Recherche Images Maps Play YouTube Actualités Gmail Drive Plus »
Connexion
Les utilisateurs de lecteurs d'écran peuvent cliquer sur ce lien pour activer le mode d'accessibilité. Celui-ci propose les mêmes fonctionnalités principales, mais il est optimisé pour votre lecteur d'écran.

Brevets

  1. Recherche avancée dans les brevets
Numéro de publicationUS3665241 A
Type de publicationOctroi
Date de publication23 mai 1972
Date de dépôt13 juil. 1970
Date de priorité13 juil. 1970
Numéro de publicationUS 3665241 A, US 3665241A, US-A-3665241, US3665241 A, US3665241A
InventeursLouis N Heynick, Charles A Spindt
Cessionnaire d'origineStanford Research Inst
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet
Field ionizer and field emission cathode structures and methods of production
US 3665241 A
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (Le texte OCR peut contenir des erreurs.)

United States Patent Spindt et al.

[ 51 May 23, 1972 [54] FIELD IONIZER AND FIELD EMISSION CATHODE STRUCTURES AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION [72] Inventors: Charles A. Spindt, Menlo Park; Louis N.

l-leynick, Palo Alto, both of Calif.

[73] Assignee: Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park,

Calif.

[22] Filed: July 13, 1970 [21] Appl.No.: 54,222

OTHER PUBLICATIONS C. A. Spindt, A Thin Film Field- Emission Cathode," J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 6- 1968, pp. 3504- 3505.

Primary Examiner-David Schonberg Assistant Examiner-Paul A. Sacher Attorney-Urban H. Faubion and James Todorovic [57] ABSTRACT Field-forming devices primarily useful as field ionizers and field emission cathodes and having as a basic element an array of closely spaced cones with sharp points supported on a substrate (in the most usual case conductive or semiconductive) are disclosed. Preferably, the field-forming structure is completed by a screen-like structure, e.g. as fine mesh screen, insulatively supported above the points with the center of apertures in the screen substantially aligned with the longitudinal axis of corresponding cones. A novel method of forming such structures includes placing a screen with a mesh corresponding to the desired number and packing density of sharp conical points in close proximity to, or in contact with, the substrate and projecting material through the screen onto the substrate whereby sharp cones of the material are formed on the substrates.

11 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures FIELD IONIZER AND FIELD EMISSION CATIIODE STRUCTURES AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to field-forming structures such as field-ionizing and electron-emitting structures and particularly to such structures employing many cone-like emitters or ionizers on a single substrate.

Structures for forming electric fields are required for many practical applications. An electric field on the order of several megavolts per centimeter (cm) can be used to produce electron emission from materials. Electric fields on the order of 10' to volts per centimeter are useful in ionizing molecules by field extraction and collection of electrons therefrom (known as field ionization).

Electron emission is of course the heart of devices utilizing electron beams or clouds such as the many varieties of electron tubes upon which the electronics industry is built. The phenomenon of ionization plays a significant role in many scientific instruments and experiments; e.g., in ionization gauges and mass spectrometers. In mass spectrometry, an unknown material under investigation is ionized prior to injection into the analyzer or mass-separator section of the mass spectrometer. Ionization is usually produced by electron impact with the unknown material, utilizing a suitable electron source such as a thermionic emitter. However, electron impact with molecules not only ionizes them, but also tends to fragment them into two or more species, so that the mass spectrum, obtained by this ionization method, may show the presence of the daughter species but little or nothing of the parent species. Moreover, if any of the daughter species is the same as, or has a mass-to-charge ratio approximately equal to, another species originally present in the unknown material, then the mass spectrum obtained can be difficult or impossible to interpret correctly regarding the original constituents of the unknown material. In some applications where mass spectrometry is used to monitor or control other processes, e.g., the preparation of photoemissive surfaces, the use of a thermionic emitter for ionization is disadvantageous because the heat or light from the emitter tends to disturb the process. The use of a cold, non-luminous ionizer in such applications constitutes a significant improvement. Field ionization, a phenomenon in which molecules entering a region of very high electric field (10 to 10 V/cm) are ionized by extraction and collection of electrons by the field, causes substantially less fragmentation than electron-impact ionization. Also, this phenomenon does not require or involve the generation of light or heat.

In order'to reduce to a practical level the voltage required for producing the required high fields, sharp needles or points are used as emitters or field ionizing electrodes, a counter electrode is spaced from the needle-like structures and a voltage of appropriate polarity is applied therebetween. For field emission the counter electrode is made positive relative to the needle-like structures and for field ionization the reverse polarities are used (counterelectrode negative relative to the needle-like structures). However, even with the use of sharp points, if the counter electrode is spaced a macroscopic distance from the points, e.g., of the order of centimeters (usual in prior art devices), the voltages required for electron emission are of the order of kilovolts and for field ionization, approximately tenfold higher.

Despite the high field emission current density capability of a single needle-like emitter (on the order of 10 million amps per sq. cm), the total emission current from a single needle emitter is low, e.g., on the order of milliamperes, because of the minute size of its emitting area. Furthermore, the electrons are emitted over a large solid angle, and they obtain almost the total energy of the applied voltage, e.g., several thousand electron volts, within a short distance from the emitter tip. Therefore, the formation of narrow electron beams that are suitable, for example, for use in high-power, beam-type electron tubes, requires elaborate and expensive focusing apparatus.

Ionization efficiency of prior art field ionizers of the single needle-like structure is very low for reasons similar or analogous to the problems described above relative to the cathodes. That is, one reason ionization efiiciency is low is that the effective region where ionization takes place is confined to the small volume in the immediate vicinity of the apex of the sharp point so that the rate of ion production for a given pressure of material to be analyzed is much lower for field ionization than for electron-impact ionization. A second reason is that the field-produced ions attain velocities equivalent to the voltage applied between ionizer and counter electrode and the ions are impelled away from the ionizer over a very wide range of angles, so that only a small fraction of the ions are collimated into a beam suitable for injection into the analyzer of the mass spectrometer without employing complex ion-optical lenses.

Parallel operation of many needle-like members to increase the total current for a cathode and to provide a correspondingly large ionization volume in the case of the field ionizer is feasible, but the problems of formation of the parallel structures, focusing the electron beams (for the cathodes), and providing ion-optical collimation (in the field ionization structures) are formidable. For example, in the field ionizer case, ion-optical collimation is practical only if emission energies of the ions can be kept small, which necessitates spacings between the ionizer and counter-electrode of the order of microns with the ionizer point having a tip radius of a fraction of a micron, e.g., 0.1 micron. Also, it is desirable to space the needle-like structures as close together as possible without incurring significant decrease of the field at each point by the presence of its neighbors.

