|Numéro de publication||US3665241 A|
|Type de publication||Octroi|
|Date de publication||23 mai 1972|
|Date de dépôt||13 juil. 1970|
|Date de priorité||13 juil. 1970|
|Numéro de publication||US 3665241 A, US 3665241A, US-A-3665241, US3665241 A, US3665241A|
|Inventeurs||Louis N Heynick, Charles A Spindt|
|Cessionnaire d'origine||Stanford Research Inst|
|Exporter la citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Référencé par (324), Classifications (20), Événements juridiques (6)|
|Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet|
United States Patent Spindt et al.
[ 51 May 23, 1972  FIELD IONIZER AND FIELD EMISSION CATHODE STRUCTURES AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION  Inventors: Charles A. Spindt, Menlo Park; Louis N.
l-leynick, Palo Alto, both of Calif.
 Assignee: Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park,
 Filed: July 13, 1970  Appl.No.: 54,222
OTHER PUBLICATIONS C. A. Spindt, A Thin Film Field- Emission Cathode," J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 6- 1968, pp. 3504- 3505.
Primary Examiner-David Schonberg Assistant Examiner-Paul A. Sacher Attorney-Urban H. Faubion and James Todorovic  ABSTRACT Field-forming devices primarily useful as field ionizers and field emission cathodes and having as a basic element an array of closely spaced cones with sharp points supported on a substrate (in the most usual case conductive or semiconductive) are disclosed. Preferably, the field-forming structure is completed by a screen-like structure, e.g. as fine mesh screen, insulatively supported above the points with the center of apertures in the screen substantially aligned with the longitudinal axis of corresponding cones. A novel method of forming such structures includes placing a screen with a mesh corresponding to the desired number and packing density of sharp conical points in close proximity to, or in contact with, the substrate and projecting material through the screen onto the substrate whereby sharp cones of the material are formed on the substrates.
11 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures FIELD IONIZER AND FIELD EMISSION CATIIODE STRUCTURES AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to field-forming structures such as field-ionizing and electron-emitting structures and particularly to such structures employing many cone-like emitters or ionizers on a single substrate.
Structures for forming electric fields are required for many practical applications. An electric field on the order of several megavolts per centimeter (cm) can be used to produce electron emission from materials. Electric fields on the order of 10' to volts per centimeter are useful in ionizing molecules by field extraction and collection of electrons therefrom (known as field ionization).
Electron emission is of course the heart of devices utilizing electron beams or clouds such as the many varieties of electron tubes upon which the electronics industry is built. The phenomenon of ionization plays a significant role in many scientific instruments and experiments; e.g., in ionization gauges and mass spectrometers. In mass spectrometry, an unknown material under investigation is ionized prior to injection into the analyzer or mass-separator section of the mass spectrometer. Ionization is usually produced by electron impact with the unknown material, utilizing a suitable electron source such as a thermionic emitter. However, electron impact with molecules not only ionizes them, but also tends to fragment them into two or more species, so that the mass spectrum, obtained by this ionization method, may show the presence of the daughter species but little or nothing of the parent species. Moreover, if any of the daughter species is the same as, or has a mass-to-charge ratio approximately equal to, another species originally present in the unknown material, then the mass spectrum obtained can be difficult or impossible to interpret correctly regarding the original constituents of the unknown material. In some applications where mass spectrometry is used to monitor or control other processes, e.g., the preparation of photoemissive surfaces, the use of a thermionic emitter for ionization is disadvantageous because the heat or light from the emitter tends to disturb the process. The use of a cold, non-luminous ionizer in such applications constitutes a significant improvement. Field ionization, a phenomenon in which molecules entering a region of very high electric field (10 to 10 V/cm) are ionized by extraction and collection of electrons by the field, causes substantially less fragmentation than electron-impact ionization. Also, this phenomenon does not require or involve the generation of light or heat.
In order'to reduce to a practical level the voltage required for producing the required high fields, sharp needles or points are used as emitters or field ionizing electrodes, a counter electrode is spaced from the needle-like structures and a voltage of appropriate polarity is applied therebetween. For field emission the counter electrode is made positive relative to the needle-like structures and for field ionization the reverse polarities are used (counterelectrode negative relative to the needle-like structures). However, even with the use of sharp points, if the counter electrode is spaced a macroscopic distance from the points, e.g., of the order of centimeters (usual in prior art devices), the voltages required for electron emission are of the order of kilovolts and for field ionization, approximately tenfold higher.
Despite the high field emission current density capability of a single needle-like emitter (on the order of 10 million amps per sq. cm), the total emission current from a single needle emitter is low, e.g., on the order of milliamperes, because of the minute size of its emitting area. Furthermore, the electrons are emitted over a large solid angle, and they obtain almost the total energy of the applied voltage, e.g., several thousand electron volts, within a short distance from the emitter tip. Therefore, the formation of narrow electron beams that are suitable, for example, for use in high-power, beam-type electron tubes, requires elaborate and expensive focusing apparatus.
Ionization efficiency of prior art field ionizers of the single needle-like structure is very low for reasons similar or analogous to the problems described above relative to the cathodes. That is, one reason ionization efiiciency is low is that the effective region where ionization takes place is confined to the small volume in the immediate vicinity of the apex of the sharp point so that the rate of ion production for a given pressure of material to be analyzed is much lower for field ionization than for electron-impact ionization. A second reason is that the field-produced ions attain velocities equivalent to the voltage applied between ionizer and counter electrode and the ions are impelled away from the ionizer over a very wide range of angles, so that only a small fraction of the ions are collimated into a beam suitable for injection into the analyzer of the mass spectrometer without employing complex ion-optical lenses.
Parallel operation of many needle-like members to increase the total current for a cathode and to provide a correspondingly large ionization volume in the case of the field ionizer is feasible, but the problems of formation of the parallel structures, focusing the electron beams (for the cathodes), and providing ion-optical collimation (in the field ionization structures) are formidable. For example, in the field ionizer case, ion-optical collimation is practical only if emission energies of the ions can be kept small, which necessitates spacings between the ionizer and counter-electrode of the order of microns with the ionizer point having a tip radius of a fraction of a micron, e.g., 0.1 micron. Also, it is desirable to space the needle-like structures as close together as possible without incurring significant decrease of the field at each point by the presence of its neighbors.
Many of the problems thought to be inherent in parallel operation of fine needle-like structures under consideration have been solved by a structure and the methods of producing that structure disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,453,478 Needle- Type Electron Source, dated July 1, 1969, and 3,497,929, Method of Making a Needle-Type Electron Source, dated Mar. 3, 1970 in the names of Kenneth R. Shoulders and Louis N. Heynick, and assigned to Stanford Research Institute.
In the patents referred to above, the electric field-producing structure effectively includes two closely spaced surfaces. On the first, or emitting surface, a large number of sharp needlelike emitting sites are distributed with a packing density limited only by the fabrication technology used. The surface can be planar or curved and of a size to suit the intended application. The second surface, called an accelerator surface, is the electrode used to produce the field. It consists of a very thin foil or film of metal of the same contour as the surface with the emitter sites, and is suitably supported and electrically insulated therefrom in spacings ranging from fraction of a micron to several microns.
In the preferred embodiment, described in the patents, the accelerator surface is supported above the emitter surface by a dielectric layer therebetween, in the manner of a sandwich, and holes through the accelerator and dielectric layers are provided so as to expose the tips of several emitters at each hole location to the rim of the hole in the accelerator electrode. Because of the minimal separation range between the emitter surface and the accelerator surface, the voltage needed to produce field emission ranges from only a few volts to about volts, and the emitted electrons emerge from the holes in the accelerator with correspondingly low energies.
While the structure referred to above represents a considerable advance over any of the structures known to the prior art, the method of producing the structure can yield needle-like electrodes that are not necessarily uniform in numbers and shapes from emitter site to emitter site, thus introducing corresponding variations in performance. Many of the problems of the multiple-needle structure are overcome by providing a single, uniform needle-like electrode at each site with specific, essentially identical, configuration. A means of producing a single needle-like electrode at each site is described in an article by C. A. Spindt (one of the inventors of the present invention) entitled A Thin-Film Field-Emission Cathode" in the Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 3,5043,505, June 1968. Further, a means providing a single uniform needle-like electrode at each site which represents an improvement over the method and structure described in the previous patents and the Spindt paper is described and claimed in a U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 9,139, entitled Field Emission Cathode Structure, Devices Using Such Struc' ture, and Method of Producing Such Structure," filed Feb. 6, 1970, in the names of Louis N. Heynick, Kenneth R. Shoulders, and Charles A. Spindt and assigned to the assignee of the present invention.
