|Numéro de publication||US2948274 A|
|Type de publication||Octroi|
|Date de publication||9 août 1960|
|Date de dépôt||21 mai 1958|
|Date de priorité||21 mai 1958|
|Numéro de publication||US 2948274 A, US 2948274A, US-A-2948274, US2948274 A, US2948274A|
|Cessionnaire d'origine||Wood George|
|Exporter la citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Citations de brevets (4), Référencé par (19), Classifications (11)|
|Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet|
Aug. 9, 1960 s WOOD 2,948,274
MEANS FOR MODIFIYING THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed may 21. 1958 I 2 Sheets-Shed 1 64 I0 13 1300 I 65 60 22 3/ i /30 6/0 200 INVENTOR. 5 GEO/P65 14 000 ATTOPNEY Aug; 9, 1960 3, W009 2,948,274
MEANS FOR MODIFYING THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed May 21, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR- GEO/P65 14 002 United States Patent .5
NIEANS FOR MODIFYING THE OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNAL COM- BUSTION ENGINES George Wood, Southiield Township, Mich. (17310 Melrose, Detroit 35, Mich.)
Filed May 21, 1958, Ser. No. 7 36,762
'2 Claims. (Cl. 123-198) This invention relates to multi-cylinder internal combustion engines and in particular to means for making a selected number of the cylinders of the engine inoperative whereby to cause the engine to operate on less than all of its cylinders, and thusly change the operating characteristics and fuel consumption of the engine so that it will operate at a fraction of its power output and at a corresponding reduction in fuel con.- sumption whenever full power is not required.
One object of the invention is to provide a method for making selected cylinders of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine inoperative comprising locking the valve lifter mechanism of the exhaust valve of each said selected cylinder out of operation after the said exhaust valve has been opened thereby, and then making all cylinders of said multi-cylinder engine operative by releasing said locked-out valve lifters. V
Another object of the invention is to provide an improved means for rendering selected cylinders of multicylinder internal combustion engines inoperative by providing releasable means locking the exhaust valve lifter mechanisms of said selected cylinders in their valve-open position after the said valve lifter mechanisms have opened the exhaust valves of the said selected cylinders, thusly preventing the suction of gas-air mixture to said selected cylinders from the engine carburetor, and thereby reducing the number of cylinders in power operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide means for modifying the operation of multicylinder engines comprising a spring loaded lock-out device for each of selected cylinders thereof adapted to engage the hydraulic lash adjuster of the exhaust valve lifter mechanism of each said selected cylinder and hold said exhaust valve lifter mechanism in the position assumed thereby when the exhaust valve is open, each said lockout device including means for rendering it inoperative to provide normal engine operation.
A further object of the invention is to provide at selected cylinders of a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine a lock-out device adapted to engage the hydraulic lash adjuster of the exhaust valve lifter mechanism of each said selected cylinder and hold its exhaust valve open whereby to prevent a vacuum from being formed in each said selected cylinder during the intake stroke of the piston thereof, and control means for disengaging said lock-out device to permit said engine to operate at full power. i
Other objects of the invention will become apparent by reference to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l-i-s a vertical sectional view of the hydraulic lash adjuster of the exhaust valve lifter mechanism of a selected cylinder of an internal combustion engine showing the locking pin of a lock-out device embodying the invent-ion in its retracted position when the exhaust valve, lifter mechanism of said selected cylinder is in normal operation and the said exhaust valve of said engine is closed.
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view similar to Fig. 1 showing the hydraulic lash adjuster of the exhaust valve lifter mechanism of the said selected cylinder when the exhaust valve thereof is fully opened by said valve lifter mechanism, the locking pin of said lock-out device being advanced to its lock-out position for engagement by the said hydraulic lash adjuster when the said exhaust valve begins to close.
Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view similar to FigxZ except that the cam of the exhaust valve lifter mechanism, which is normally followed by the butt end of the hydraulic lash adjuster, has been rotated to a position wherein the exhaust valve normally would close, the piston of said hydraulic lash adjuster being held by the loo-king pin of said lock-out device in its exhaust valve open position thereby preventing the exhaust valve of said selected cylinder from closing.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic top view of a typical V-type eight cylinder internal combustion engine showing in light lines certain selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII that may be made inoperative by the method and means of the invention, and showing in heavy lines the other cylinders II, III, V and VIII which remain in constant operation.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference numerals refer to like and similar parts throughout the several views, the invention is disclosed herein in connection with a conventional V-8 internal combustion engine 50 diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 4 which includes an engine block 12, banks of cylinders including their intake manifolds designated by Roman numerals I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII and VIII, exhaust manifolds 51, and a twin barrel carburetor 52 having dual outlet connect-ions 520 and 521. The carburetor outlet 520 is connected to cylinders I, IV, VI and VII via their respective intake manifolds, and the carburetor outlet 521 is connected to cylinders II, III, V and VIII through their respective manifolds.
When practicing the invention, it would be desirable for all eight cylinders of the engine 50 when the engine is started and When the engine operates under a substantial load, and, whenever the load on the engine becomes relatively light, certain of its eight cylinders would be selected to be made inoperative; for example, cylinders I, IV, VI and VII shown in light lines in Fig. 4'may be selected to be rendered inoperative, while cylinders 11, III, V and VIII shown in heavy lines in Fig. 4 would remain operative at all times.
Conventional internal combustion engines such as the engine 50 shown diagrammatically in Fig. 4 generally include poppet type intake and exhaust valves and have suitable valve operating mechanisms. For example, conventional internal combustion engine intake and exhaust valve operating mechanisms generally include a train of several elements which transfer mot-ion from a valve ac tuating cam to the valve stem to open the valve against spring pressure constantly urging the valve to its closed position. Inasmuch as the operating-clearances in the valve train vary in accordance with the engine operating temperature variations, and because of Wear between the several elements of the valve train, it is generally accepted practice to employ lash adjuster means such as a hydraulic lash adjuster 10 in the valve train to automatically take-up and compensate for the various clearances.
The rendering inoperative of selected cylinders of a 'multicylinder internal combustion engine 59 is preferably accomplished according to the instant invention by employing a lock-out device 60 having a locking pin 61 adapted to'advance and engage the hydraulic lash ad- Patented Aug. 9, 1960 I juster of the exhaust valve 'out device 60 is retracted.
cylinder at its valve-open position in such a manner as to cause the exhaust valve of each said selected cylinder to remain open until said lockingpin 61 of the said look- If the locking pin 61 of the lock-out device, 60 of each said selected cylinder of the engine 50 is spring loaded by a compression spring 62 to its advanced position andis moved to and held in its retracted position by such means as a solenoid 63 when energized, the energizing of the solenoids 63 of the look- 'ing devices 60 of the selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII to be made inoperative permits the engine 50 to function normally on all eight cylinders.
'each said selected cylinder 1, IV, VI and VII to hold the exhaust valve of each said selected cylinder open thereby rendering the said selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII inoperative to produce power by virtue of the fact that 1 no fuel will be drawn from the twin barrel carburetor 52 through its manifold connection 520 and the intake mani- 'folds of each of the said selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII during the intake strokes of the pistons thereof.
Hydraulic lash adjusters 10 employed in the instant invention are preferably like and similar to those disclosed and claimed in my copending application for pattrain of each said selected cut, Serial No. 692,692 entitled, Hydraulic Lash Adjusters, filed October 28, 1957, issued into Patent No. 2,887,996 on May 26, 1959, but modified to accommodate them to use as an element of the instant invention.
In the illustrative embodiment of the invention, a lockout device 60 operates in combination with the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 of the exhaust valve train of each of the 4 selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII of the internal combustion engine 50 shown diagrammatically in Fig. 4. The
shown in Fig. l to the position shown in Fig. 2 whereby -to move the push rod 13 upwardly and open an engine exhaust valve; the said push rod 13 being a part of an engine valve train generally employed in conventional internal combustion engines. The valve train to which reference is made usually consists of the push rod 13 and a rocker arm which opens a spring loaded closed engine valve responsive to the movement of the push rod 13 by the cam 15.