Many of the problems thought to be inherent in parallel operation of fine needle-like structures under consideration have been solved by a structure and the methods of producing that structure disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,453,478 Needle- Type Electron Source, dated July 1, 1969, and 3,497,929, Method of Making a Needle-Type Electron Source, dated Mar. 3, 1970 in the names of Kenneth R. Shoulders and Louis N. Heynick, and assigned to Stanford Research Institute.

In the patents referred to above, the electric field-producing structure effectively includes two closely spaced surfaces. On the first, or emitting surface, a large number of sharp needlelike emitting sites are distributed with a packing density limited only by the fabrication technology used. The surface can be planar or curved and of a size to suit the intended application. The second surface, called an accelerator surface, is the electrode used to produce the field. It consists of a very thin foil or film of metal of the same contour as the surface with the emitter sites, and is suitably supported and electrically insulated therefrom in spacings ranging from fraction of a micron to several microns.

In the preferred embodiment, described in the patents, the accelerator surface is supported above the emitter surface by a dielectric layer therebetween, in the manner of a sandwich, and holes through the accelerator and dielectric layers are provided so as to expose the tips of several emitters at each hole location to the rim of the hole in the accelerator electrode. Because of the minimal separation range between the emitter surface and the accelerator surface, the voltage needed to produce field emission ranges from only a few volts to about volts, and the emitted electrons emerge from the holes in the accelerator with correspondingly low energies.

While the structure referred to above represents a considerable advance over any of the structures known to the prior art, the method of producing the structure can yield needle-like electrodes that are not necessarily uniform in numbers and shapes from emitter site to emitter site, thus introducing corresponding variations in performance. Many of the problems of the multiple-needle structure are overcome by providing a single, uniform needle-like electrode at each site with specific, essentially identical, configuration. A means of producing a single needle-like electrode at each site is described in an article by C. A. Spindt (one of the inventors of the present invention) entitled A Thin-Film Field-Emission Cathode" in the Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, No. 7, 3,5043,505, June 1968. Further, a means providing a single uniform needle-like electrode at each site which represents an improvement over the method and structure described in the previous patents and the Spindt paper is described and claimed in a U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 9,139, entitled Field Emission Cathode Structure, Devices Using Such Struc' ture, and Method of Producing Such Structure," filed Feb. 6, 1970, in the names of Louis N. Heynick, Kenneth R. Shoulders, and Charles A. Spindt and assigned to the assignee of the present invention.

Subsequent to conception of the structures and methods described in the above-referenced patents, application and paper, .use of similar structures operated in reverse polarity as a closely spaced parallel array of field ionizers, in which each sharp metal point produces positive ions was conceived. In the cathode structure sandwich, the dielectric film thickness is in the order of l 2 y. and the metal points are of about the same height above the emitter surface. However, field ionization in any such structure having specific values of tip sharpness and distance between counter electrode and points requires voltages approximately tenfold higher between electrodes than those required for field emission. Consequently, the dielectric layer between the emitter surface and counter-electrode must be capable of withstanding the higher fields without dielectric breakdown. This requirement can be met by making the dielectric thickness large relative to the distance between the counter-electrode and the tips, or by providing other means for insuring adequate insulation between the emitter surface and the counter-electrode.

In addition to providing a multi-point ionizer, the present invention provides uniform arrays of points, suitable electrode and counter-electrodes therefor, and improved means for producing such structures in which the ratio of dielectric thickness to distance between counter-electrode and tips and also geometries chosen optimally for field emitters or ionizers or both.

Particularly in view of the fact that the spacing between emitter tips and the counter-electrode may be different for field emitters and field ionizers, it is highly desirable to be able to produce the fine needle-like points of uniform shape and spacing on a substrate independent of a metal/dielectric/metal film sandwich. That is, it is important to be able to produce a precision, highly uniform bare point array on a substrate (electrode most commonly). With such a structure, one or more counter-electrodes may be added with the desired spacing, dielectric thickness or other adequate insulation, and the proper registry relative to the points of the bare point array. The present invention provides the capability of producing such results.

As described in greater detail below, in accordance with the teachings of the present invention a bare-point structure is provided in which a regular array of closely spaced metallic points of controlled geometry is formed by deposition through a fine mesh plate or screen uniformly over the surface of a metal substrate which represents an electrode.

Where the bare-point array is desired, the screen may be removed. Where a counter-electrode is desired, the screen may be left in place or removed and replaced by another counter-electrode of desired configuration. A field ionization structure is provided by making the counter-electrode of the arrangement just described negative relative to the substrate electrode and providing the proper electrode-counter-electrode spacing as well as ratio of such spacing to the distance between counter-electrode and electrode points. The field emitter is provided by applying the opposite polarity between electrodes and providing optimally different spacings. Additional electrodes can be added to the structure to provide multi-electrode control of the electron or ion optical characteristics as well as the current emerging from the holes. Multielement vacuum tubes can also be produced by adding appropriate electrodes and closing the device. Further, the field ionizer may be constructed by the same general method described in connection with the Heynick, Shoulders, and Spindt application referred to above with modifications described herein.

The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objectives and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view, showing a bare-point array (pyramidal embodiment) constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a portion of a device utilizing the bare-point array of FIG. 1 and constructed in accordance with this invention;

FIGS. 3 through 5, inclusive, are cross-sectional views taken along the lines 33 of FIG. 2 for successive steps in the method of producing the structure of FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view similar to the device of FIG. 5, but illustrating another embodiment which is constructed in a different way;

FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view of a field ionizer according to one embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 8 is a broken-away cross-sectional along lines 8-8 in FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a partially broken-away cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the invention.

A form of the basic bare-point array 10 useful for both field electron emitters and field ionization is illustrated in FIG. 1. The structure 10 includes a substrate 11 and an array of bare points 12 formed thereon. In the embodiment shown, the bare points 12 are pyramidal but may be of other conical shapes. The substrate 11 is preferably conductive in order to form one electrode. In the embodiment illustrated, substrate 11 is a sheet of molybdenum but it may be of other suitable metal, or a non-metal coated with a conductive film as, for example, a plate of aluminum oxide coated with a film of molybdenum. For some applications, it may be preferable to use a semi-conductive material or even an insulator for the substrate 11. As illustrated, the pyramids 12 are of molybdenum, have square bases, are 0.6 mil high, and are spaced apart by 1 mil (center to center). However, the pyramids 12 may be of resistive or insulating materials, or of composite materials, and the pyramid surfaces overcoated or otherwise treated to obtain the desired characteristics.