Subsequent to conception of the structures and methods described in the above-referenced patents, application and paper, .use of similar structures operated in reverse polarity as a closely spaced parallel array of field ionizers, in which each sharp metal point produces positive ions was conceived. In the cathode structure sandwich, the dielectric film thickness is in the order of l 2 y. and the metal points are of about the same height above the emitter surface. However, field ionization in any such structure having specific values of tip sharpness and distance between counter electrode and points requires voltages approximately tenfold higher between electrodes than those required for field emission. Consequently, the dielectric layer between the emitter surface and counter-electrode must be capable of withstanding the higher fields without dielectric breakdown. This requirement can be met by making the dielectric thickness large relative to the distance between the counter-electrode and the tips, or by providing other means for insuring adequate insulation between the emitter surface and the counter-electrode.
In addition to providing a multi-point ionizer, the present invention provides uniform arrays of points, suitable electrode and counter-electrodes therefor, and improved means for producing such structures in which the ratio of dielectric thickness to distance between counter-electrode and tips and also geometries chosen optimally for field emitters or ionizers or both.
Particularly in view of the fact that the spacing between emitter tips and the counter-electrode may be different for field emitters and field ionizers, it is highly desirable to be able to produce the fine needle-like points of uniform shape and spacing on a substrate independent of a metal/dielectric/metal film sandwich. That is, it is important to be able to produce a precision, highly uniform bare point array on a substrate (electrode most commonly). With such a structure, one or more counter-electrodes may be added with the desired spacing, dielectric thickness or other adequate insulation, and the proper registry relative to the points of the bare point array. The present invention provides the capability of producing such results.
As described in greater detail below, in accordance with the teachings of the present invention a bare-point structure is provided in which a regular array of closely spaced metallic points of controlled geometry is formed by deposition through a fine mesh plate or screen uniformly over the surface of a metal substrate which represents an electrode.
Where the bare-point array is desired, the screen may be removed. Where a counter-electrode is desired, the screen may be left in place or removed and replaced by another counter-electrode of desired configuration. A field ionization structure is provided by making the counter-electrode of the arrangement just described negative relative to the substrate electrode and providing the proper electrode-counter-electrode spacing as well as ratio of such spacing to the distance between counter-electrode and electrode points. The field emitter is provided by applying the opposite polarity between electrodes and providing optimally different spacings. Additional electrodes can be added to the structure to provide multi-electrode control of the electron or ion optical characteristics as well as the current emerging from the holes. Multielement vacuum tubes can also be produced by adding appropriate electrodes and closing the device. Further, the field ionizer may be constructed by the same general method described in connection with the Heynick, Shoulders, and Spindt application referred to above with modifications described herein.
The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objectives and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view, showing a bare-point array (pyramidal embodiment) constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a portion of a device utilizing the bare-point array of FIG. 1 and constructed in accordance with this invention;
FIGS. 3 through 5, inclusive, are cross-sectional views taken along the lines 33 of FIG. 2 for successive steps in the method of producing the structure of FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view similar to the device of FIG. 5, but illustrating another embodiment which is constructed in a different way;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a field ionizer according to one embodiment of the present invention; and
FIG. 8 is a broken-away cross-sectional along lines 8-8 in FIG. 7.
FIG. 9 is a partially broken-away cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the invention.
A form of the basic bare-point array 10 useful for both field electron emitters and field ionization is illustrated in FIG. 1. The structure 10 includes a substrate 11 and an array of bare points 12 formed thereon. In the embodiment shown, the bare points 12 are pyramidal but may be of other conical shapes. The substrate 11 is preferably conductive in order to form one electrode. In the embodiment illustrated, substrate 11 is a sheet of molybdenum but it may be of other suitable metal, or a non-metal coated with a conductive film as, for example, a plate of aluminum oxide coated with a film of molybdenum. For some applications, it may be preferable to use a semi-conductive material or even an insulator for the substrate 11. As illustrated, the pyramids 12 are of molybdenum, have square bases, are 0.6 mil high, and are spaced apart by 1 mil (center to center). However, the pyramids 12 may be of resistive or insulating materials, or of composite materials, and the pyramid surfaces overcoated or otherwise treated to obtain the desired characteristics.
Bare-point arrays 10 require a field-producing electrode in order to produce the electric field required to cause electron emission or ionization in the region of the array of points or pyramids 12. The electrode is preferably but not necessarily analogous to the top conduction film in the sandwich configurations described in the previously cited patents and application. FIG. 2 illustrates a device incorporating the bare-point array of FIG. 1 and the additional electrode 12 (referred to as a counter-electrode) to provide the required electric field. As illustrated, the counter-electrode 13 comprises a screen (or plate) having a distribution of holes or apertures 14 therein, shown square in this embodiment, corresponding substantially to the distribution of points 12 on the substrate. The brokenaway cross-sectional view of FIG. 5 may help to visualize the device. Looking at the two FIGS. (2 and 5) it is seen that the device comprises a substrate 11 having points 12 formed thereon and a screen (counter-electrode 13) supported above the substrate by an insulating spacer 15 at the periphery of the screen. In a preferred version of this embodiment, registration between the screen 13 and the substrate 11 is maintained by spacer 15 so that the center of each screen hole 14 is substantially aligned with the axis of a difi'erent point 12 of the basepoint array 10, and so that the tips of the points 12 are substantially in the plane of the screen 13. Furthermore, the ratio of the height of points 12 above substrate 11 to the distance cal breakdown of insulator spacer 15. One means of assuring that the breakdown doesnt occur is seen in another version of this embodiment which is illustrated in FIG. 9.
For convenience and simplicity, the illustration of FIG. 9 has parts which correspond to those of FIGS. 2 through 6, inclusive, numbered correspondingly. Here, the perimeter of the substrate 11 (or counter-electrode 13, if preferred) is shaped so as to permit the use of a thicker insulator spacer 15, thereby permitting the application of higher 13 without causing electrical breakdown of insulator spacer 15.
The basic mode of operationof the field ionizer may be best explained in connection with FIGS. 2 and 5 wherein the ionizer points 12 of array 10 are shown connected by means of their common conductive substrate 11 to a positive terminal of a voltage power supply 16. The sharp tip points 12 are each located in or near a hole 14 of counter-electrode (screen) 13, which is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply 16. Application of a voltage from power supply 16 produces a high electric field in the region of the points 12. In such an arrangement, electrically neutral particles entering the holes 14 are positively ionized by the high electric field, the action of the field being to remove electrons from the particles, which electrons are collected by the points 12. The positive ions so created are impelled away from the ionizer points 12 through the holes 14 of the counter-electrode 13.
For producing field electron emission, the potential source is connected with its positive terminal to counter-electrode (accelerator electrode) 13, and its negative terminal connected to array (emitter electrode) 10. The potential source may be made variable for the purpose of controlling the electron emission current. Upon application of a potential between the electrodes 10 and 13 an electric field is established between the points (emitting protuberances) 12 and the counter-electrode 13, which of a polarity to cause electrons to be emitted from the points 12 through the holes 14in the screen 13.
Thus it is seen that efficiency limitations of one ionizer point or one field emitter cathode point as well as the limitations of prior attempts at parallel operation of such single point devices are largely overcome by providing a structure consisting of an array 10 of closely spaced points 12 with sharp tips in close proximity to the counter-electrode 13 which has a corresponding array of holes 14. In this structure the holes 14, the distance between points 12 or holes 14, as well as the spacing between point tips and the counter-electrode, are in the micron range, and most points 12 yield substantially equivalent performance. Insulator spacers 15 which separate the outer edges of the electrode 10 and counter-electrode 13 have the requisite thickness to withstand the electric field.
The ability to produce the bare-point array 10 with such uniformity of points 12 and hence the ability to produce field ionizers and field electron emitters of such precision and efficiency is highly dependent upon the methods of construction. The method of the present invention yields the precise results desired.