Inasmuch as the engine valve and valve train construction is conventional and is not a partof the instant invention, it has not been shown in the drawing. However, it is important to note that an engine valve spring which operates through the valve train constantly urges the push rod 13 in the direction indicated by the arrow 1300 thereon. Because of necessary clearances in the engine valve train required to permit expansion and contraction therein occasioned by extreme differences in the non-operating and operating temperatures of the engine, a hydraulic lash adjuster 10 is employed to automatically and continuously take up the normal clearances or lash in the valve train.
The improved hydraulic lash adjuster 10 preferably consists of a cylinder 20 which is axially bored from its upper end at 21 to reciprocatingly accommodate a. piston 22. The cylinder 20 is counterbored to provide a pressure oil inlet passage at 23 to the oil chamber A at the bottom of the bore 21 therein. The said cylinder 20 is provided with an outer peripheral groove 24 which communicates with the said oil pressure inlet passage 23 by means of a diagonal bore 25. The central portion of the cylinder 20 at the bottom 26 of the bore 21 therein is formed to provide a central annular collar 27 around the top of the counterbore 23. An anti-backflow ball valve 28 is provided in the cylinder 20 to prevent backflow of oil from the oil chamber A consisting of a valve ball 29 which seats on a valve seat 270 ground at the top of the annular collar 27 at the periphery of the counterbore 23 therein. A flanged valve ball retainer cap 30 having oil passage apertures 300 therethrough retains the valve ball loosely positioned over the valve seat 270. The flange 301 of the ball retainer cap 30 rests on the bottom 26 of the axial bore 21 of the cylinder 20.
The piston 22 is reciprocatingly mounted in the bore 21 of the cylinder 20 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10. The said piston 22 is formed With an upper cylindrical portion or head 31 adapted to reciprocate in the bore 11 of the engine block 12 and with a lower central cylindrical stem 32 which reciprocates in the axial bore 21 of the said piston 22 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10. The top of the head 31 of the said piston '22 is provided with a central semi-spherical recess 33 to receive the end of the push rod 13 of the engine valve train. The piston 22 is axially bored at 34 from its lower end to provide a fluid passage therein which intersects a diametrical bore 35 through the head 31 of the said piston 22. The head 31 of the piston 22 is provided with an outer peripheral groove 38 with which the said diametrical bore 35 communicates, and the engine block 12 is suitably bored at 39 to provide communication between the bore 11 of the engine block 12 and the inside of the said engine block 12. Thus communication is provided through the fluid passage 34-35 in the piston 22 from the oil chamber A of the cylinder 20, through the outer peripheral groove 38 in the head 31 of the said piston 22 and to the inside of the engine a block 12 through the said bore 39 therein.
A compression spring 36 is preferably disposed in slight spaced relationship around the central cylindrical stem 32 of the piston 22 of the hydraulic lash' adjuster 10, and is located between the bottom of the head 31 of the piston 22 and the top of the cylinder 20 thereof. The compression spring 36 is of less strength than the spring in the engine valve train urging the push rod 13 downwardly as indicated by the arrow 1300 in the drawings. The said compression'spring 36 constantly urges the piston 22 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 upwardly against the push rod 13 and the cylinder 20 thereof downwardly against the cam 15, the said lash adjuster 10 being reciprocatingly mounted in the bore 11 of the engine block 12 as hereinbefore described. The bottom of the cylinder 20 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 is preferably slightly domed at 200 to provide a smooth cam follower surface regardless of how the said cylinder 20 becomes oriented in the bore 11 of the engine block 12.
