US 3181545 A
Description (Le texte OCR peut contenir des erreurs.)
y 4, 1965 F. E. MURPHY, JR 3,181,545
STABLE FLUID AMPLIFIERS Filed Sept. 26, 1962 2 Sheets-Sheet l FRANK f. MURPHY JIF- May 4, 1965 Filed Sept. 26, 1962 F. E. MURPHY, JR
STABLE FLUID AMPLIFIERS .2 Sheets-Sheet 2 -ZIO .lmlln.
FRANK E. MonP/v v JR.
A 770)? ms Y United States Patent ce 3,181,545 STABLE FLUID AMPLIFIERS Frank E. Murphy, Jr., Horseheads, N.Y., assignor to Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y., a corporation of New York Filed Sept. 26, 1962, Ser. No. 226,298 8 Claims. (Cl. 13'781.5)
This invention relates to fluid amplifiers and more particularly to monoand multiple-stable fluid amplifiers wherein a main power stream may be diverted to and locked-on any desired outlet or passageway.
Fluid amplifiers, in general, are now known in the art. Such amplifiers include a power nozzle or orifice for the issuance of a fluid power stream in such a manner so that the power stream is well defined in space. A plurality of control nozzles or orifices are positioned so that a pressure differential may be established transversely of the normal direction of movement of the power stream, such as by the application of a control stream from one or more of the control nozzles. The apparatus is provided 7 with at least two outlets or fluid passageways arranged in such position so that all of the flow of the power stream may be deflected into one or the other of such outlets or passageways. The power nozzle, control nozzles, and outlet passageways all communicate with a central chamber, with the power nozzle extending through an end wall of such chamber, and the control nozzles extending through side walls thereof. The outlet passageways are usually separated by at least one V-shaped divider disposed at a predetermined distance from the power nozzle, with the apex of such divider or dividers symmetrically positioned with respect to the center line of the power nozzle.
In operation, fluid under pressure is supplied to the power nozzle and a well-defined fluid stream issues into the chamber. Control signals in the form of changes of pressure are developed at the control nozzles and produce deflection of the power stream in one direction or the other, depending on whether the signal is in the form of increased or decreased pressures. The power stream is deflected by such control pressures or signals into a predetermined outlet or passage, depending upon the signal.
In the past, it has been possible to produce a bi-stable fluid amplifier having multiple outlet passages, by designing the sidewall configuration of the outermost outlet passages so as to produce boundary layer or lock-on effects. The lock-on is effected between the power stream and a -'side wall due to fluid in the region between the stream and one of the Walls being partially removed and entrained in the power stream to thus lower the pressure therebetween and cause the stream to be deflected toward and adhered to such wall. Such lock-on effects are sufficient to maintain the power stream in a particular flow pattern through the action of the pressure distribution arising from the boundary layer effect, and no additional streams, other than the power stream are required to maintain that flow pattern. The flow pattern may be a changed to a new stable pattern, however, either by supmono-stable fluid amplifier having an odd number of fluid outlet passages which would not be effected by noise on the line. Also, it has not been possible to produce trist-able, quad stable, penta-stable, heXa-stable, and etc. fluid amplifiers.
My invention, on the other hand, facilitates the production of such monoand multi-stable fluid amplifiers,
3,181,545 Patented May 4, 1965 heretofore incapable of being produced, by the incorporation of a unique and novel plate or fin-like device postioned within the chamber of a fluid amplifier. Such device may be described as a lock-on device, stabilizer, air-foil, diverter or director. When a power stream is deflected toward a given outlet passage, a fin embodying my invention positioned within the chamber in front of such passage causes the power stream to lock-on such fin and diverts the fluid flow along the cord of the airfoil of the fin so that the flow is directed outwardly through the pre-selected passage. The fin also functions to stabilize the flow so that any undesirable noise on the line will not inadvertently shift the power stream from its pre-selected position, although permitting positive control inputs to effectively shift the power stream to a second predetermined position.
t thus has been an object of my invention to improve the stability of the power stream in a fluid amplifier so that it may be locked in position for continued flow through a predetermined outlet passage until shifted to a second predetermined outlet passage by a control pulse or signal.
Another object of my invention has been to provide improved monoand multi-stable fluid amplifiers.
A further object of my invention has been to produce a center-stable fluid amplifier by providing fluid amplifiers having an odd number of outlet passages with at least one fin-like airfoil member, so that the power stream may be locked in a center position on the fin and directed through the center outlet passage.