Bare-point arrays 10 require a field-producing electrode in order to produce the electric field required to cause electron emission or ionization in the region of the array of points or pyramids 12. The electrode is preferably but not necessarily analogous to the top conduction film in the sandwich configurations described in the previously cited patents and application. FIG. 2 illustrates a device incorporating the bare-point array of FIG. 1 and the additional electrode 12 (referred to as a counter-electrode) to provide the required electric field. As illustrated, the counter-electrode 13 comprises a screen (or plate) having a distribution of holes or apertures 14 therein, shown square in this embodiment, corresponding substantially to the distribution of points 12 on the substrate. The brokenaway cross-sectional view of FIG. 5 may help to visualize the device. Looking at the two FIGS. (2 and 5) it is seen that the device comprises a substrate 11 having points 12 formed thereon and a screen (counter-electrode 13) supported above the substrate by an insulating spacer 15 at the periphery of the screen. In a preferred version of this embodiment, registration between the screen 13 and the substrate 11 is maintained by spacer 15 so that the center of each screen hole 14 is substantially aligned with the axis of a difi'erent point 12 of the basepoint array 10, and so that the tips of the points 12 are substantially in the plane of the screen 13. Furthermore, the ratio of the height of points 12 above substrate 11 to the distance cal breakdown of insulator spacer 15. One means of assuring that the breakdown doesnt occur is seen in another version of this embodiment which is illustrated in FIG. 9.

For convenience and simplicity, the illustration of FIG. 9 has parts which correspond to those of FIGS. 2 through 6, inclusive, numbered correspondingly. Here, the perimeter of the substrate 11 (or counter-electrode 13, if preferred) is shaped so as to permit the use of a thicker insulator spacer 15, thereby permitting the application of higher 13 without causing electrical breakdown of insulator spacer 15.

The basic mode of operationof the field ionizer may be best explained in connection with FIGS. 2 and 5 wherein the ionizer points 12 of array 10 are shown connected by means of their common conductive substrate 11 to a positive terminal of a voltage power supply 16. The sharp tip points 12 are each located in or near a hole 14 of counter-electrode (screen) 13, which is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply 16. Application of a voltage from power supply 16 produces a high electric field in the region of the points 12. In such an arrangement, electrically neutral particles entering the holes 14 are positively ionized by the high electric field, the action of the field being to remove electrons from the particles, which electrons are collected by the points 12. The positive ions so created are impelled away from the ionizer points 12 through the holes 14 of the counter-electrode 13.

For producing field electron emission, the potential source is connected with its positive terminal to counter-electrode (accelerator electrode) 13, and its negative terminal connected to array (emitter electrode) 10. The potential source may be made variable for the purpose of controlling the electron emission current. Upon application of a potential between the electrodes 10 and 13 an electric field is established between the points (emitting protuberances) 12 and the counter-electrode 13, which of a polarity to cause electrons to be emitted from the points 12 through the holes 14in the screen 13.

Thus it is seen that efficiency limitations of one ionizer point or one field emitter cathode point as well as the limitations of prior attempts at parallel operation of such single point devices are largely overcome by providing a structure consisting of an array 10 of closely spaced points 12 with sharp tips in close proximity to the counter-electrode 13 which has a corresponding array of holes 14. In this structure the holes 14, the distance between points 12 or holes 14, as well as the spacing between point tips and the counter-electrode, are in the micron range, and most points 12 yield substantially equivalent performance. Insulator spacers 15 which separate the outer edges of the electrode 10 and counter-electrode 13 have the requisite thickness to withstand the electric field.

The ability to produce the bare-point array 10 with such uniformity of points 12 and hence the ability to produce field ionizers and field electron emitters of such precision and efficiency is highly dependent upon the methods of construction. The method of the present invention yields the precise results desired.

In order to understand the steps in one method used in the fabrication of the array 10 (of FIG. 1) and the completed device (FIGS. 2 and 5), reference may be had specifically to FIGS. 3 through 5, inclusive, which represent sections through one portion of the device illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 3 illustrates the substrate 11 of the bare-point array structure 10 before the field-forming points 12 are formed thereon. That is, FIG. 3 shows a starter structure consisting of only the substrate 1 l and a fine mesh screen (plate) 13 having a multiplicity of holes or apertures 14 therein supported above the substrate 11 by an insulating dielectric spacer 15. If the screen 13 is later to be removed to provide only the bare-point array 10 of (FIG. 1), the screen may be placed in direct contact with substrate 11 and the dielectric spacer 15 may be eliminated. Since this embodiment contemplates that the masking screen and the counter-electrode 13 will be one and the same, the spacer 15 is shown, and also a release layer 18 is provided on the screen 13 so that materials subsequently deposited thereon in the array-forming process may readily be removed.

In order to provide the sharp points 12 as shown in FIG. 4 and thereby complete the pyramidal array 10 of FIG. 1, a simultaneous deposition from two sources is performed. That is, simultaneously a closure material (e.g., a molybdenum-alumina composite) is deposited at a grazing incidence, and the material for the pyramid, e.g., molybdenum, is deposited straight on the substrate surface. In this step, the purpose of the deposition at grazing incidence is to add material on screen 13 so as to provide a mask with holes 14 of decreasing size for the deposition of material on substrate 11. As additional emitter material is deposited on substrate 11, the molybdenum-alumina composite masking material gradually closes the aperture at the upper lip of the holes 14, as shown in FIG. 4. The closure is indicated by theadditional film l9 deposited on the release layer 18. In FIG. 4 the apertures 14 are shown as being completely closed and pyramids 12 completely formed. Thus, cone-shaped (pyramidal here) points are formed on the conductive substrate 11. If the screen 13 used is provided with round apertures instead of the square ones shown, then the points 12 formed are right circular cones instead of the pyramids illustrated.

With the step just described, the array 10 of FIG. 1 is completed and'the screen 13 and spacer 15 may be removed, leaving the bare-point array 10. Another screen-like counterelectrode can then be added to form the structure of FIG. 2. If it is desired to use the screen 13 as counter-electrode of FIG. 2, Screen 13 and spacer 15 need not be removed. Instead, the materials deposited on the screen, viz., release layer 18 and the subsequently deposited closure layer 19 may be selectively etched or floated away, leaving the bare screen structure as illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 2.