In order to understand the steps in one method used in the fabrication of the array 10 (of FIG. 1) and the completed device (FIGS. 2 and 5), reference may be had specifically to FIGS. 3 through 5, inclusive, which represent sections through one portion of the device illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 illustrates the substrate 11 of the bare-point array structure 10 before the field-forming points 12 are formed thereon. That is, FIG. 3 shows a starter structure consisting of only the substrate 1 l and a fine mesh screen (plate) 13 having a multiplicity of holes or apertures 14 therein supported above the substrate 11 by an insulating dielectric spacer 15. If the screen 13 is later to be removed to provide only the bare-point array 10 of (FIG. 1), the screen may be placed in direct contact with substrate 11 and the dielectric spacer 15 may be eliminated. Since this embodiment contemplates that the masking screen and the counter-electrode 13 will be one and the same, the spacer 15 is shown, and also a release layer 18 is provided on the screen 13 so that materials subsequently deposited thereon in the array-forming process may readily be removed.
In order to provide the sharp points 12 as shown in FIG. 4 and thereby complete the pyramidal array 10 of FIG. 1, a simultaneous deposition from two sources is performed. That is, simultaneously a closure material (e.g., a molybdenum-alumina composite) is deposited at a grazing incidence, and the material for the pyramid, e.g., molybdenum, is deposited straight on the substrate surface. In this step, the purpose of the deposition at grazing incidence is to add material on screen 13 so as to provide a mask with holes 14 of decreasing size for the deposition of material on substrate 11. As additional emitter material is deposited on substrate 11, the molybdenum-alumina composite masking material gradually closes the aperture at the upper lip of the holes 14, as shown in FIG. 4. The closure is indicated by theadditional film l9 deposited on the release layer 18. In FIG. 4 the apertures 14 are shown as being completely closed and pyramids 12 completely formed. Thus, cone-shaped (pyramidal here) points are formed on the conductive substrate 11. If the screen 13 used is provided with round apertures instead of the square ones shown, then the points 12 formed are right circular cones instead of the pyramids illustrated.
With the step just described, the array 10 of FIG. 1 is completed and'the screen 13 and spacer 15 may be removed, leaving the bare-point array 10. Another screen-like counterelectrode can then be added to form the structure of FIG. 2. If it is desired to use the screen 13 as counter-electrode of FIG. 2, Screen 13 and spacer 15 need not be removed. Instead, the materials deposited on the screen, viz., release layer 18 and the subsequently deposited closure layer 19 may be selectively etched or floated away, leaving the bare screen structure as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 2.
If larger spacings between counter-electrode 13 and substrate 11 are desired, to accommodate thicker dielectric spacers 15, the points 12 may be formed on previously produced pedestals (not shown), which pedestals are produced by a prior deposition step, utilizing a source which deposits material along a direction perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and which material is preferably the same material, e.g., molybdenum, as the metal electrode (substrate) 11 or a more resistive material, e.g., a molybdenumalumina composition. Such a deposition step would deposit a film on the release layer 18 without closing the screen holes 14 and, more importantly, pedestals with essentially vertical sides and bases of size and shape of apertures 14 in the screen 13 are deposited directly upon the substrate 11. The pedestal height is selected by controlling the amount of material deposited. Since the array of FIG. 1 does not have such pedestals, this step is not illustrated. However, a specific embodiment of a complete device incorporating such pedestals is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, described later herein.
In the embodiment illustrated, the screen 13 has a uniform array of square holes 14, spaced on 1 mil centers. The pyramids formed then have square bases of corresponding size and spacing to the screen mesh and of a height controlled by the relative rates of deposition of the sources. In other embodiments, the holes 14 may have other configurations and/or the deposition rates may be varied during the formation process to provide a variety of shapes. Further, the formation process may be halted prior to hole closure so as to form truncated pyramids, cones, or suitable variants thereof.
An alternative deposition technique incorporates the use of a single deposition source which is broad enough to perform both the hole-closure and point-formation functions. This deposition source and technique may also be applied to the sandwich starter structure described in the previously cited patents and applications.
One embodiment specifically designed for field ionizer application and utilizing a metal/dielectric/metal sandwich structure with counter-electrode 30 which corresponds to the screen counter-electrode 13 of FIG. 2 is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. In this embodiment the counter-electrode 30 is formed of the upper metal film of the sandwich structure which is provided with a plurality of holes or apertures 28 therethrough. Dielectric film 31, the center layer of the sandwich, is on top of a base metal film 32 which serves as a base electrode and which is connected to the positive terminal of the power supply 24. As illustrated, the base metal film 32 is shown on a dielectric support substrate 43 which only serves to support the base metal film 32. Films 30 and 32 are formed of metal such as molybdenum or tungsten, while film 31 which insulates films 30 and 32 from one another is formed of dielectric material, e.g., aluminum oxide.
The dielectric film 31 has holes corresponding to the holes in film 30 and each hole accommodates a point ionizer 40 with its base in contact with the base electrode 32 and tip 26 preferably aligned with the plane of the hole 28 in the top electrode30 to minimize the distance between tip and hole rim. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view along lines 88 in FIG. 7. In FIG. 8 the hole in dielectric film 31 is designated by numeral 36. The point ionizer 40 is shown in the form of a cone 41 on top of a pedestal 42, a configuration that permits independent selection of the height of the tips 26 above base 32, the sharpness of the tip 26, and the distance between tips 26 and hole rims 28 so as to provide optimum geometry for operation of the structure as a field ionizer.
Another highly practical way to utilize the bare-point arrays 10 is shown cross-sectionally in FIG. 6. In this embodiment a conductive screen 13 having substantially the same distribution of holes as the points 12 on the substrate 11 is supported above the substrate 11 by insulator spacers 23 of appropriate height and distribution. One method for producing such structures is to form an insulator 23 of the requisite thickness on the screen 13 by deposition or other means, which insulator thereby conforms substantially to the cellular structure of the screen, after which the screen-insulator combination is set and maintained on the substrate. An advantage of this method is that self-registry of holes and points is achieved.
Bare arrays of points can be made to yield very large emission currents by the use of an electrode to which appropriate positive potentials relative to the points are applied, e.g., in diode rectifiers, X-ray generating tubes, and Lenard-ray tubes. Therefore, it is contemplated that bare-point arrays 10 or individual members of such arrays be sealed off opposed to another electrode either with or without intermediate electrodes. Substrate-screen assemblies having the points in substantial or complete registration with the holes in the screen can be used as large-emission current cathodes by applying suitable positive potentials to the screen relative to the substrate. In contradistinction to the operation of the diode configurations cited above, the screen provides the fields required for electron emission from the points, but most of the emission drawn passes through the screen holes, so that the screen functions to control the current in the manner of a grid. Additional grids may also be employed to render the emission more uniform or otherwise control the emission.
The methods for producing an array of points in registry with holes in screens are adaptable to the production of cathodes subdivided into areas containing one or more points, from which areas emission can be drawn separately by the application of appropriate potentials thereto. Such methods can also be adapted to the production of arrays of individual but suitably interconnected field emission diodes, triodes, tetrodes, etc.
All the operational advantages of the multipoint field ionizer described above are achievable also with the field emitters of the same general structure with parameters optimized for such use. Again, such structures constitute field ionizers when operated with reverse polarities to those used for obtaining field emitted electrons, and such structures can be produced by the methods previously described so that the values of the geometric parameters are optimum for field ionization use. This is not to say, however, that the method of producing the ionizer from the metal/dielectric/metal sandwich is equivalent to, or can be made with, the same degree of accuracy as the improved screen-forming techniques herein described.
While particular embodiments of the invention are shown, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to these structures since many modifications may be made both in the material and arrangement of elements. It is contemplated that the appended claims will cover such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An electric field-forming device consisting of a plate-like substrate and a multiplicity of sharp needle-like elements located on one surface of said substrate, said needle-like elements being highly uniform in shape and uniformly spaced on said substrate said substrate and at least one portion of said needle-like elements being of conductive material and the other portion of said needle-like elements being of a higher resistivity material than said plate-like substrate.
2. An electric field-forming device as defined in claim 1 wherein said needle-like elements each have a substantially cylindrical pedestal on said substrate and an essentially conical portion on said pedestal.
3. An electric field-forming device as defined in claim 2 wherein said needle-like elements and said plate-like substrate are conductive and the said pedestal is of a higher resistivity material than either said second electrode or said conical portion.