The hydraulic lash adjuster '10 is preferably provided with a through flow shut-off valve generally designated by the numeral 40. The lower central cylindrical stem 32 of the piston 22 is ground smooth to provide a valve seat 41 against which a valve disc 42 reciprocabl-y mounted in the bore 21 of the cylinder 20 may seat to close off the flow of oil under pressure from the oil chamber A in the cylinder 20 through the piston 22. A valve disc retainer ring 43 is sprung into an annular groove 37 provided in the wall of the bore 21 of the cylinder 20 below which the said valve disc 42 is positioned. An inverted frusto-conical compression spring 44 is interposed between the valve disc 42 and the flange 301 of the ball retainer cap 30 and serves the dual function of holding the ball retainer cap 30 in position and constantly urging the valve disc 42 resiliently against either the valve disc retainer ring 43 or the valve seat 41, as the operation of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 requires. The .said valve disc 42 has ports 420 thereaoasgvi through providing communication between the chamber A of the hydraulic lash adjuster and the fluid passage 34 of its piston 22 when the through flow shut-off valve 40 is open.
When installed in a valve train of an internal combustion engine, the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 assumes surface of the cam 15. As the cam shaft rotates, the
lobe 150 of the cam lifts the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 by pressure on the cam follower dome 200 thereof. from its position shown in Fig. l to its position shown in Fig. 2.
In the engine valve closed position of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 as shown in Fig. l, the anti-backflow ball valve 29 is open, and the through flow shut-off valve 40 is open with the valve seat 41 thereof spaced from the valve disc 42 which is spring urged by the compression spring 44 against the bottom of the valve disc retainer ring 43. When the engine valve controlled by the hydraulic lash adjuster It is closed, engine oil under pressure from a suitable oil pressure supply port 120 in the engine block 12 flows through the said hydraulic lash adjuster 16 via the outer peripheral groove 24, the diagonal bore 25, the inlet passage 23, the anti-backflow ball valve 28, and chamber A of its cylinder 20, through the through-flow shut-off valve 40, through the oil passages 34 and 35 of its piston 22 via the outer p e ripheral groove 38 in the head 31 thereof, and through the bore 3% of the engine block 12 into the crank case of the said engine block '12. This through-flow of engine oil provides a self-cleaning effect and maintains the hydraulic lash adjuster clean and free from harmful deposits from the engine oil. Because of the fact that the oil passages 35 are relatively restricted, sufficient oil pressure is developed against the bottom of the piston 22 to maintain it in its Up position shown in Fig. l, the separation between the valve seat 41 and the valve disc 42 of the through-flow shut-off valve 40 representing the amount of clearance or play to which the engine valve train is adjusted to compensate for expansion of the elements thereof and to provide a minimum of operating clearances therein.
As the crankshaft 14 and cam 15 thereon rotate clockwise as indicated by the arrow R in the drawing, the lobe 150 of the said cam 15 lifts the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 upwardly from its engine valve closed position shown in Fig. l to its engine valve open position shown in Fig. 2. During the first portion of the said upward movement of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10, the cylinder moves upwardly in respect to the piston 22 closing the throughflow shut-off valve 40 and interrupting the how of oil under pressure through the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10. This takes up the clearance or play in the engine valve train, and, further upward lifting of the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10 by the lobe 150 of the cam 15 opens the engine valve controlled by the engine valve train. The seating of the valve seat 41 of the throughfiow shutoff valve 40 against the valve disc 42 thereof is always sufficiently oil cushioned as to assure substantially noiseless operation of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10. When the "through-flow shut-off valve 40 is closed, as in Fig. 2, the antibackflow valve 28 is also closed to maintain an oil cushion in the chamber A of the cylinder 20 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10.
The closing of the engine valve of the engine valve train is accomplished by a compression spring in the engine valve train as the cam lobe 150' of the cam 15 moves clockwise as indicated by the arrow R from its position shown in Fig. 2 toward its position shown in Fig. 1 whereupon the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 again functions as hereinbefore described for its engine valve closed position.
