US 3099988 A
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1963 A. GINSBURG 3,099,988
HYPODERMIC NEEDLE Filed Dec. '7, 1961 INVENTOR AB/PA HAM GI/VJBUPG rates Unite.
This invention relates to a hypodermic needle with a self-locking means to retain the needle in proper position and constitutes an improvement over my prior Patents 2,850,014; 2,899,959 and 2,899,960.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide a hypodermic needle which contains a means coactting with the skin, subcutaneous tissue or the vein itself to lockingly retain the needle substantially in the position in which it was initially inserted in the vein.
Another object is to provide a hypodermic needle with an improved means to lock the same under the skin or subcutaneous tissue which effectively restrains to and fro movement of the needle relative to the limb when the latter is moved.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hypodermic needle in which a portion of the surface of the adapter which rests on the limb and a portion of the needle leading to the insertion point are in a common horizontal plane, whereby the needle is properly seated in its locking position.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hypodermic needle with a tapered shank which when inserted through the vein wall prevents leakage of blood and/ or intravenous fluid around the insertion point, a problem which frequently arises with the use of a needle having a shank of uniform outer diameter.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hypodermic needle of such construction that only a relatively small portion of the pointed end of the shank is inserted in the vein thereby minimizing vascular spasm, as compared to the conventional needle, and permitting greater blood flow which dilutes the injected solution and reduces the incidence of phlebitis.
Another object of the invention is to provide a hypodermic needle of the character described whereby the patient may become more mobile in that the patients limb does not have to be mechanically restrained but rather can be moved fully without pain and without dislodgment of the needle.
Yet another object is to provide a hypodermic needle with a firm and secure self-locking means yet one which permits easy removal of the needle upon simple rotation thereof around its longitudinal axis.
These and other objects of the invention will become more apparent as the following description proceeds in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIGURE 1 is an elevational view of the needle shown inserted in a vein and locked in the skin, with parts broken away and shown in vertical sections to illustrate details; and
FIGURE 2 is an elevational view of the needle per se.
Specific reference is now made to the drawings wherein similar reference characters are used for corresponding elements throughout.
The hypodermic needle comprises a shank with a uniform bore 12 therethrough and terminating at one end in an angulated insertion point 14 and being secured at its other end or integral thereat with an adapter 16 for attachment to a syringe, a tube connected to a suspended container having an injectible fluid therein, and so forth, as is well known in the art.
Intermediate the ends of the shank and preferably towards the adapter, a locking means is provided which divides the needle into a forward tapered portion 18 3,099,988 Patented Aug. 6, 1963 leading to the insertion point and a rear curved portion 20 leading to the adapter. The locking means comprises a constriction in the outer surface of the needle providling an inwardly extending circumferential shoulder 22 which is substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the forward portion :18, from which shoulder the rear portion 20- extends in an upward gradual continuous curve as at 24 so that no fiat or dwell area exists beyond the shoulder 22. As the rear port-ion 20 curves upwardly, it also widens to a position AA where its outer diameter substantially equals that of the forward portion 18 at the position BB which is where the shoulder 22 is formed. The distance between the shoulder and the position AA approximates the outer diameter of the shank at AA (and BB).
The adapter is cut away at least at its lower side to provide a flat bearing surface .26, a rear portion or area 28 of which is in a common horizontal plane with an area 30 immediately beneath the opening of the insertion point, for a purpose soon to appear.
In use, the needle is inserted through the skin 32 and moved horizontally therebeneath in the subcutaneous tissue 34. The adapter end of the needle is then lifted and the pointed end thereof pushed down into the vein 36 while continuing to move the needle horizontally until the skin locks behind the shoulder 22. Because of the continuous upward curvature of the rear portion 20 of the shank while the same widens to attain the maximum outer diameter of the forward portion of the shank 1'8, the skin locks in place in such a manner that relative longitudinal movement between the needle and the skin is greatly minimized even if the limb is frequently moved. Attainment of the final proper locking position is aided by the fact that when the adapter 16 bears on the skin at its undersurface 26, a rear portion 28 thereof is in a common horizontal plane with the lower portion 30 of the insertion end of the needle thereby eliminating rocking of the needle about a horizontal axis through the locking area. Despite the firm locking action, the needle is readily removed by simply rotating the needle around its longitudinal axis which acts to lift and spread the skin at the locking area.
Because the locking means is operative on the skin or subcutaneous tissue, the needle need be inserted in the vein in such a manner that only a small portion of the pointed end of the needle, approximately A" as compared to 1" for a conventional needle, extends into the vein thereby minimizing vascular spasm. The needle insertion may be characterized as consisting of three stages, the first is cutting through the tissues, the second is the stretching of the tissues by virtue of the taper of the shank and the third is the locking of the needle in its final position by constriction of the tissues about the circumferential shoulder 22. The taper acts to prevent leakage of blood and/ or intravenous fluid around the insertion point.
In practice, I have found that I obtain best results as to the locking action using an 18 gage needle (internal diameter of bore 12:.030") having an outer diameter of .052" at its shoulder portion BB which tapers gradually down for an inch of its length to an outer diameter of .04- at the insertion point, the shoulder 22 terminating at its inner edge, as at 38, in an outer diameter of .040". At position AA, the rear portion 20 again gradually attains an outer diameter of .052" at position AA which is spaced from BB by a distanceC equal to .060", the curvature upwardly and the widening of the rear portion 20 of the shank being such as to be free of any flat area or dwell which would allow for longitudinal movement of the skin therealong. The invention is, of course, applicable to needles of various gages and the dimensions herein stated would be proportional substantially on the basis 'of the ratio of the 18 gage bore diameter to the bore diameters of the other needles.
A skilled artisan may make minor variations without departing from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
1. A hypodermic needle having an elongated hollow shank terminating in an insertion point at one end and including anadapter at its other end for attachment to a syringe or fluid source and means on said shank to locking'ly receive the skin after insertion of the needle point into a vein, said means comprising a constricted portion formed by reducing the outer diameter'of said shank at a pretermined location to separate said shank into a first portion leading to said insertion point and a second portion leading to said adapter, said constriction providing a circumferential shoulder substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of said first portion, said second portion curving continuously upwardly from said shoulder and gradually widening in diameter from said shoulder rearw'ar'dly whereby the skin will lock around said shoulder andth'e needle will be restrained by said shoulder and the curvature and widening of said second portion against longitudinal to and from movement.
2. The needle of claim 1 whereinsaid first portion is tapered downwardly towards said insertion point.
3. The needle of claim 1 wherein said second portion widens to and attains an outer diameter equal to the outer diameter of said first portion at said constriction at a predetermined location spaced from said constriction a distance approximating said outer diameter.
4. The needle of claim 1 wherein said adapter includes a lower fiat surface a portion of which is in horizontal planar alignment with the lower surface of said insertion point.
5. The needle of claim 1 wherein said first portion is tapered towards said insertion point and includes an outer diameter of substantially .052" at said constriction, said shoulder extending inwardly until the outer diameter is reduced to substantially .040", said second portion attaining an outer diameter of substantially .052" at a point substantially .060" removed from said shoulder.
6. The needle of claim 5 wherein said adapter includes a lower flat surface a portion of which is in horizontal planar alignment with the lower surface of said insertion point.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,725,058 Rathkey Nov. 29, 1955 2,850,014 Ginsburg Sept. 2, 1958 2,899,959 Ginsburg Aug. '18, 1959 2,899,960 Ginsburg Aug. 18, 1959
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