A still further object of my invention has been to produce multiple stable fluid amplifiers by providing the chamber of fluid amplifiers having multiple outlet passages with a plurality of fin or plate-like airfoils, thus permitting the power stream to be locked on any desired fin, so that it is diverted toward the cord of such airfoil and directed outwardly through a predetermined outlet passage.
These and other objects of my invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following disclosure and accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a schematic plan view of a tri-stable fluid amplifier with the cover plate broken away and having a fin-like airfoil member embodying my invention positioned within the chamber to lock the power stream for outward flow through the center outlet passage, and with the outer passageways constructed to provide boundary layer or lock-on effects.
FIGURE 2 is a schematic plan view of a mono-stable fluid amplifier with the cover plate partially broken away, and having a fin-like airfoil device embodying my invention positioned there-within to provide stable flow through the center outlet passageway. The outermost or side passageways are shown vented to the atmosphere, so as to prohibit boundary layer or lock-on effects in such passageways.
FIGURE 3 is a schematic plan view of an improved bi-stable fluid amplifier with the cover plate removed.
FIGURE 4 is a schematic plan illustration of a multiple stable fluid amplifier having a plurality of airfoil lock-on devices embodying my invention positioned within the chamber to stabilize and direct the flow of fluid outwardly through a predetermined outlet passage.
The field of application of my invention encompasses virtually all processes in which fluid amplifiers may be utiiized for control, or logic, and the like. The configuration shown in FIGURES 1 and 2, for instance, may be considered as a comparison matrix, wherein the signals applied to the control orifice on one side of the power stream may be a monitored signal, whereas the signal applied to the control orifices on the opposite side of the power stream may be a standard or reference signal. When the monitored signal is high as compared to the standard signal, it will deflect the power stream outwardly through the outlet passage adjacent the standard signal control orifice; whereas when the monitored signal is low compared to the standard signal, the standard signal will deflect the power stream outwardly through the outlet passage adjacent the monitored signal control orifice. When the signals compare equal, the power stream will flow outwardly through the center outlet passage and the fin-like airfoil positioned downstream of the power and control jets make the compare-equal output insensitive to small disturbances or noise on the control sides.
Referring now to the drawings and particularly FIG- URE 1, a fluid amplifier is shown having a power nozzle 11 communicating with an end wall of a chamber 12. A pair of control nozzles 13 and 14 communicate with side walls of the chamber. The chamber 12 is provided with three outlet or discharge passages 15, 16,
and 17. The outlet ends 15, 16, and 17 of the discharge passages 15, 16, and 17 respectively, communicate with passages (not shown) formed in the cover plate 29 which are connected to suitable means, the function of which is based upon variations in the proportion of flow through the various outlet passages. The various outlet passages are separated by suitable dividers shown at 18 and 19. A plate or fin-like member 21 which may be referred to as an airfoil, stabilizer, diverter, or director, is positioned within the chamber 12 in alignment with the center outlet passageway 16. The fin 219 not only provides a lock-on for the center outlet passageway by stabilizing the flow of the power stream along the cord of the airfoil, but also diverts any stray flow and directs it outwardly through the center outlet passageway when the power stream is substantially centered by the control nozzles.
The power stream nozzle 11 is connected to a suitable source of fluid under pressure, such as compressed air, through supply chamber 21. Control nozzles 13 and 14 are shown positioned in an opposed relationship to each other and at right angles to the power stream. The control nozzles 13 and 14 are connected to a suitable source of control fluid via connecting passageways 23 and 24, respectively, having inlet openings 23 and 24' communicating with channels (not shown) formed in cover 29.
The outer outlet passageways 15 and 17 are provided with wall portions 25 and 27 respectively, adjacent the chambers 12, which produce a boundary layer or lock-on effect when the fluid stream is directed outwardly through such outlet passageways. The above-described configuration of the fluid amplifier including the various chambers, passageways, nozzles, etc., are formed in a main plate or body 28 by any suitable means, and a cover plate 29 is hermetically sealed to the main plate 28 by any suitable known expedient.