If larger spacings between counter-electrode 13 and substrate 11 are desired, to accommodate thicker dielectric spacers 15, the points 12 may be formed on previously produced pedestals (not shown), which pedestals are produced by a prior deposition step, utilizing a source which deposits material along a direction perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and which material is preferably the same material, e.g., molybdenum, as the metal electrode (substrate) 11 or a more resistive material, e.g., a molybdenumalumina composition. Such a deposition step would deposit a film on the release layer 18 without closing the screen holes 14 and, more importantly, pedestals with essentially vertical sides and bases of size and shape of apertures 14 in the screen 13 are deposited directly upon the substrate 11. The pedestal height is selected by controlling the amount of material deposited. Since the array of FIG. 1 does not have such pedestals, this step is not illustrated. However, a specific embodiment of a complete device incorporating such pedestals is shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, described later herein.

In the embodiment illustrated, the screen 13 has a uniform array of square holes 14, spaced on 1 mil centers. The pyramids formed then have square bases of corresponding size and spacing to the screen mesh and of a height controlled by the relative rates of deposition of the sources. In other embodiments, the holes 14 may have other configurations and/or the deposition rates may be varied during the formation process to provide a variety of shapes. Further, the formation process may be halted prior to hole closure so as to form truncated pyramids, cones, or suitable variants thereof.

An alternative deposition technique incorporates the use of a single deposition source which is broad enough to perform both the hole-closure and point-formation functions. This deposition source and technique may also be applied to the sandwich starter structure described in the previously cited patents and applications.

One embodiment specifically designed for field ionizer application and utilizing a metal/dielectric/metal sandwich structure with counter-electrode 30 which corresponds to the screen counter-electrode 13 of FIG. 2 is illustrated in FIGS. 7 and 8. In this embodiment the counter-electrode 30 is formed of the upper metal film of the sandwich structure which is provided with a plurality of holes or apertures 28 therethrough. Dielectric film 31, the center layer of the sandwich, is on top of a base metal film 32 which serves as a base electrode and which is connected to the positive terminal of the power supply 24. As illustrated, the base metal film 32 is shown on a dielectric support substrate 43 which only serves to support the base metal film 32. Films 30 and 32 are formed of metal such as molybdenum or tungsten, while film 31 which insulates films 30 and 32 from one another is formed of dielectric material, e.g., aluminum oxide.

The dielectric film 31 has holes corresponding to the holes in film 30 and each hole accommodates a point ionizer 40 with its base in contact with the base electrode 32 and tip 26 preferably aligned with the plane of the hole 28 in the top electrode30 to minimize the distance between tip and hole rim. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view along lines 88 in FIG. 7. In FIG. 8 the hole in dielectric film 31 is designated by numeral 36. The point ionizer 40 is shown in the form of a cone 41 on top of a pedestal 42, a configuration that permits independent selection of the height of the tips 26 above base 32, the sharpness of the tip 26, and the distance between tips 26 and hole rims 28 so as to provide optimum geometry for operation of the structure as a field ionizer.

Another highly practical way to utilize the bare-point arrays 10 is shown cross-sectionally in FIG. 6. In this embodiment a conductive screen 13 having substantially the same distribution of holes as the points 12 on the substrate 11 is supported above the substrate 11 by insulator spacers 23 of appropriate height and distribution. One method for producing such structures is to form an insulator 23 of the requisite thickness on the screen 13 by deposition or other means, which insulator thereby conforms substantially to the cellular structure of the screen, after which the screen-insulator combination is set and maintained on the substrate. An advantage of this method is that self-registry of holes and points is achieved.

Bare arrays of points can be made to yield very large emission currents by the use of an electrode to which appropriate positive potentials relative to the points are applied, e.g., in diode rectifiers, X-ray generating tubes, and Lenard-ray tubes. Therefore, it is contemplated that bare-point arrays 10 or individual members of such arrays be sealed off opposed to another electrode either with or without intermediate electrodes. Substrate-screen assemblies having the points in substantial or complete registration with the holes in the screen can be used as large-emission current cathodes by applying suitable positive potentials to the screen relative to the substrate. In contradistinction to the operation of the diode configurations cited above, the screen provides the fields required for electron emission from the points, but most of the emission drawn passes through the screen holes, so that the screen functions to control the current in the manner of a grid. Additional grids may also be employed to render the emission more uniform or otherwise control the emission.

The methods for producing an array of points in registry with holes in screens are adaptable to the production of cathodes subdivided into areas containing one or more points, from which areas emission can be drawn separately by the application of appropriate potentials thereto. Such methods can also be adapted to the production of arrays of individual but suitably interconnected field emission diodes, triodes, tetrodes, etc.

All the operational advantages of the multipoint field ionizer described above are achievable also with the field emitters of the same general structure with parameters optimized for such use. Again, such structures constitute field ionizers when operated with reverse polarities to those used for obtaining field emitted electrons, and such structures can be produced by the methods previously described so that the values of the geometric parameters are optimum for field ionization use. This is not to say, however, that the method of producing the ionizer from the metal/dielectric/metal sandwich is equivalent to, or can be made with, the same degree of accuracy as the improved screen-forming techniques herein described.

While particular embodiments of the invention are shown, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to these structures since many modifications may be made both in the material and arrangement of elements. It is contemplated that the appended claims will cover such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

What is claimed is:

1. An electric field-forming device consisting of a plate-like substrate and a multiplicity of sharp needle-like elements located on one surface of said substrate, said needle-like elements being highly uniform in shape and uniformly spaced on said substrate said substrate and at least one portion of said needle-like elements being of conductive material and the other portion of said needle-like elements being of a higher resistivity material than said plate-like substrate.

2. An electric field-forming device as defined in claim 1 wherein said needle-like elements each have a substantially cylindrical pedestal on said substrate and an essentially conical portion on said pedestal.

3. An electric field-forming device as defined in claim 2 wherein said needle-like elements and said plate-like substrate are conductive and the said pedestal is of a higher resistivity material than either said second electrode or said conical portion.

4. An electric field-producing structure comprising first and second conductive electrodes and an insulator separating and insulating said first and second electrodes from each other, said first electrode comprising a conductive plate-like screen member having a plurality of apertures therethrough, said second electrode comprising a conductive plate-like member having a plurality of individual needle-like conical members projecting from one surface thereof and said insulator supporting said electrodes only at their outer periphery in such a manner that said needle-like conical members of said second electrode project toward said first electrode and at least some of said needle-like members are positioned with a projection of their longitudinal axes extending through apertures in said first electrode.

5. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 4 wherein said first and second electrodes are spaced further apart at their outer periphery than in the central portion where said conical members and apertures occur whereby said insulating member is thicker than the electrode spacing at said center portion of said electrodes.

6. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 4 wherein each of said individual needlelike conical members has its longitudinal axis in substantial alignment with the center of a corresponding aperture in said first electrode.

7. An electric field-producing structure as defined in claim 6 wherein said first and second electrodes are spaced further apart at their outer periphery than in the central portion where said conical members and apertures occur whereby said insulating member is thicker than the electrode spacing at said center portion of said electrodes.

8. A field-ionizing device including a structure as defined in claim 4 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.

9. A field-ionizing device including the structure defined in claim 5 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.

10. A field-ionizing device including the structure defined in claim 6 and means for applying a potential source between said first and second electrodes with said second electrode positive relative to said first electrode.

Référencé par
Brevet citant Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US3783325 *21 déc. 19711 janv. 1974Us ArmyField effect electron gun having at least a million emitting fibers per square centimeter
US3814968 *11 févr. 19724 juin 1974Lucas Industries LtdSolid state radiation sensitive field electron emitter and methods of fabrication thereof
US3852595 *21 sept. 19723 déc. 1974Stanford Research InstMultipoint field ionization source
US3921022 *3 sept. 197418 nov. 1975Rca CorpField emitting device and method of making same
US3970887 *19 juin 197420 juil. 1976Micro-Bit CorporationMicro-structure field emission electron source
US3982147 *7 mars 197521 sept. 1976Charles RedmanElectric device for processing signals in three dimensions
US3998678 *20 mars 197421 déc. 1976Hitachi, Ltd.Multilayer
US4008412 *18 août 197515 févr. 1977Hitachi, Ltd.Thin-film field-emission electron source and a method for manufacturing the same
US4103199 *14 juin 197625 juil. 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyElectronic device for processing signals in three dimensions
US4163949 *27 déc. 19777 août 1979Joe SheltonTubistor
US4178531 *15 juin 197711 déc. 1979Rca CorporationCRT with field-emission cathode
US4307507 *10 sept. 198029 déc. 1981The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyMethod of manufacturing a field-emission cathode structure
US4513308 *23 sept. 198223 avr. 1985The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navyp-n Junction controlled field emitter array cathode
US4780684 *22 oct. 198725 oct. 1988Hughes Aircraft CompanyMicrowave integrated distributed amplifier with field emission triodes
US4816684 *25 août 198728 mars 1989Breton Jacques L GHigh-powered negative ion generator in a gaseous medium with a high-strength electric field configuration
US4818914 *17 juil. 19874 avr. 1989Sri InternationalHigh efficiency lamp
US4857799 *30 juil. 198615 août 1989Sri InternationalMatrix-addressed flat panel display
US4874981 *10 mai 198817 oct. 1989Sri InternationalAutomatically focusing field emission electrode
US4926056 *10 juin 198815 mai 1990Sri InternationalMicroelectronic field ionizer and method of fabricating the same
US4943343 *14 août 198924 juil. 1990Zaher BardaiConical elements on substrate
US4983878 *24 août 19888 janv. 1991The General Electric Company, P.L.C.Field induced emission devices and method of forming same
US5053673 *17 oct. 19891 oct. 1991Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Field emission cathodes and method of manufacture thereof
US5063327 *29 janv. 19905 nov. 1991Coloray Display CorporationField emission cathode based flat panel display having polyimide spacers
US5064396 *29 janv. 199012 nov. 1991Coloray Display CorporationMethod of manufacturing an electric field producing structure including a field emission cathode
US5089707 *14 nov. 199018 févr. 1992Ism Technologies, Inc.Ion beam generating apparatus with electronic switching between multiple cathodes
US5097231 *16 mai 199017 mars 1992Varian Associates, Inc.Quasi-passive, non-radioactive receiver protector device
US5141459 *21 févr. 199225 août 1992International Business Machines CorporationStructures and processes for fabricating field emission cathodes
US5160871 *12 juin 19903 nov. 1992Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Flat configuration image display apparatus and manufacturing method thereof
US5163328 *6 août 199017 nov. 1992Colin Electronics Co., Ltd.Miniature pressure sensor and pressure sensor arrays
US5170092 *16 mai 19908 déc. 1992Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Electron-emitting device and process for making the same
US5180288 *17 avr. 199019 janv. 1993Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Angewandten Forschung E.V.Microminiaturized electrostatic pump
US5186670 *2 mars 199216 févr. 1993Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form self-aligned gate structures and focus rings
US5203731 *5 mars 199220 avr. 1993International Business Machines CorporationProcess and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device
US5205770 *12 mars 199227 avr. 1993Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form high aspect ratio supports (spacers) for field emission display using micro-saw technology
US5209687 *23 juin 199211 mai 1993Sony CorporationFlat panel display apparatus and a method of manufacturing thereof
US5210462 *30 déc. 199111 mai 1993Sony CorporationFlat panel display apparatus and a method of manufacturing thereof
US5221221 *22 janv. 199122 juin 1993Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaFabrication process for microminiature electron emitting device
US5229331 *14 févr. 199220 juil. 1993Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form self-aligned gate structures around cold cathode emitter tips using chemical mechanical polishing technology
US5232549 *14 avr. 19923 août 1993Micron Technology, Inc.Flat panel displays
US5235244 *8 sept. 199210 août 1993Innovative Display Development PartnersAutomatically collimating electron beam producing arrangement
US5237180 *31 déc. 199117 août 1993Eastman Kodak CompanyHigh resolution image source
US5243252 *19 déc. 19907 sept. 1993Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Electron field emission device
US5245192 *7 oct. 199114 sept. 1993Houseman Barton LSelective ionization apparatus and methods
US5259799 *17 nov. 19929 nov. 1993Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form self-aligned gate structures and focus rings
US5302238 *15 mai 199212 avr. 1994Micron Technology, Inc.Plasma dry etch to produce atomically sharp asperities useful as cold cathodes
US5329207 *13 mai 199212 juil. 1994Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission structures produced on macro-grain polysilicon substrates
US5334908 *23 déc. 19922 août 1994International Business Machines CorporationStructures and processes for fabricating field emission cathode tips using secondary cusp
US5359256 *30 juil. 199225 oct. 1994The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyRegulatable field emitter device and method of production thereof
US5371431 *4 mars 19926 déc. 1994McncVertical microelectronic field emission devices including elongate vertical pillars having resistive bottom portions
US5372973 *27 avr. 199313 déc. 1994Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form self-aligned gate structures around cold cathode emitter tips using chemical mechanical polishing technology
US5374868 *11 sept. 199220 déc. 1994Micron Display Technology, Inc.Filling trenches with conformal insulating layer, a highly conductive layer and a polysilicon layer; etching; emitter tips
US5378963 *31 janv. 19943 janv. 1995Sony CorporationField emission type flat display apparatus