4. An electric field-producing structure comprising first and second conductive electrodes and an insulator separating and insulating said first and second electrodes from each other, said first electrode comprising a conductive plate-like screen member having a plurality of apertures therethrough, said second electrode comprising a conductive plate-like member having a plurality of individual needle-like conical members projecting from one surface thereof and said insulator supporting said electrodes only at their outer periphery in such a manner that said needle-like conical members of said second electrode project toward said first electrode and at least some of said needle-like members are positioned with a projection of their longitudinal axes extending through apertures in said first electrode.
5. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 4 wherein said first and second electrodes are spaced further apart at their outer periphery than in the central portion where said conical members and apertures occur whereby said insulating member is thicker than the electrode spacing at said center portion of said electrodes.
6. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 4 wherein each of said individual needlelike conical members has its longitudinal axis in substantial alignment with the center of a corresponding aperture in said first electrode.
7. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 6 wherein said first and second electrodes are spaced further apart at their outer periphery than in the central portion where said conical members and apertures occur whereby said insulating member is thicker than the electrode spacing at said center portion of said electrodes.
8. A field-ionizing device including a structure as defined in claim 4 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.
9. A field-ionizing device including the structure defined in claim 5 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.
10. A field-ionizing device including the structure defined in claim 6 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.
|Brevet citant||Date de dépôt||Date de publication||Déposant||Titre|
|US3783325 *||21 déc. 1971||1 janv. 1974||Us Army||Field effect electron gun having at least a million emitting fibers per square centimeter|
|US3814968 *||11 févr. 1972||4 juin 1974||Lucas Industries Ltd||Solid state radiation sensitive field electron emitter and methods of fabrication thereof|
|US3852595 *||21 sept. 1972||3 déc. 1974||Stanford Research Inst||Multipoint field ionization source|
|US3921022 *||3 sept. 1974||18 nov. 1975||Rca Corp||Field emitting device and method of making same|
|US3970887 *||19 juin 1974||20 juil. 1976||Micro-Bit Corporation||Micro-structure field emission electron source|
|US3982147 *||7 mars 1975||21 sept. 1976||Charles Redman||Electric device for processing signals in three dimensions|
|US3998678 *||20 mars 1974||21 déc. 1976||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method of manufacturing thin-film field-emission electron source|
|US4008412 *||18 août 1975||15 févr. 1977||Hitachi, Ltd.||Thin-film field-emission electron source and a method for manufacturing the same|
|US4103199 *||14 juin 1976||25 juil. 1978||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Electronic device for processing signals in three dimensions|
|US4163949 *||27 déc. 1977||7 août 1979||Joe Shelton||Tubistor|
|US4178531 *||15 juin 1977||11 déc. 1979||Rca Corporation||CRT with field-emission cathode|
|US4307507 *||10 sept. 1980||29 déc. 1981||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Method of manufacturing a field-emission cathode structure|
|US4513308 *||23 sept. 1982||23 avr. 1985||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||p-n Junction controlled field emitter array cathode|
|US4780684 *||22 oct. 1987||25 oct. 1988||Hughes Aircraft Company||Microwave integrated distributed amplifier with field emission triodes|
|US4816684 *||25 août 1987||28 mars 1989||Breton Jacques L G||High-powered negative ion generator in a gaseous medium with a high-strength electric field configuration|
|US4818914 *||17 juil. 1987||4 avr. 1989||Sri International||High efficiency lamp|
|US4857799 *||30 juil. 1986||15 août 1989||Sri International||Matrix-addressed flat panel display|
|US4874981 *||10 mai 1988||17 oct. 1989||Sri International||Automatically focusing field emission electrode|
|US4926056 *||10 juin 1988||15 mai 1990||Sri International||Microelectronic field ionizer and method of fabricating the same|
|US4943343 *||14 août 1989||24 juil. 1990||Zaher Bardai||Self-aligned gate process for fabricating field emitter arrays|
|US4983878 *||24 août 1988||8 janv. 1991||The General Electric Company, P.L.C.||Field induced emission devices and method of forming same|
|US5053673 *||17 oct. 1989||1 oct. 1991||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Field emission cathodes and method of manufacture thereof|
|US5063327 *||29 janv. 1990||5 nov. 1991||Coloray Display Corporation||Field emission cathode based flat panel display having polyimide spacers|
|US5064396 *||29 janv. 1990||12 nov. 1991||Coloray Display Corporation||Method of manufacturing an electric field producing structure including a field emission cathode|
|US5089707 *||14 nov. 1990||18 févr. 1992||Ism Technologies, Inc.||Ion beam generating apparatus with electronic switching between multiple cathodes|
|US5097231 *||16 mai 1990||17 mars 1992||Varian Associates, Inc.||Quasi-passive, non-radioactive receiver protector device|
|US5141459 *||21 févr. 1992||25 août 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Structures and processes for fabricating field emission cathodes|
|US5160871 *||12 juin 1990||3 nov. 1992||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Flat configuration image display apparatus and manufacturing method thereof|
|US5163328 *||6 août 1990||17 nov. 1992||Colin Electronics Co., Ltd.||Miniature pressure sensor and pressure sensor arrays|
|US5170092 *||16 mai 1990||8 déc. 1992||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Electron-emitting device and process for making the same|
|US5180288 *||17 avr. 1990||19 janv. 1993||Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.||Microminiaturized electrostatic pump|
|US5186670 *||2 mars 1992||16 févr. 1993||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form self-aligned gate structures and focus rings|
|US5203731 *||5 mars 1992||20 avr. 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Process and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device|
|US5205770 *||12 mars 1992||27 avr. 1993||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form high aspect ratio supports (spacers) for field emission display using micro-saw technology|
|US5209687 *||23 juin 1992||11 mai 1993||Sony Corporation||Flat panel display apparatus and a method of manufacturing thereof|
|US5210462 *||30 déc. 1991||11 mai 1993||Sony Corporation||Flat panel display apparatus and a method of manufacturing thereof|
|US5221221 *||22 janv. 1991||22 juin 1993||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Fabrication process for microminiature electron emitting device|
|US5229331 *||14 févr. 1992||20 juil. 1993||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form self-aligned gate structures around cold cathode emitter tips using chemical mechanical polishing technology|
|US5232549 *||14 avr. 1992||3 août 1993||Micron Technology, Inc.||Spacers for field emission display fabricated via self-aligned high energy ablation|
|US5235244 *||8 sept. 1992||10 août 1993||Innovative Display Development Partners||Automatically collimating electron beam producing arrangement|
|US5237180 *||31 déc. 1991||17 août 1993||Eastman Kodak Company||High resolution image source|
|US5243252 *||19 déc. 1990||7 sept. 1993||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Electron field emission device|
|US5245192 *||7 oct. 1991||14 sept. 1993||Houseman Barton L||Selective ionization apparatus and methods|
|US5259799 *||17 nov. 1992||9 nov. 1993||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form self-aligned gate structures and focus rings|
|US5302238 *||15 mai 1992||12 avr. 1994||Micron Technology, Inc.||Plasma dry etch to produce atomically sharp asperities useful as cold cathodes|
|US5329207 *||13 mai 1992||12 juil. 1994||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission structures produced on macro-grain polysilicon substrates|
|US5334908 *||23 déc. 1992||2 août 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Structures and processes for fabricating field emission cathode tips using secondary cusp|
|US5359256 *||30 juil. 1992||25 oct. 1994||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Regulatable field emitter device and method of production thereof|
|US5371431 *||4 mars 1992||6 déc. 1994||Mcnc||Vertical microelectronic field emission devices including elongate vertical pillars having resistive bottom portions|
|US5372973 *||27 avr. 1993||13 déc. 1994||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form self-aligned gate structures around cold cathode emitter tips using chemical mechanical polishing technology|
|US5374868 *||11 sept. 1992||20 déc. 1994||Micron Display Technology, Inc.||Method for formation of a trench accessible cold-cathode field emission device|
|US5378963 *||31 janv. 1994||3 janv. 1995||Sony Corporation||Field emission type flat display apparatus|
|US5391259 *||21 janv. 1994||21 févr. 1995||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method for forming a substantially uniform array of sharp tips|