In operation, with a power stream continuously issuing from nozzle 11, the power stream will lock-on airfoil '20 and be directed outwardly toward the center outlet passageway 16, when the control signals or pressures supplied at control nozzles 13 and 14 are equal. In other words, the outlet flow through passage 16 and aperture 16 represents a compare-equal output signal indicating that control signals applied at control inputs 13 and 14 are equal. The purpose of the fin-like airfoil member is to lock the power stream in position and make the compare-equal output signal insensitive to noise or small discrepancies in the control pressures supplied at orifices 13 and 14.
The amount of, or the change in, control pressure which must be present to trigger or deflect the power stream to a new position, may be preset by varying the shape of the fin or its position in the chamber relative to the nozzle'11. By stabilizing the power stream a certain band of small control pressures will be ineffective to shift or trigger the power stream to a new position. This band of pressures may be referred to as a controlpressure-dead-band. To make the control-pressure-deadband equal for the signal from both control orifices 13 and 14, a symmetrical airfoil fin-like member would be utilized. The control-pressure-dead-band may be made smaller by positioning the fin further from the nozzle 11, and conversely, may be enlarged by placing it closer the nozzle 11;
When the control pressure applied in orifice 13 is greater than the control pressure supplied at orifice 14, the power stream will be deflected outwardly through outlet passageway 17, indicating the unbalance. Due to the lock-on or boundary layer effect produced by wall portion 27, the power stream will continue to flow outwardly through passageway 17 until positively deflected to passageway 15 or 16 by a greater pressure or number of pulses supplied at orifice 14- than at control orifice 13. When the power stream is flowing in its neutral position through passageway 16 and pressure supplied at control orifice 14 is greater than that supplied at con trol orifice 13, the power stream is deflected outwardly through outlet passageway 15 and will continue to flow outwardly through such passageway due to the lock-on effect of sidewall 25 until deflected baokwardly to one of the other predetermined positions (16 or 17) by a suitable signal from the control orifices.
The mono-stable fluid amplifier shown in FIGURE 2 is similarly constructed in many respects to the tri-stable fluid amplifier shown in FIGURE 1. Like parts in FIG- URE 2 bear the same numeral as those in FIGURE 1, with the addition of the prefix 1. For example, the mono-stable fluid amplifier of FIGURE 2 is shown comprising a power nozzle 111 and control nozzles 113 and 114 communicating with a chamber 112. However, unlike the tri-stable fluid amplifier of FIGURE 1, the side wall portions of the outer passageways 115 and 117 are vented to the atmosphere by recessed portions 125 and 127, respectively. As a result, the power stream issuing from the power nozzle 111 cannot lock on the wall portions of the outlet passageways, and accordingly the power stream will be deflected outwardly through the passageways 115 and 117 only when an unbalanced control pressure exists between control orifices 113 and 114. When the unbalanced pressure is removed from the power stream, it will return to the center outlet passageway 116 and become locked on the fin-like airfoil member 120. It thus can be seen that the fin 120 provides a mono-stable center fiow fluid amplifier.
FIGURE 3 illustrates an improved bi-stable fluid amplifier utilizing a fin-like airfoil member embodying my invention for each of the outlet passageways. In this embodiment the fluid amplifier 210, shown with the cover plate completely removed, comprises a power stream nozzle 211, control nozzles 213 and 214, and a pair of outlet passageways 215 and 217, each having a fin-like airfoil member 30, 10 positioned within chamber 212 and preferably along the center line of the respective outlet passageways. Once the power stream is deflected outwardly through passageway 215 or 217 by appropriate signals from control orifices or nozzles 213, 214, the finlike airfoil members, 311, it) retain the flow of the power stream in the deflected position, even after the signal has lapsed, by locking the power stream on the airfoil and directing it outwardly through the desired outlet passage. An appropriate signal will, of course, deflect the power stream to the opposite outlet passage wherein it will be similarly locked in position by means of the fin-like airfoil member. This construction permits the production of bi-stable fluid amplifiers in a variety of sizes and shapes without relying upon the critical configuration previously necessary to produce boundary layer or lock-on effects.
FIGURE 4 illustrates a multiple stable fluid amplifier 3111, with the cover plate removed, wherein a plurality of outlet passageways A, B, C, D, and E, each have a finlike airfoil member a, b, c, d, e, respectively, positioned within chamber 312 substantially along the center line of each of the respective outlet passageways. A power nozzle 311 and control nozzles 313 and 314 communicate with the chamber 312. It thus can be seen that by applying an appropriate signal from control nozzles 313 and 314, the power stream may be deflected outwardly through any of the desired outlet passageways and locked in such deflected position by an appropriate airfoil member, until deflected to a second predetermined position by another appropriate signal.
