein by means of bolts 212 and cotter pins 214. Cable 282 extends around idler sheave 216, rotatably mounted between support 218 at the opposite extremity of rail 20. Cable 202 is returned to drive box 32 through tubular rail 22 and drive shaft 44. Turnbuckle 220 is provided to tension cable 202 as required. Drive cable 202 serves as the ground conductor for the microphone out put. The other conductor is a loose wire 97 run along rail 22 to the microphone. If desired, the wire 97 could be arranged below and parallel to the rail and contacted by a brush at target 18.

Merely by way of illustration, four basic speeds are obtainable for the lateral motion of the running target. The desired speed is selected by positioning belt 200 on the four-step pulley combination. A speed equal to onehalf the basic speed is obtainable by setting Slow-Fast switch 112 on master console 12 to the Slow position. Obviously other speed arrangements are possible by varying the pulley combinations. Lever 232 is pivoted about rod 234 connected to motor 190 in order to raise motor 190 when it is desired to change the pulley combinations to provide a selected speed of movement for target 18.

A schematic showing of the running target lateral control circuits is shown in Figure 8. The three phase lines in A, B, C, phase sequence are connected to the input 224 of relay 226. When this relay is operated by throwing the direction switch to the Left position, the three phase output is connected in A, B, C, phase sequence to the input of relay 228 which transmits the power to the low or high speed winding of lateral drive motor 190. The motor connections are such that power applied in A, B, C phase sequence produces target motion to the left.

When relay 226 is not energized, the three phase output is connected in B, A, C phase sequence to the input of relay 230. When relay 230 is operated, by throwing the direction switch 114 to the Right position, the output is connected to relay 228 which, as before, transmits the power to the motor windings. Limit switches 40 mounted on tubular rail 24 open the circuit to relays 226 and 230, respectively when the target dolly reaches the limit of its travel in the left and right directions. When speed switch 112 is in the Fast position, relay 228 is not energized and its normally closed contacts connect the power to the high speed winding of drive motor 190. When switch 112 is in Slow position, relay 228 is energized and the power is transfered to the low speed winding of the motor.

A variety of training procedures is made available by the device of the invention. The trainee is given a fixed number of rounds. The target may be exposed so that it will become concealed when hit. The trainee is given a score based on the number of hits as compared to the rounds used. If the target is exposed for a fixed interval of time, the trainee is given a score based on the number of hits as compared to the number of rounds used. The score is then based on the number of hits and the number of rounds required to obtain these hits. Where desired, a target may be exposed manually and left standing. The trainee fires at the target with a given number of rounds and the score is based on the number of hits.

Scores may be recorded on writing surface 116, or if a permanent record is required, score cards are used. The instructor can control the targets and keep score by himself.

Power circuit breaker 236 is connected in series with the three phase input power line and functions as an on-off switch, protecting the device from shorts and high overloads. In operation, power circuit breaker 236 is turned to on position. If mannual control is desired, function switch 98 is set on Man. However, when it is desired that the first hit shall lower the target, the switch is set on Hit. To raise the target for a fixed time, with automatic lowering, the function switch is set on Time, with the interval desired preset by means of timer 110. It should be noted that if the target is in raised position, it ,Will automatically lower when switch 98 is set on Time.

The target is raised to its exposed position by pressing Raise button 100. When target 18 has become fully exposed, pilot lamp 104 becomes lighted. To lower the target to concealed position, Lower button102 is depressed. When fully concealed, the equivalent pilot lamp will light. For any setting of the function switch, the manual control button has priority over the automatic hit and time controls. Operating this button causes the target to become concealed even though no hit has been sustained or the preset time interval has not been completed. The hits are recorded at 106, and Reset switch 108 is used to reset the counter to zero. Fast and Slow switch 112 controls the speed of target 18. To move the target in either direction, switch 114 is moved to the corresponding position. If the switch is held to either side of the running target, it will automatically stop when it reaches its limit of travel.

Target 18 rides on rail assembly 20 by means of ball rollers '74 retained in carriage 54 secured to the target. The target is raised and lowered by rotating the entire rail by means of crank and lever mechanism 128 housed in 32. Power is obtained by means of motor 148. Target 18 is drawn by means of cable 202, receiving power from lateral drive motor 190. When a hit is scored on target 18, the diaphragm on microphone 96 is vibrated and the signal produced is transmitted to console 12, where the hit is scored. The limit of travel for target 18 is between control switches 40 on rail 24. The target automatically reverses its path when arm 94 on target 18 engages the control limit switch. The speed of movement for the target is controlled by the pulley construction 192 and 194 and the Slow switch 112. Cable 202 is trained around sheaves 204 and 216 and is secured to target 18. Motor 190 drives sheave 204 to move cable 202 and target 18 on rail assembly 20 between switches 40 when the target is exposed. Target 18 is readily replaced by simply removing bolts 66 and a new target substituted.

The device of the invention for the first time provides a fully automatic moving target. The target is capable of being controlled from a remote position by the instructor or operator. The device is readily installed. It may be easily modified to adopt it for use with other targets, such as fixed targets.

Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in the light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

What is claimed is: s I

l. A running target comprising, in combination: rail means comprising at least two rail members in parallel relationship, one mounted above the other; a carriage mounting said target and including means in contact with the exterior of each of said rail members enabling said carriage to move along said rail means in the longitudinal direction while otherwise supporting said carriage in a fixed spatial relationship with respect to said rail means; means to rotate said rail means whereby said target may be selectively rotated into or out of shooting position, said upper rail member functioning in conjunction with its associated contacting means to provide support for said carriage when said rail means is rotated; and means to move said carriage longitudinally along said rail means.

2. A running target comprising, in combination: rail means comprising at least two rail members in parallel relationship, one mounted above the other; a carrier mounting said target; roller means rotatively coupled to said carriage and mounting said carriage upon the exteriorof said rail means for longitudinal movement thereon, while otherwise supporting said carriage in a fixed spatial relationship with respect to said rail means; means to rotate said rail means whereby said target may be selectively rotated into or out of shooting position, said upper rail member functioning in conjunction with its associated contacting means to provide support for said carriage when said rail means is rotated; and means to move said carriage longitudinally along said rail means.

3. A running target comprising, in combination: rail means comprising at least two rail members in parallel relationship, one mounted above the other; a carriage mounting said target; a plurality of rollers rotatably coupled to said carriage and rollably in contact with the exterior surfaces of each of said rail members, said rollers enabling said carriage to move along said rail means in the longitudtinal direction While otherwise supporting said carriage in a fixed spatial relationship with respect to said rail means; means to rotate said rail means whereby said target may be selectively rotated into and out of shooting position, said upper rail member functioning in conjunction with its associated rollers to provide support for said carriage when said rail means is rotated; and means to move said carriagelongitudinally along said rail means.

4. A device as set forth in claim 3, including bias means urging at least one of said rollers into adjustive contact with said rail means.

5. A running target comprising, in combination: rail means comprising at least two rail members in parallel relationship, one mounted above the other; a carriage mounting said target; roller means rotatively coupled to said carriage and rollably in contact with the exterior wagers surfaces of each of said rail members, said roller means enabling said carriage to move along said rail means in the longitudinal direction while otherwise supporting said carriage in a fixed spatial relationship with respect to said rail means, said roller means comprising at least a pair of rollers mounted on diametrically opposite sides of the lower rail member approximately ninety degrees from the topmost point and at least a trio of rollers engaging the upper rail member, one mounted vertically and hearing against the topmost point of the upper rail member and the other two mounted on opposite sides of the upper rail member at points more than ninety degrees away from the topmost point; means to rotate said rail means whereby said target may be selectively rotated into and out of shooting position; and means to move said carriage longitudinally along said rail means.

6. A device as set forth in claim 5, wherein at least one of the lower-rail-member rollers is biased for elastic contact with said lower rail member and said vertically mounted roller is biased for elastic contact with said upper rail member.

7. A device as set forth in claim 5, wherein said rail members are tubes.

8. A device as set forth in claim 5, wherein said rail members are tubes, the upper tube having a smaller crosssectional area than the lower tube.

9. A running target comprising, in combination: rail means comprising at least two rail members in parallel relationship, one mounted vertically above the other; a carriage mounting said target, said carriage including a pair of end plates, one on each side thereof; roller means rotatively coupled to said end plates and rollably in contact with the exterior surfaces of each of said rail members, said roller means enabling said carriage to move along said rail means in the longitudinal direction while otherwise supporting said carriage in a fixed spatial relationship with respect to said rail means, the roller means associated with each end plate comprising at least a pair of rollers mounted on diametrically opposite sides of the lower rail member approximately ninety degrees from the topmost point and at least a trio of rollers engaging the upper rail member, one mounted vertically and bearing against the topmost point of the upper rail member and the other two mounted on opposite sides of the upper rail member at points more than ninety degrees away from the topmost point; means to rotate said rail means whereby said target may be selectively rotated into and out of shooting position; and means to move said carriage longitudinally along said rail means.

10. A device as set forth in claim 9, wherein at least one of the lower-rail-member rollers in each end-plate set is biased for elastic contact with said lower rail member and said vertically mounted roller in each end-plate set is biased for elastic contact with said upper rai'l mem ber.

11. A device as set forth in claim 9, wherein said rail members are tubes.

12. A device as set forth in claim 9, wherein said rail members are tubes, the upper tube having a smaller crosssectional area than the lower tube.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,290,297 Smith July 21, 1942 2,557,550 Leaver June 19, 1951 2,670,956 Ganz Mar. 2, 1954 FOREIGN PATENTS 5,332 Great Britain 1904 688,635 Great Britain Mar. 11. 1953

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Référencé par
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Classifications
Classification aux États-Unis273/369, 104/120, 273/372, 273/406
Classification internationaleF41J9/00, F41J9/02
Classification coopérativeF41J9/02
Classification européenneF41J9/02