|US5397957 *||10 nov. 1992||14 mars 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Process and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device|
|US5424241 *||14 juin 1994||13 juin 1995||Smiths Industries Aerospace & Defense Systems, Inc.||Method of making a force detecting sensor|
|US5438240 *||22 avr. 1994||1 août 1995||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission structures produced on macro-grain polysilicon substrates|
|US5445550 *||22 déc. 1993||29 août 1995||Xie; Chenggang||Lateral field emitter device and method of manufacturing same|
|US5462467 *||8 sept. 1993||31 oct. 1995||Silicon Video Corporation||Fabrication of filamentary field-emission device, including self-aligned gate|
|US5463269 *||6 mars 1992||31 oct. 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Process and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device|
|US5466982 *||18 oct. 1993||14 nov. 1995||Honeywell Inc.||Comb toothed field emitter structure having resistive and capacitive coupled input|
|US5473219 *||11 oct. 1994||5 déc. 1995||Sony Corporation||Field emission type flat display apparatus|
|US5475280 *||30 août 1994||12 déc. 1995||Mcnc||Vertical microelectronic field emission devices|
|US5496199 *||23 mai 1995||5 mars 1996||Nec Corporation||Electron beam radiator with cold cathode integral with focusing grid member and process of fabrication thereof|
|US5500572 *||11 mars 1993||19 mars 1996||Eastman Kodak Company||High resolution image source|
|US5514847 *||24 janv. 1994||7 mai 1996||Nec Corporation||Electron beam radiator with cold cathode integral with focusing grid member and process of fabrication thereof|
|US5526703 *||21 août 1992||18 juin 1996||Smiths Industries Aerospace & Defense Systems, Inc.||Force detecting sensor and method of making|
|US5528099 *||26 janv. 1995||18 juin 1996||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Lateral field emitter device|
|US5529524 *||5 juin 1995||25 juin 1996||Fed Corporation||Method of forming a spacer structure between opposedly facing plate members|
|US5531880 *||13 sept. 1994||2 juil. 1996||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Method for producing thin, uniform powder phosphor for display screens|
|US5532177 *||7 juil. 1993||2 juil. 1996||Micron Display Technology||Method for forming electron emitters|
|US5534743 *||7 sept. 1994||9 juil. 1996||Fed Corporation||Field emission display devices, and field emission electron beam source and isolation structure components therefor|
|US5536193 *||23 juin 1994||16 juil. 1996||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Method of making wide band gap field emitter|
|US5543684 *||20 juin 1994||6 août 1996||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Flat panel display based on diamond thin films|
|US5545946 *||17 déc. 1993||13 août 1996||Motorola||Field emission display with getter in vacuum chamber|
|US5548181 *||5 juin 1995||20 août 1996||Fed Corporation||Field emission device comprising dielectric overlayer|
|US5551903 *||19 oct. 1994||3 sept. 1996||Microelectronics And Computer Technology||Flat panel display based on diamond thin films|
|US5559389 *||24 nov. 1993||24 sept. 1996||Silicon Video Corporation||Electron-emitting devices having variously constituted electron-emissive elements, including cones or pedestals|
|US5561339 *||7 sept. 1994||1 oct. 1996||Fed Corporation||Field emission array magnetic sensor devices|
|US5561340 *||31 janv. 1995||1 oct. 1996||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Field emission display having corrugated support pillars and method for manufacturing|
|US5562516 *||22 mai 1995||8 oct. 1996||Silicon Video Corporation||Field-emitter fabrication using charged-particle tracks|
|US5565754 *||6 sept. 1995||15 oct. 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Colour field emission display|
|US5569973 *||6 juin 1995||29 oct. 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Integrated microelectronic device|
|US5578185 *||31 janv. 1995||26 nov. 1996||Silicon Video Corporation||Method for creating gated filament structures for field emision displays|
|US5583393 *||24 mars 1994||10 déc. 1996||Fed Corporation||Selectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith|
|US5587586 *||3 oct. 1995||24 déc. 1996||U.S. Philips Corporation||Particle-optical apparatus comprising an electron source with a needle and a membrane-like extraction electrode|
|US5587623 *||3 avr. 1996||24 déc. 1996||Fed Corporation||Field emitter structure and method of making the same|
|US5600200 *||7 juin 1995||4 févr. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Wire-mesh cathode|
|US5601966 *||7 juin 1995||11 févr. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components|
|US5612712 *||7 juin 1995||18 mars 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Diode structure flat panel display|
|US5614353 *||7 juin 1995||25 mars 1997||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components|
|US5619097 *||5 juin 1995||8 avr. 1997||Fed Corporation||Panel display with dielectric spacer structure|
|US5628659 *||24 avr. 1995||13 mai 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Corporation||Method of making a field emission electron source with random micro-tip structures|
|US5629583 *||28 mars 1996||13 mai 1997||Fed Corporation||Flat panel display assembly comprising photoformed spacer structure, and method of making the same|
|US5647785 *||13 sept. 1995||15 juil. 1997||Mcnc||Methods of making vertical microelectronic field emission devices|
|US5652083 *||7 juin 1995||29 juil. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Methods for fabricating flat panel display systems and components|
|US5663608 *||17 avr. 1996||2 sept. 1997||Fed Corporation||Field emission display devices, and field emisssion electron beam source and isolation structure components therefor|
|US5675216 *||7 juin 1995||7 oct. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technololgy Corp.||Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode|
|US5679043 *||1 juin 1995||21 oct. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corporation||Method of making a field emitter|
|US5686791 *||7 juin 1995||11 nov. 1997||Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corp.||Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode|
|US5688158 *||24 août 1995||18 nov. 1997||Fed Corporation||Planarizing process for field emitter displays and other electron source applications|
|US5692942 *||30 nov. 1995||2 déc. 1997||The Boc Group, Inc.||Display forming method|
|US5695658 *||7 mars 1996||9 déc. 1997||Micron Display Technology, Inc.||Non-photolithographic etch mask for submicron features|
|US5696028 *||2 sept. 1994||9 déc. 1997||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form an insulative barrier useful in field emission displays for reducing surface leakage|
|US5703435 *||23 mai 1996||30 déc. 1997||Microelectronics & Computer Technology Corp.||Diamond film flat field emission cathode|
|US5719477 *||12 juil. 1996||17 févr. 1998||Nec Corporation||Electron gun for cathode ray tube|
|US5726524 *||31 mai 1996||10 mars 1998||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Field emission device having nanostructured emitters|
|US5734226 *||15 août 1994||31 mars 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Wire-bonded getters useful in evacuated displays|
|US5747815 *||24 juil. 1996||5 mai 1998||Northrop Grumman Corporation||Micro-miniature ionizer for gas sensor applications and method of making micro-miniature ionizer|
|US5753130 *||18 juin 1996||19 mai 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method for forming a substantially uniform array of sharp tips|
|US5755944 *||7 juin 1996||26 mai 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Formation of layer having openings produced by utilizing particles deposited under influence of electric field|
|US5763997 *||1 juin 1995||9 juin 1998||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Field emission display device|
|US5766446 *||5 mars 1996||16 juin 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Electrochemical removal of material, particularly excess emitter material in electron-emitting device|
|US5766829 *||30 mai 1995||16 juin 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of phase shift lithography|
|US5770919 *||31 déc. 1996||23 juin 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission device micropoint with current-limiting resistive structure and method for making same|
|US5779920 *||12 nov. 1996||14 juil. 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Luminescent screen with mask layer|
|US5801477 *||31 janv. 1995||1 sept. 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Gated filament structures for a field emission display|
|US5811020 *||23 juil. 1997||22 sept. 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Non-photolithographic etch mask for submicron features|
|US5811928 *||21 juil. 1997||22 sept. 1998||The Boc Group, Inc.||Concave display|
|US5813892 *||12 juil. 1996||29 sept. 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Use of charged-particle tracks in fabricating electron-emitting device having resistive layer|
|US5818500 *||6 mai 1991||6 oct. 1998||Eastman Kodak Company||High resolution field emission image source and image recording apparatus|
|US5827099 *||7 déc. 1995||27 oct. 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Use of early formed lift-off layer in fabricating gated electron-emitting devices|
|US5828163 *||13 janv. 1997||27 oct. 1998||Fed Corporation||Field emitter device with a current limiter structure|