US5391259 *21 janv. 199421 févr. 1995Micron Technology, Inc.Plasma etching continuing after full undercut while mask remains balanced on pointed tips
US5397957 *10 nov. 199214 mars 1995International Business Machines CorporationProcess and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device
US5424241 *14 juin 199413 juin 1995Smiths Industries Aerospace & Defense Systems, Inc.Forming insulating and support layers on substrate; forming recess in insulating layer and aperture in support layer; depositing single crystal silicon cone and fully enclosing it within recess
US5438240 *22 avr. 19941 août 1995Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission structures produced on macro-grain polysilicon substrates
US5445550 *22 déc. 199329 août 1995Xie; ChenggangLateral field emitter device and method of manufacturing same
US5462467 *8 sept. 199331 oct. 1995Silicon Video CorporationFabrication of filamentary field-emission device, including self-aligned gate
US5463269 *6 mars 199231 oct. 1995International Business Machines CorporationProcess and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device
US5466982 *18 oct. 199314 nov. 1995Honeywell Inc.Comb toothed field emitter structure having resistive and capacitive coupled input
US5473219 *11 oct. 19945 déc. 1995Sony CorporationField emission type flat display apparatus
US5475280 *30 août 199412 déc. 1995McncVertical microelectronic field emission devices
US5496199 *23 mai 19955 mars 1996Nec CorporationElectron beam radiator with cold cathode integral with focusing grid member and process of fabrication thereof
US5500572 *11 mars 199319 mars 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyHigh resolution image source
US5514847 *24 janv. 19947 mai 1996Nec CorporationElectron beam radiator with cold cathode integral with focusing grid member and process of fabrication thereof
US5526703 *21 août 199218 juin 1996Smiths Industries Aerospace & Defense Systems, Inc.Force detecting sensor and method of making
US5528099 *26 janv. 199518 juin 1996Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationLateral field emitter device
US5529524 *5 juin 199525 juin 1996Fed CorporationMethod of forming a spacer structure between opposedly facing plate members
US5531880 *13 sept. 19942 juil. 1996Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationPlanarization by mechanical pressing
US5532177 *7 juil. 19932 juil. 1996Micron Display TechnologyMethod for forming electron emitters
US5534743 *7 sept. 19949 juil. 1996Fed CorporationField emission display devices, and field emission electron beam source and isolation structure components therefor
US5536193 *23 juin 199416 juil. 1996Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationMethod of making wide band gap field emitter
US5543684 *20 juin 19946 août 1996Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationFlat panel display based on diamond thin films
US5545946 *17 déc. 199313 août 1996MotorolaField emission display with getter in vacuum chamber
US5548181 *5 juin 199520 août 1996Fed CorporationField emission device comprising dielectric overlayer
US5551903 *19 oct. 19943 sept. 1996Microelectronics And Computer TechnologyMethod of making a field emission cathode
US5559389 *24 nov. 199324 sept. 1996Silicon Video CorporationElectron-emitting devices having variously constituted electron-emissive elements, including cones or pedestals
US5561339 *7 sept. 19941 oct. 1996Fed CorporationField emission array magnetic sensor devices
US5561340 *31 janv. 19951 oct. 1996Lucent Technologies Inc.Field emission display having corrugated support pillars and method for manufacturing
US5562516 *22 mai 19958 oct. 1996Silicon Video CorporationField-emitter fabrication using charged-particle tracks
US5565754 *6 sept. 199515 oct. 1996International Business Machines CorporationColour field emission display
US5569973 *6 juin 199529 oct. 1996International Business Machines CorporationIntegrated microelectronic device
US5578185 *31 janv. 199526 nov. 1996Silicon Video CorporationMethod for creating gated filament structures for field emision displays
US5583393 *24 mars 199410 déc. 1996Fed CorporationSelectively shaped field emission electron beam source, and phosphor array for use therewith
US5587586 *3 oct. 199524 déc. 1996U.S. Philips CorporationParticle-optical apparatus comprising an electron source with a needle and a membrane-like extraction electrode
US5587623 *3 avr. 199624 déc. 1996Fed CorporationField emitter structure and method of making the same
US5600200 *7 juin 19954 févr. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationWire-mesh cathode
US5601966 *7 juin 199511 févr. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationForming electroconductive stripe on substrate surface, then covering it with a dielectric layer and another conductive layer, patterning and etching expose parts of conductive stripe for pixels
US5612712 *7 juin 199518 mars 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationDiode structure flat panel display
US5614353 *7 juin 199525 mars 1997Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Coonductive line
US5619097 *5 juin 19958 avr. 1997Fed CorporationPanel display with dielectric spacer structure
US5628659 *24 avr. 199513 mai 1997Microelectronics And Computer CorporationMethod of making a field emission electron source with random micro-tip structures
US5629583 *28 mars 199613 mai 1997Fed CorporationFlat panel display assembly comprising photoformed spacer structure, and method of making the same
US5647785 *13 sept. 199515 juil. 1997McncMethods of making vertical microelectronic field emission devices
US5652083 *7 juin 199529 juil. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationForming a plurality of diamond emitter regions on cathode stripes; patterning and etching conductive layer
US5663608 *17 avr. 19962 sept. 1997Fed CorporationField emission display devices, and field emisssion electron beam source and isolation structure components therefor
US5675216 *7 juin 19957 oct. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technololgy Corp.Method of operating a cathode
US5679043 *1 juin 199521 oct. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology CorporationMethod of making a field emitter
US5686791 *7 juin 199511 nov. 1997Microelectronics And Computer Technology Corp.Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5688158 *24 août 199518 nov. 1997Fed CorporationPlanarizing process for field emitter displays and other electron source applications
US5692942 *30 nov. 19952 déc. 1997The Boc Group, Inc.Display forming method
US5695658 *7 mars 19969 déc. 1997Micron Display Technology, Inc.Non-photolithographic etch mask for submicron features
US5696028 *2 sept. 19949 déc. 1997Micron Technology, Inc.Forming emitter tip on substrate, disposing insulators adjacent tip, disposing conductive layer, planarizing, selectively removing portions of insulator to expose tip
US5703435 *23 mai 199630 déc. 1997Microelectronics & Computer Technology Corp.Diamond film flat field emission cathode
US5719477 *12 juil. 199617 févr. 1998Nec CorporationElectron gun for cathode ray tube
US5726524 *31 mai 199610 mars 1998Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyField emission device having nanostructured emitters
US5734226 *15 août 199431 mars 1998Micron Technology, Inc.For removing residual gases
US5747815 *24 juil. 19965 mai 1998Northrop Grumman CorporationMicro-miniature ionizer for gas sensor applications and method of making micro-miniature ionizer
US5753130 *18 juin 199619 mai 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Method for forming a substantially uniform array of sharp tips