I Q The lower cylindrical stem 32 of the piston '22 of the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 is sufficiently long that, in the running and should there be a leakage of oil out of the oil chamber A, or, if for any reason oil under pressure is not (available to a hydraulic lash adjuster 10 at the oil pres- 7 sure supply port 126 in the engine block 12, then, the piston 22 may travel downwardly against the top of the valve disc 33 and there remain until oil under pressure is again supplied to the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 and fills the oil chamber A of the cylinder 20 thereof whereupon the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10 will resume its normal operation. I
The lock-out device 60 preferably consists of a locking pin 61 recip-rocatingly mounted through a solenoid 63 having a housing 630 which is secured by an annular clamp and bracket 64 and studs 65 to the block 12 of the engine 50 adjacent the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 of the exhaust valve train of each of the cylinders I, IV, VI and VII of the said engine 50* which have been selected to be made inoperative. The locking pin '61 is aligned with and is reciprocatingly telescoped through an aperture 66 provided in the engine block 12 opposite each solenoid 63 communicating with the hydraulic lash adjuster bore 11 in the said engine block 12. The said locking pin 61 is provided with a collar 610, and a compression spring 62 is disposed around the said locking pin 61 between the said collar 610 thereof and a wall 631 within the solenoid housing 630 so that the compression spring 62 will constantly urge the locking pin 61 which permits the hydraulic la'sh adjuster 10 to function normally, and thereby the engine 50 is permitted to operate on all of its eight cylinders. Whenever it is desired to operate the engine at half power with only four cylinders II, HI, V and VIII in operation, therfour cylinders I, IV, VI and VII selected to be made inoperative are made inoperative by de-energizing the solenoid 63 of the lock-out device 60 adjacent each of the hydraulic lash adjusters 10 of the exhaust valve trains of each of the said selected cylinders I, 'IV, VI and VII whereupon the locking pin 51 of each said lock-out device 60 is spring urged toward its locking position shown in Fig. 2.
If, at the time the solenoid 63 of any lock-out device 60 is dc-energized, the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 controlled by the said lock-out device 60 is in its lowered or exhaust valve closed position as shown in Fig. 1, the locking pin 61 of the said lock-out device 60 is spring urged into contact with the outer surface of the head 31 of the piston 22 of the cylinder 20 of the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10 where it remains until the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10 including its cylinder '20 audits piston 22 are moved by the engine cam lobe of the cam 15 to their raised or exhaust valve open position shown in Fig. 2 whereupon the said locking pin 61 is springurged by the compression spring 62 into the outer peripheral groove 38 in the head 31 of the piston 22 of the said hydraulic lash adjustor 10.
After the said locking pin 61 of the lookout device 60 has been sprung into the said outer peripheral groove 38 in the head 31 of the piston 22 of the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10, the lobe 150 of the engine cam 15 moves clockwise from its position shown in Fig. 2 to its position shown in Fig. 3 and thereby permits the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 to move from its raised or exhaust valve .Fig. 3, thus holding the said piston 22 of the cylinder 20 of the hydraulic lash adjuster in its exhaust valveopen position as shown in Fig. 3 whereby to hold the exhaust valve of a selected cylinder open and prevent the said selected cylinder from functioning as a power producing element of the engine 50. By de-energizing the lock-out device 60 of all of the cylinders I, IV, VI and VII of the engine-50 selected to be made inoperative, the exhaust valves of said selected cylinders are maintained in their open position, and the engine 50 functions as a four cylinder engine on its cylinders 11, III, V and VIII rather than normally as an eight cylinder engine.
Whenever the engine 50 is running, and a lock-out device 60 locks the piston 22 of a hydraulic lash adjuster 10 in its exhaust valve open position shown in Fig. 3, the cylinder 20 of the said hydraulic valve adjuster 10 follows the engine cam under the force of its compression spring 36 whereby to cause the domed bottom 200 of the said cylinder of the said hydraulic lash adjuster 10 to remain constantly in contact with the engine cam 15, thereby eliminating valve train clatter when the hydraulic lash adjuster 10 of the valve trains of the said selected cylinders I, IV, VI and VII are locked out of their normal operation.