|US5828288 *||24 août 1995||27 oct. 1998||Fed Corporation||Pedestal edge emitter and non-linear current limiters for field emitter displays and other electron source applications|
|US5831378 *||25 août 1997||3 nov. 1998||Micron Technology, Inc.||Insulative barrier useful in field emission displays for reducing surface leakage|
|US5841219 *||6 janv. 1997||24 nov. 1998||University Of Utah Research Foundation||Microminiature thermionic vacuum tube|
|US5844351 *||24 août 1995||1 déc. 1998||Fed Corporation||Field emitter device, and veil process for THR fabrication thereof|
|US5851669 *||22 mai 1995||22 déc. 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Field-emission device that utilizes filamentary electron-emissive elements and typically has self-aligned gate|
|US5857882 *||27 févr. 1996||12 janv. 1999||Sandia Corporation||Processing of materials for uniform field emission|
|US5861707 *||7 juin 1995||19 janv. 1999||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Field emitter with wide band gap emission areas and method of using|
|US5865657 *||7 juin 1996||2 févr. 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to form gate openings typically beveled and/or combined with lift-off or electrochemical removal of excess emitter material|
|US5865659 *||7 juin 1996||2 févr. 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings and utilizing spacer material to control spacing between gate layer and electron-emissive elements|
|US5874808 *||21 août 1997||23 févr. 1999||Busta; Heinz H.||Low turn-on voltage volcano-shaped field emitter and integration into an addressable array|
|US5886460 *||20 nov. 1997||23 mars 1999||Fed Corporation||Field emitter device, and veil process for the fabrication thereof|
|US5892231 *||5 févr. 1997||6 avr. 1999||Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation||Virtual mask digital electron beam lithography|
|US5893967 *||30 juin 1997||13 avr. 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Impedance-assisted electrochemical removal of material, particularly excess emitter material in electron-emitting device|
|US5903098 *||6 janv. 1997||11 mai 1999||Fed Corporation||Field emission display device having multiplicity of through conductive vias and a backside connector|
|US5903243 *||6 janv. 1997||11 mai 1999||Fed Corporation||Compact, body-mountable field emission display device, and display panel having utility for use therewith|
|US5909202 *||17 févr. 1998||1 juin 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Wire-bonded getter in an evacuated display and method of forming the same|
|US5913704 *||12 mai 1997||22 juin 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of electronic devices by method that involves ion tracking|
|US5930590 *||6 août 1997||27 juil. 1999||American Energy Services||Fabrication of volcano-shaped field emitters by chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP)|
|US5931713 *||19 mars 1997||3 août 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Display device with grille having getter material|
|US5949182 *||3 juin 1996||7 sept. 1999||Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.||Light-emitting, nanometer scale, micromachined silicon tips|
|US5955828 *||16 oct. 1997||21 sept. 1999||University Of Utah Research Foundation||Thermionic optical emission device|
|US5965971 *||15 déc. 1993||12 oct. 1999||Kypwee Display Corporation||Edge emitter display device|
|US5981303 *||17 juil. 1997||9 nov. 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of making field emitters with porous silicon|
|US5989776 *||21 sept. 1998||23 nov. 1999||Sandia Corporation||Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography|
|US6007963 *||17 juin 1997||28 déc. 1999||Sandia Corporation||Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography|
|US6008577 *||1 déc. 1997||28 déc. 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Flat panel display with magnetic focusing layer|
|US6019658 *||11 sept. 1998||1 févr. 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings, typically in combination with spacer material to control spacing between gate layer and electron-emissive elements|
|US6022256 *||6 nov. 1996||8 févr. 2000||Micron Display Technology, Inc.||Field emission display and method of making same|
|US6023126 *||10 mai 1999||8 févr. 2000||Kypwee Display Corporation||Edge emitter with secondary emission display|
|US6045678 *||1 mai 1997||4 avr. 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Formation of nanofilament field emission devices|
|US6049089 *||25 sept. 1998||11 avr. 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Electron emitters and method for forming them|
|US6054808 *||26 janv. 1999||25 avr. 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Display device with grille having getter material|
|US6066507 *||14 oct. 1997||23 mai 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method to form an insulative barrier useful in field emission displays for reducing surface leakage|
|US6068750 *||19 janv. 1999||30 mai 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Faceplates having black matrix material|
|US6080325 *||17 févr. 1998||27 juin 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of etching a substrate and method of forming a plurality of emitter tips|
|US6087193 *||12 mai 1994||11 juil. 2000||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Method of production of fet regulatable field emitter device|
|US6100640 *||20 mai 1998||8 août 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Indirect activation of a getter wire in a hermetically sealed field emission display|
|US6117294 *||7 avr. 1997||12 sept. 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Black matrix material and methods related thereto|
|US6120674 *||30 juin 1997||19 sept. 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Electrochemical removal of material in electron-emitting device|
|US6126845 *||15 juil. 1999||3 oct. 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of forming an array of emmitter tips|
|US6127773 *||4 juin 1997||3 oct. 2000||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode|
|US6162577 *||21 sept. 1998||19 déc. 2000||Felter; T. E.||Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography|
|US6165374 *||15 juil. 1999||26 déc. 2000||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of forming an array of emitter tips|
|US6174449||14 mai 1998||16 janv. 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Magnetically patterned etch mask|
|US6181060||13 juil. 1998||30 janv. 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display with plural dielectric layers|
|US6187603||7 juin 1996||13 févr. 2001||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of gated electron-emitting devices utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings, typically in combination with lift-off of excess emitter material|
|US6187604||28 mai 1997||13 févr. 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of making field emitters using porous silicon|
|US6193870 *||1 mai 1997||27 févr. 2001||The Regents Of The University Of California||Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices|
|US6204596 *||30 juin 1998||20 mars 2001||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Filamentary electron-emission device having self-aligned gate or/and lower conductive/resistive region|
|US6204834||17 août 1994||20 mars 2001||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||System and method for achieving uniform screen brightness within a matrix display|
|US6232705||1 sept. 1998||15 mai 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emitter arrays with gate insulator and cathode formed from single layer of polysilicon|
|US6249080||26 août 1998||19 juin 2001||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission electron source, method of producing the same, and use of the same|
|US6259765 *||12 juin 1998||10 juil. 2001||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique||X-ray tube comprising an electron source with microtips and magnetic guiding means|
|US6285118||15 nov. 1999||4 sept. 2001||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof and display using the electron source|
|US6296740||24 avr. 1995||2 oct. 2001||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Pretreatment process for a surface texturing process|
|US6296750||19 janv. 1999||2 oct. 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Composition including black matrix material|
|US6417016||26 févr. 1999||9 juil. 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for field emitter tips|
|US6423239||8 juin 2000||23 juil. 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Methods of making an etch mask and etching a substrate using said etch mask|
|US6426234||13 févr. 2001||30 juil. 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of making field emitters using porous silicon|
|US6429582||27 mars 2000||6 août 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Display device with grille having getter material|
|US6495955||24 oct. 2000||17 déc. 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for improved field emitter arrays|
|US6498349||5 août 1999||24 déc. 2002||Ut-Battelle||Electrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy|
|US6498426||21 avr. 2000||24 déc. 2002||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof|
|US6515407||28 août 1998||4 févr. 2003||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Gated filament structures for a field emission display|
|US6515429||8 juin 2001||4 févr. 2003||Sony Corporation||Method of variable resolution on a flat panel display|