US5755944 *7 juin 199626 mai 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationFormation of layer having openings produced by utilizing particles deposited under influence of electric field
US5763997 *1 juin 19959 juin 1998Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Field emission display device
US5766446 *5 mars 199616 juin 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationElectrochemical removal of material, particularly excess emitter material in electron-emitting device
US5766829 *30 mai 199516 juin 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Method of phase shift lithography
US5770919 *31 déc. 199623 juin 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission device micropoint with current-limiting resistive structure and method for making same
US5779920 *12 nov. 199614 juil. 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Luminescent screen with mask layer
US5801477 *31 janv. 19951 sept. 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationGated filament structures for a field emission display
US5811020 *23 juil. 199722 sept. 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Non-photolithographic etch mask for submicron features
US5811928 *21 juil. 199722 sept. 1998The Boc Group, Inc.Concave display
US5813892 *12 juil. 199629 sept. 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationUse of charged-particle tracks in fabricating electron-emitting device having resistive layer
US5818500 *6 mai 19916 oct. 1998Eastman Kodak CompanyHigh resolution field emission image source and image recording apparatus
US5827099 *7 déc. 199527 oct. 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationUse of early formed lift-off layer in fabricating gated electron-emitting devices
US5828163 *13 janv. 199727 oct. 1998Fed CorporationField emitter device with a current limiter structure
US5828288 *24 août 199527 oct. 1998Fed CorporationSemi-insulating material sandwiched between electron injector and hole injector; performance; reliability
US5831378 *25 août 19973 nov. 1998Micron Technology, Inc.Insulative barrier useful in field emission displays for reducing surface leakage
US5841219 *6 janv. 199724 nov. 1998University Of Utah Research FoundationMicrominiature thermionic vacuum tube
US5844351 *24 août 19951 déc. 1998Fed CorporationField emitter device, and veil process for THR fabrication thereof
US5851669 *22 mai 199522 déc. 1998Candescent Technologies CorporationField-emission device that utilizes filamentary electron-emissive elements and typically has self-aligned gate
US5857882 *27 févr. 199612 janv. 1999Sandia CorporationProcessing of materials for uniform field emission
US5861707 *7 juin 199519 janv. 1999Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Field emitter with wide band gap emission areas and method of using
US5865657 *7 juin 19962 févr. 1999Candescent Technologies CorporationFabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to form gate openings typically beveled and/or combined with lift-off or electrochemical removal of excess emitter material
US5865659 *7 juin 19962 févr. 1999Candescent Technologies CorporationFabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings and utilizing spacer material to control spacing between gate layer and electron-emissive elements
US5874808 *21 août 199723 févr. 1999Busta; Heinz H.Low turn-on voltage volcano-shaped field emitter and integration into an addressable array
US5886460 *20 nov. 199723 mars 1999Fed CorporationField emitter device, and veil process for the fabrication thereof
US5892231 *5 févr. 19976 avr. 1999Lockheed Martin Energy Research CorporationVirtual mask digital electron beam lithography
US5893967 *30 juin 199713 avr. 1999Candescent Technologies CorporationSuitable for products such as cathode-ray tube displays of the flat-panel type
US5903098 *6 janv. 199711 mai 1999Fed CorporationField emission display device having multiplicity of through conductive vias and a backside connector
US5903243 *6 janv. 199711 mai 1999Fed CorporationCompact, body-mountable field emission display device, and display panel having utility for use therewith
US5909202 *17 févr. 19981 juin 1999Micron Technology, Inc.Wire-bonded getter in an evacuated display and method of forming the same
US5913704 *12 mai 199722 juin 1999Candescent Technologies CorporationFabrication of electronic devices by method that involves ion tracking
US5930590 *6 août 199727 juil. 1999American Energy ServicesFor the formation of a cold electron emission source
US5931713 *19 mars 19973 août 1999Micron Technology, Inc.Display device with grille having getter material
US5949182 *3 juin 19967 sept. 1999Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.For optical displays
US5955828 *16 oct. 199721 sept. 1999University Of Utah Research FoundationThermionic optical emission device
US5965971 *15 déc. 199312 oct. 1999Kypwee Display CorporationEdge emitter display device
US5981303 *17 juil. 19979 nov. 1999Micron Technology, Inc.Method of making field emitters with porous silicon
US5989776 *21 sept. 199823 nov. 1999Sandia CorporationPhotoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography
US6007963 *17 juin 199728 déc. 1999Sandia CorporationMethod for extreme ultraviolet lithography
US6008577 *1 déc. 199728 déc. 1999Micron Technology, Inc.Flat panel display with magnetic focusing layer
US6019658 *11 sept. 19981 févr. 2000Candescent Technologies CorporationFabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings, typically in combination with spacer material to control spacing between gate layer and electron-emissive elements
US6022256 *6 nov. 19968 févr. 2000Micron Display Technology, Inc.Field emission display and method of making same
US6023126 *10 mai 19998 févr. 2000Kypwee Display CorporationEdge emitter with secondary emission display
US6045678 *1 mai 19974 avr. 2000The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaFormation of nanofilament field emission devices
US6049089 *25 sept. 199811 avr. 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Electron emitters and method for forming them
US6054808 *26 janv. 199925 avr. 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Display device with grille having getter material
US6066507 *14 oct. 199723 mai 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Method to form an insulative barrier useful in field emission displays for reducing surface leakage
US6068750 *19 janv. 199930 mai 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display
US6080325 *17 févr. 199827 juin 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Method of etching a substrate and method of forming a plurality of emitter tips
US6087193 *12 mai 199411 juil. 2000The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyMethod of production of fet regulatable field emitter device
US6100640 *20 mai 19988 août 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Indirect activation of a getter wire in a hermetically sealed field emission display
US6117294 *7 avr. 199712 sept. 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Contacting the faceplate of a field emission display with an electrophoresis solution, comprising a black matrix material selected from boron carbide, silicon carbide, titanium carbide, vanadium carbide to deposit carbide on the faceplate
US6120674 *30 juin 199719 sept. 2000Candescent Technologies CorporationRemoving undesired portions of material from partially finished structures without removing desired portions of the same type of material.
US6126845 *15 juil. 19993 oct. 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Method of forming an array of emmitter tips
US6127773 *4 juin 19973 oct. 2000Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Amorphic diamond film flat field emission cathode