Although I have disclosed now preferred embodiments of my invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A fluid control device comprising, means for injecting a power stream into a chamber, a plurality of outlet means communicating with said chamber, control means adjacent said injecting means for selectively directing the power stream so as to flow outwardly through a pre-selected one of said outlet means, and a separate fin-like member positioned within said chamber downstream of said injecting means for stabilizing and locking the power stream in position so that it flows outwardly through a pre-selected outlet means until such power stream is positively acted upon by said control means.
2. A fluid operated system comprising, means for continuously issuing a fluid stream, means for generating a controllable pressure gradient transversely of said fluid stream for controllably deflecting said stream, a plurality of outlet passages axially-ofiset with respect to each other positioned downstream of said fluid stream means for receiving such stream in its various deflected positions, and means positioned downstream of said fluid stream means in axial alignment with at least one of said axiallyoflset outlet passages for locking the fluid stream, when directed toward such passage, for continuous flow outwardly through such passage until deflected by the controllable pressure gradient means.
3. A fluid controlled device comprising, a power nozzle for issuing to a stream of fluid, at least one control nozzle positioned adjacent said power nozzle and having an axis extending transversely to the axis of said power nozzle for developing a differential pressure across the stream of fluid to deflect said stream, a plurality of outlet passages axially-offset with respect to each other and arranged to receive the stream of fluid in various positions as determined by the pressure developed by said control nozzle, and separate fln-like airfoil means positioned downstream of said power nozzle in substantial axial alignment with at least one of said outlet passages for stabilizing flow directed to such passage and locking the power stream in such position for flow outwardly through such passage until deflected by said control nozzle.
4. A fluid control device comprising, means for issuing a stream of fluid into a chamber, a plurality of outlet passages communicating with said chamber, control means for establishing various differential pressures across the stream of fluid so as to selectively direct the stream outwardly through a predetermined outlet passageway, and
separate tin-like means positioned substantially centrally of the flow path of said directed fluid stream downstream of said issuing means and in axial alignment with at least one of said outlet passageways for stabilizing the flow or" the stream of fluid when directed toward such outlet passageway and for locking the flow in such position until acted upon by said control means.
5. A fluid operated system comprising, means for issuing a continuous fluid stream under pressure, outlet passages positioned to receive fluid from said issuing means, opposed control means positioned adjacent said issuing means to selectively control the flow of said fluid stream outwardly through the various outlet passages, and separate means distinct from said stream issuing means positioned downstream of said stream issuing means in substantial axial alignment with at least one of said outlet passages and responsive to the flow of the continuous stream when directed toward such outlet passage, for lockably maintaining such flow in position for continued passage through such outlet until the stream is again acted upon by said control means.
6. A mono-stable fluid amplifier comprising, power nozzle means for issuing a continuous power stream under pressure into a chamber, a plurality of outlet passageways communicating with said chamber, a plurality of control nozzles communicating with said chamber adjacent said nozzle means for supplying control pressures reactable with said power stream to direct the power stream outwardly through a pro-selected outlet passageway, and separate fin-like means positioned downstream of said nozzle within said chamber in axial alignment with one of said outlet passageways for retaining and locking the power stream in positionment for flow outwardly through said one passageway after being directed toward such passageway by said control means.
7. A multiple stable fluid amplifier comprising, power nozzle means for issuing a power stream into a chamber, a plurality of outlet passageways communicating with said chamber for receiving said power stream, control means for deflecting and directing said power stream outwardly through a predetermined outlet passage, and separate locking means in said chamber and downstream of said nozzle means for each of said outlet passageways for stabilizing a power stream in position for flow outwardly through its associated passage when directed thereto by said control means.
8. A multiple stable fluid amplifier as defined in claim 7 wherein said locking means comprises a plurality of fin-like airfoil members positioned in substantial axial alignment with each outlet passageway in such a manner so that when the power stream is directed toward the fin, the airfoil deflects the stream toward the cord thereof locking it thereto and directs such stream outwardly through its associated passageway.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,001,539 9/61 Hurvitz l37-83 3,039,490 6/62 Carlson 137-610 3,080,886 3/63 Severson 137-597 LAVERNE D. GEIGER, Primary Examiner.
Citations de brevets