|US6555402 *||8 févr. 2002||29 avr. 2003||Micron Technology, Inc.||Self-aligned field extraction grid and method of forming|
|US6559602||8 juin 2001||6 mai 2003||Sony Corporation||Method for controlling the electric field at a fed cathode sub-pixel|
|US6590321||24 sept. 1999||8 juil. 2003||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission electron source|
|US6596141||1 mai 2001||22 juil. 2003||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display having matrix material|
|US6620640||28 mai 2002||16 sept. 2003||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of making field emitters|
|US6624590||8 juin 2001||23 sept. 2003||Sony Corporation||Method for driving a field emission display|
|US6629869||7 juin 1995||7 oct. 2003||Si Diamond Technology, Inc.||Method of making flat panel displays having diamond thin film cathode|
|US6650061||28 juil. 2000||18 nov. 2003||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Electron-source array and manufacturing method thereof as well as driving method for electron-source array|
|US6663454||8 juin 2001||16 déc. 2003||Sony Corporation||Method for aligning field emission display components|
|US6682382||8 juin 2001||27 janv. 2004||Sony Corporation||Method for making wires with a specific cross section for a field emission display|
|US6692323||14 janv. 2000||17 févr. 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method to enhance field emission in field emitter device|
|US6707061||26 oct. 2001||16 mars 2004||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission type electron source|
|US6710538||26 août 1998||23 mars 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method|
|US6729928||22 janv. 2002||4 mai 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for improved field emitter arrays|
|US6747416||21 janv. 2003||8 juin 2004||Sony Corporation||Field emission display with deflecting MEMS electrodes|
|US6756730||8 juin 2001||29 juin 2004||Sony Corporation||Field emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate and anode with alignment method|
|US6764368||16 avr. 2003||20 juil. 2004||University Of North Carolina At Charlotte||Method of fabricating a cathodo-/electro-luminescent device using a porous silicon/porous silicon carbide as an electron emitter|
|US6765342||17 oct. 2000||20 juil. 2004||Matsushita Electric Work, Ltd.||Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof|
|US6791248||15 mai 2003||14 sept. 2004||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission electron source|
|US6791278 *||27 nov. 2002||14 sept. 2004||Sony Corporation||Field emission display using line cathode structure|
|US6822379||1 oct. 2002||23 nov. 2004||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Emission device and method for forming|
|US6825596||1 mars 1996||30 nov. 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Electron emitters with dopant gradient|
|US6835111||26 nov. 2001||28 déc. 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display having porous silicon dioxide layer|
|US6844664||24 avr. 2002||18 janv. 2005||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission electron source and production method thereof|
|US6873118||27 nov. 2002||29 mars 2005||Sony Corporation||Field emission cathode structure using perforated gate|
|US6876141||11 avr. 2001||5 avr. 2005||Centro De Pesquisas Renato Archer -- Cenpra||Electron emitter structure for field emission display|
|US6882100||6 janv. 2003||19 avr. 2005||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Dielectric light device|
|US6885145||25 nov. 2003||26 avr. 2005||Sony Corporation||Field emission display using gate wires|
|US6911768||1 oct. 2002||28 juin 2005||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.||Tunneling emitter with nanohole openings|
|US6917043||30 sept. 2002||12 juil. 2005||Ut-Battelle Llc||Individually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors|
|US6924158||13 sept. 2002||2 août 2005||Microsaic Systems Limited||Electrode structures|
|US6933665||9 juil. 2002||23 août 2005||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for field emitter tips|
|US6940219||4 nov. 2003||6 sept. 2005||Sony Corporation||Field emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate|
|US6953375||29 mars 2004||11 oct. 2005||Micron Technology, Inc.||Manufacturing method of a field emission display having porous silicon dioxide insulating layer|
|US6989631||8 juin 2001||24 janv. 2006||Sony Corporation||Carbon cathode of a field emission display with in-laid isolation barrier and support|
|US7002290||8 juin 2001||21 févr. 2006||Sony Corporation||Carbon cathode of a field emission display with integrated isolation barrier and support on substrate|
|US7012582||27 nov. 2002||14 mars 2006||Sony Corporation||Spacer-less field emission display|
|US7025892||31 janv. 1995||11 avr. 2006||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Method for creating gated filament structures for field emission displays|
|US7042148||26 févr. 2004||9 mai 2006||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method|
|US7064476||12 janv. 2001||20 juin 2006||Micron Technology, Inc.||Emitter|
|US7071629||31 mars 2003||4 juil. 2006||Sony Corporation||Image display device incorporating driver circuits on active substrate and other methods to reduce interconnects|
|US7078716||27 janv. 2004||18 juil. 2006||Nano-Proprietary, Inc.||Large area electron source|
|US7078855||12 janv. 2005||18 juil. 2006||Zhizhang Chen||Dielectric light device|
|US7118439||13 avr. 2005||10 oct. 2006||Sony Corporation||Field emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate and anode with alignment method|
|US7129631||7 sept. 2004||31 oct. 2006||Micron Technology, Inc.||Black matrix for flat panel field emission displays|
|US7175495||27 févr. 2003||13 févr. 2007||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method of manufacturing field emission device and display apparatus|
|US7239076||25 sept. 2003||3 juil. 2007||General Electric Company||Self-aligned gated rod field emission device and associated method of fabrication|
|US7279085||19 juil. 2005||9 oct. 2007||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US7317278||23 janv. 2004||8 janv. 2008||Cabot Microelectronics Corporation||Method of operating and process for fabricating an electron source|
|US7326328||19 juil. 2005||5 févr. 2008||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US7375366||22 févr. 2001||20 mai 2008||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Carbon nanotube and method for producing the same, electron source and method for producing the same, and display|
|US7411341||8 août 2007||12 août 2008||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US7446601||23 juin 2004||4 nov. 2008||Astronix Research, Llc||Electron beam RF amplifier and emitter|
|US7456491||22 juil. 2005||25 nov. 2008||Pilla Subrahmanyam V S||Large area electron emission system for application in mask-based lithography, maskless lithography II and microscopy|
|US7507972||10 oct. 2005||24 mars 2009||Owlstone Nanotech, Inc.||Compact ionization source|
|US7564178||21 juil. 2009||Agere Systems Inc.||High-density field emission elements and a method for forming said emission elements|
|US7564671 *||21 juil. 2009||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Ion generator and method for controlling amount of ozone generated in the same|
|US7671687||2 mars 2010||Lechevalier Robert E||Electron beam RF amplifier and emitter|
|US7821412||14 sept. 2007||26 oct. 2010||Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc.||Smoke detector|
|US7875469||25 janv. 2011||Cabot Microelectronics Corporation||Method of operating and process for fabricating an electron source|
|US7902736||8 mars 2011||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US8809771||13 mai 2011||19 août 2014||Utah State University Research Foundation||Devices, systems, and methods for dispersive energy imaging|
|US8851714 *||18 nov. 2009||7 oct. 2014||Koninklijke Philips N.V.||Cooling arrangement for a luminaire|
|US9053890||2 août 2013||9 juin 2015||University Health Network||Nanostructure field emission cathode structure and method for making|
|US20020175608 *||9 juil. 2002||28 nov. 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for field emitter tips|
|US20030049899 *||13 sept. 2002||13 mars 2003||Microsaic Systems Limited||Electrode structures|
|US20030102793 *||24 avr. 2002||5 juin 2003||Takuya Komoda||Field emission electron source and production method thereof|
|US20030143398 *||22 févr. 2001||31 juil. 2003||Hiroshi Ohki||Carbon nanotube and method for producing the same, electron source and method for producing the same, and display|
|US20030155859 *||27 févr. 2003||21 août 2003||Masayuki Nakamoto||Method of manufacturing field emission device and display apparatus|
|US20030160557 *||6 janv. 2003||28 août 2003||Zhizhang Chen||Dielectric light device|
|US20030193296 *||27 nov. 2002||16 oct. 2003||Sony Corporation||Field emission display using line cathode structure|
|US20030193297 *||27 nov. 2002||16 oct. 2003||Sony Corporation||Field emission cathode structure using perforated gate|
|US20030197457 *||15 mai 2003||23 oct. 2003||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission electron source|
|US20030218416 *||16 avr. 2003||27 nov. 2003||Hasan Mohamed Ali||Cathodo-/electro-luminescent device and method of fabricating a cathodo-/electro-luminescent device using porous silicon/porous silicon carbide as an electron emitter|
|US20040007988 *||21 janv. 2003||15 janv. 2004||Sony Corporation, A Japanese Corporation||Field emission display with deflecting MEMS electrodes|