The controls for energizing and de-energizing lock-out devices 60 which engage the piston 22 of the cylinder 20 of hydraulic lash adjusters 10 employed in the exhaust valve trains of an internal combustion engine such as the engine 50 for permitting it to operate on all of its cylinders or only a selected portion of them may be either manual or automatic responsive to an engine function, and, inasmuch as such controls are conventional in their construction and operation, and are not a part of the instant invention, they have not been shown or described herein.
all without departing from the spirit and scope thereof as defined by the appended claims.
1. In an internal combustion engine, a block, a plurality of engine cylinders in said block, intake and exhaust valves for each engine cylinder spring loaded to their closed positions, a cam operated valve train operating each said valve, a hydraulic lash adjuster in each said valve train comprising a cylinder having one open end and one closed end, a piston reciprocatingly mounted axially in said cylinder forming an oil chamber therein, said piston extending from said cylinder and having a shouldered lock-out groove therearound, the said cylinder and piston having passages therein providing a free flow of engine oil under pressure through said hydraulic lash adjuster, said piston having an inwardly disposed central annular collar thereon with a fiat valve seat formed at the inner end thereof, an apertured valve disc reciprocatingly mounted in said cylinder including spring means constantly urging it toward said piston valve seat to close oflf the oil passage therethrough, a retainer ring in said cylinder limiting the said spring loaded movement of the valve disc toward said piston and the movement of said piston in the direction of said valve disc, compression spring means in said cylinder constantly urging said piston and said cylinder to move longitudinally with respect to each other and piston valve seat off said valve disc, the said normal flow of engine oil through the said hydraulic lash adjuster being interrupted by the seating of said piston valve seat on said valve disc when axial pressure is applied on the hydraulic lash adjuster during the cam opening of the normally spring loaded closed engine valve of said valve train, means for rendering selected engine cylinders inoperative to reduce the power output of said engine comprising a lock-out device mounted on said engine block adjacent the valve lifter of the exhaust valve of each said selected engine cylinder including a spring loaded pin adapted to enter the lock-out groove of the piston of the exhaust valve lifter of each said selected engine cylinder when each said valve lifter is in its exhaust valve open position whereby to engage said exhaust valve lifter piston and hold it and the exhaust valve of each said selected engine cylinder open, the said valve lifter cylinder continuing to follow the engine cam and remain in contact therewith while the exhaust valve lifter piston is held in its exhaust valve open posit-ion, and solenoid means for retracting said spring loaded pin means whereby to release said exhaust valve lifters of said selected engine cylinders and permit said engine to function at full power.
2. In a conventional internal combustion engine having a block, a plurality of engine cylinders in said block each having an intake and an exhaust valve, valve operating mechanism including engine operated cams and valve trains between said cams and said valves adapted to open the same, and a valve lifter in each said valve train including a lifter cylinder reciprocatingly mounted in said block, a spring loaded lifter piston reciprocatiugly mounted in said lifter cylinder constantly urging said valve lifter to take up clearance in said valve train, said lifter piston extending from said lifter cylinder and having a shouldered groove therearound, means for reducing the power output of said engine comprising lockout" means at selected engine cylinders mounted on said engine block including a spring loaded locking pin disposed normal to the axis of the lifter cylinder and piston of the exhaust valve train of each said selected engine cylinder adapted to engage said lifter piston at the shouldered groove therein and hold the exhaust valve of each said selected engine cylinder open, each said lock-out means including a solenoid means for retracting the locking pin thereof to permit the exhaust valve of each said selected engine cylinder to function normally at its normal power output.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,350,989 Cox Aug. 24, 1920 2,098,115 Voorhies Nov. 2, 1937 2,394,738 Anthony Feb. 12, 1946 2,528,983 Weiss Nov. 7, 1950
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|Classification aux États-Unis||123/198.00R, 123/184.31, 123/90.16, 123/198.00F, 123/90.56|
|Classification coopérative||F01L2820/031, Y02T10/18, F02D13/06, F01L2013/0094|