|US20040061432 *||1 oct. 2002||1 avr. 2004||Mcclelland Paul H.||Emission device and method for forming|
|US20040090163 *||4 nov. 2003||13 mai 2004||Sony Corporation||Field emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate|
|US20040100184 *||27 nov. 2002||27 mai 2004||Sony Corporation||Spacer-less field emission display|
|US20040104658 *||20 nov. 2003||3 juin 2004||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method to enhance field emission in field emitter device|
|US20040104667 *||25 nov. 2003||3 juin 2004||Sony Corporation||Field emission display using gate wires|
|US20040145299 *||24 janv. 2003||29 juil. 2004||Sony Corporation||Line patterned gate structure for a field emission display|
|US20040150322 *||23 janv. 2004||5 août 2004||Cabot Microelectronics Corporation||Method of operating and process for fabricating an electron source|
|US20040169453 *||26 févr. 2004||2 sept. 2004||Ahn Kie Y.||Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method|
|US20040189175 *||29 mars 2004||30 sept. 2004||Ahn Kie Y.||Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method|
|US20040189552 *||31 mars 2003||30 sept. 2004||Sony Corporation||Image display device incorporating driver circuits on active substrate to reduce interconnects|
|US20040189554 *||31 mars 2003||30 sept. 2004||Sony Corporation||Image display device incorporating driver circuits on active substrate and other methods to reduce interconnects|
|US20050023951 *||26 août 2004||3 févr. 2005||Cathey David A.||Electron emitters with dopant gradient|
|US20050023959 *||7 sept. 2004||3 févr. 2005||Micron Display Technology, Inc.||Black matrix for flat panel field emission displays|
|US20050067935 *||25 sept. 2003||31 mars 2005||Lee Ji Ung||Self-aligned gated rod field emission device and associated method of fabrication|
|US20050179397 *||13 avr. 2005||18 août 2005||Sony Corporation||Field emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate and anode with alignment method|
|US20050275336 *||1 juin 2005||15 déc. 2005||Tsinghua University||Field emission device and method for making same|
|US20050282301 *||23 août 2005||22 déc. 2005||Micron Technology, Inc.||Structure and method for field emitter tips|
|US20050285541 *||23 juin 2004||29 déc. 2005||Lechevalier Robert E||Electron beam RF amplifier and emitter|
|US20060017049 *||22 juil. 2005||26 janv. 2006||Pilla Subrahmanyam V||Large area electron emission system for application in mask-based lithography, maskless lithography II and microscopy|
|US20060152134 *||7 mars 2006||13 juil. 2006||Micron Technology, Inc.||Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method|
|US20060178076 *||21 mars 2006||10 août 2006||Masayuki Nakamoto||Method of manufacturing field emission device and display apparatus|
|US20060181188 *||14 févr. 2005||17 août 2006||Koh Seong J||High-density field emission elements and a method for forming said emission elements|
|US20060226765 *||8 juin 2006||12 oct. 2006||Cathey David A||Electronic emitters with dopant gradient|
|US20060237812 *||8 juin 2006||26 oct. 2006||Cathey David A||Electronic emitters with dopant gradient|
|US20070029911 *||19 juil. 2005||8 févr. 2007||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US20070052339 *||1 nov. 2006||8 mars 2007||Cathey David A||Electron emitters with dopant gradient|
|US20070080304 *||10 oct. 2005||12 avr. 2007||Owlstone Nanotech Inc.||Compact ionization source|
|US20070085459 *||19 juil. 2005||19 avr. 2007||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US20070222394 *||27 oct. 2006||27 sept. 2007||Rasmussen Robert T||Black matrix for flat panel field emission displays|
|US20070236856 *||19 juin 2007||11 oct. 2007||Shinji Kato||Ion Generator and Method for Controlling Amount of Ozone Generated in the Same|
|US20070247048 *||23 sept. 2005||25 oct. 2007||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitters|
|US20070273263 *||8 août 2007||29 nov. 2007||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US20080095315 *||12 déc. 2007||24 avr. 2008||Cabot Microelectronics Corporation||Method of operating and process for fabricating an electron source|
|US20080129178 *||9 janv. 2008||5 juin 2008||General Electric Company||Gated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication|
|US20090114839 *||31 oct. 2008||7 mai 2009||Lechevalier Robert E||Electron Beam RF Amplifier And Emitter|
|US20110242829 *||18 nov. 2009||6 oct. 2011||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Cooling arrangement for a luminaire|
|CN104103488A *||28 mai 2014||15 oct. 2014||北京大学||Field emission ionization source for time-of-flight mass spectrometer|
|CN104103488B *||28 mai 2014||15 juin 2016||北京大学||用于飞行时间质谱计的场发射电离源|
|DE3817604A1 *||24 mai 1988||8 déc. 1988||Mitsubishi Electric Corp||Ion beam generator for semiconductor processing|
|DE3817604C2 *||24 mai 1988||18 mai 2000||Mitsubishi Electric Corp||Ionenstrahlgenerator|
|DE3845007C2 *||24 mai 1988||28 sept. 2000||Mitsubishi Electric Corp||Ion beam generator for semiconductor processing|
|DE4304103A1 *||11 févr. 1993||19 août 1993||Micron Technology Inc||Titre non disponible|
|DE4304103C2 *||11 févr. 1993||14 févr. 2002||Micron Technology Inc||Verfahren zum Bilden selbstausgerichteter Gatestrukturen|
|DE4312049A1 *||13 avr. 1993||28 oct. 1993||Micron Technology Inc||Verfahren zum Bilden von zwischen Elektroden befindlichen Stützstrukturen|
|DE4312049C2 *||13 avr. 1993||22 mai 2003||Micron Technology Inc N D Ges||Verfahren zum Bilden von zwischen Elektroden befindlichen Stützstrukturen|
|DE4315731B4 *||11 mai 1993||27 avr. 2006||Micron Technology, Inc. (N.D.Ges.D. Staates Delaware)||Halbleiteranordnung mit Makrokorn-Substrat und Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung|
|DE19501387A1 *||18 janv. 1995||3 août 1995||Micron Technology Inc||Atomic sharp emission tips uniform array forming|
|DE19501387B4 *||18 janv. 1995||11 janv. 2007||Micron Technology, Inc.||Verfahren zum Bilden einer im wesentlichen gleichmäßigen Anordnung scharfer Emitterspitzen|
|EP0066409A1 *||18 mai 1982||8 déc. 1982||Hitachi, Ltd.||Charged particle source|
|EP0834897A1||4 oct. 1996||8 avr. 1998||SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS S.r.l.||Method of fabricating flat field emission display screens and flat screen obtained thereby|
|EP0945885A1 *||8 sept. 1994||29 sept. 1999||Silicon Video Corporation||Fabrication and structure of electron-emitting devices having high emitter packing density|
|EP1793404A2||16 nov. 1999||6 juin 2007||Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.||Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof and display using the electron source|
|WO1988001098A1 *||28 juil. 1987||11 févr. 1988||Commtech International Management Corporation||Matrix-addressed flat panel display|
|WO1991002375A1 *||17 avr. 1990||21 févr. 1991||Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.||Microminiaturized electrostatic pump|
|WO1992002030A1 *||17 oct. 1990||6 févr. 1992||International Business Machines Corporation||Process and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device|
|WO1993018536A1 *||3 mars 1993||16 sept. 1993||Mcnc||Vertical microelectronic field emission devices and methods of making same|
|WO1995007543A1 *||8 sept. 1994||16 mars 1995||Silicon Video Corporation||Fabrication and structure of electron-emitting devices having high emitter packing density|
|WO1998002784A1 *||15 juil. 1996||22 janv. 1998||Micron Display Technology, Inc.||Method of phase shift lithography|
|WO1998057349A1 *||12 juin 1998||17 déc. 1998||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique||X-ray tube comprising an electron source with microtips and magnetic guiding means|
|WO2000021112A1 *||30 sept. 1999||13 avr. 2000||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique||Electron source comprising at least a protective electrode against spurious emissions|
|WO2007044379A2 *||2 oct. 2006||19 avr. 2007||Owlstone Nanotech, Inc.||Compact ionization source|
|WO2007044379A3 *||2 oct. 2006||24 janv. 2008||Owlstone Nanotech Inc||Compact ionization source|
|Classification aux États-Unis||313/351, 250/423.00F, 313/336, 250/423.00R, 313/309|
|Classification internationale||H01T23/00, H01J1/304, H01J35/06, H01J49/16|
|Classification coopérative||H01J49/168, H01T23/00, H01J27/26, H01J1/3042, H01J35/065, H01J2237/0807|
|Classification européenne||H01J1/304B, H01T23/00, H01J35/06B, H01J49/16F, H01J27/26|
|23 févr. 1996||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SONATA INVESTMENT COMPANY, LTD., OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007854/0182
Effective date: 19951107
|23 févr. 1996||AS06||Security interest|
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION
Effective date: 19951107
Owner name: SONATA INVESTMENT COMPANY, LTD. 6480 BUSCH BOULEVA
|11 oct. 1994||AS06||Security interest|
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIP
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY 6480 BUSCH BLVD., STE. 321
Effective date: 19940930
|11 oct. 1994||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY, OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPTEL HOLDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007308/0213
Effective date: 19940930
|13 juin 1994||AS06||Security interest|
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPT
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY SUITE 321 6480 BUSCH BLVD.
Effective date: 19940517
|13 juin 1994||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY, OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPTEL HOLDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007020/0857
Effective date: 19940517