US6162577 *21 sept. 199819 déc. 2000Felter; T. E.Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation lithography selected from a group consisting of boron carbides, vanadium oxide, molybdenum oxide, and organotitanites
US6165374 *15 juil. 199926 déc. 2000Micron Technology, Inc.Method of forming an array of emitter tips
US617444914 mai 199816 janv. 2001Micron Technology, Inc.Magnetically patterned etch mask
US618106013 juil. 199830 janv. 2001Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display with plural dielectric layers
US61876037 juin 199613 févr. 2001Candescent Technologies CorporationFabrication of gated electron-emitting devices utilizing distributed particles to define gate openings, typically in combination with lift-off of excess emitter material
US618760428 mai 199713 févr. 2001Micron Technology, Inc.Method of making field emitters using porous silicon
US6193870 *1 mai 199727 févr. 2001The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaUse of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices
US6204596 *30 juin 199820 mars 2001Candescent Technologies CorporationFilamentary electron-emission device having self-aligned gate or/and lower conductive/resistive region
US620483417 août 199420 mars 2001Si Diamond Technology, Inc.System and method for achieving uniform screen brightness within a matrix display
US62327051 sept. 199815 mai 2001Micron Technology, Inc.Field emitter arrays with gate insulator and cathode formed from single layer of polysilicon
US624908026 août 199819 juin 2001Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission electron source, method of producing the same, and use of the same
US6259765 *12 juin 199810 juil. 2001Commissariat A L'energie AtomiqueX-ray tube comprising an electron source with microtips and magnetic guiding means
US628511815 nov. 19994 sept. 2001Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof and display using the electron source
US629674024 avr. 19952 oct. 2001Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Pretreatment process for a surface texturing process
US629675019 janv. 19992 oct. 2001Micron Technology, Inc.Composition including black matrix material
US641701626 févr. 19999 juil. 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Silicon substrates implanted with dope, anodizing, oxidation and removal of oxide coating
US64232398 juin 200023 juil. 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Methods of making an etch mask and etching a substrate using said etch mask
US642623413 févr. 200130 juil. 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Silicon tip anodized by ultravolet radiation; resulting oxide layer removed using hydrogen halide; results in sharpened tip
US642958227 mars 20006 août 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Display device with grille having getter material
US649595524 oct. 200017 déc. 2002Micron Technology, Inc.Structure and method for improved field emitter arrays
US64983495 août 199924 déc. 2002Ut-BattelleElectrostatically focused addressable field emission array chips (AFEA's) for high-speed massively parallel maskless digital E-beam direct write lithography and scanning electron microscopy
US649842621 avr. 200024 déc. 2002Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof
US651540728 août 19984 févr. 2003Candescent Technologies CorporationGated filament structures for a field emission display
US65154298 juin 20014 févr. 2003Sony CorporationMethod of variable resolution on a flat panel display
US6555402 *8 févr. 200229 avr. 2003Micron Technology, Inc.Self-aligned field extraction grid and method of forming
US65596028 juin 20016 mai 2003Sony CorporationMethod for controlling the electric field at a fed cathode sub-pixel
US659032124 sept. 19998 juil. 2003Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission electron source
US65961411 mai 200122 juil. 2003Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display having matrix material
US662064028 mai 200216 sept. 2003Micron Technology, Inc.Method of making field emitters
US66245908 juin 200123 sept. 2003Sony CorporationMethod for driving a field emission display
US66298697 juin 19957 oct. 2003Si Diamond Technology, Inc.Method of making flat panel displays having diamond thin film cathode
US665006128 juil. 200018 nov. 2003Sharp Kabushiki KaishaElectron-source array and manufacturing method thereof as well as driving method for electron-source array
US66634548 juin 200116 déc. 2003Sony CorporationMethod for aligning field emission display components
US66823828 juin 200127 janv. 2004Sony CorporationMethod for making wires with a specific cross section for a field emission display
US669232314 janv. 200017 févr. 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Structure and method to enhance field emission in field emitter device
US670706126 oct. 200116 mars 2004Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission type electron source
US671053826 août 199823 mars 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method
US672992822 janv. 20024 mai 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Polysilicon cones and a porous insulating oxide
US674741621 janv. 20038 juin 2004Sony CorporationField emission display with deflecting MEMS electrodes
US67567308 juin 200129 juin 2004Sony CorporationField emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate and anode with alignment method
US676436816 avr. 200320 juil. 2004University Of North Carolina At CharlotteEmbodied in a flat panel display that exhibits the efficiency of cathodoluminescence but does not require intractable mechanical structures to distally dispose an anodic plate from a needle-like cold cathode
US676534217 oct. 200020 juil. 2004Matsushita Electric Work, Ltd.Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof
US679124815 mai 200314 sept. 2004Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission electron source
US6791278 *27 nov. 200214 sept. 2004Sony CorporationField emission display using line cathode structure
US68223791 oct. 200223 nov. 2004Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Emission device and method for forming
US68255961 mars 199630 nov. 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Electron emitters with dopant gradient
US683511126 nov. 200128 déc. 2004Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display having porous silicon dioxide layer
US684466424 avr. 200218 janv. 2005Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission electron source and production method thereof
US687311827 nov. 200229 mars 2005Sony CorporationField emission cathode structure using perforated gate
US687614111 avr. 20015 avr. 2005Centro De Pesquisas Renato Archer -- CenpraElectron emitter structure for field emission display
US68821006 janv. 200319 avr. 2005Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Dielectric light device
US688514525 nov. 200326 avr. 2005Sony CorporationField emission display using gate wires
US69117681 oct. 200228 juin 2005Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Tunneling emitter with nanohole openings
US691704330 sept. 200212 juil. 2005Ut-Battelle LlcIndividually addressable cathodes with integrated focusing stack or detectors
US692415813 sept. 20022 août 2005Microsaic Systems LimitedElectrode structures
US69336659 juil. 200223 août 2005Micron Technology, Inc.Structure and method for field emitter tips
US69402194 nov. 20036 sept. 2005Sony CorporationField emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate
US695337529 mars 200411 oct. 2005Micron Technology, Inc.Manufacturing method of a field emission display having porous silicon dioxide insulating layer
US69896318 juin 200124 janv. 2006Sony CorporationCarbon cathode of a field emission display with in-laid isolation barrier and support
US70022908 juin 200121 févr. 2006Sony CorporationCarbon cathode of a field emission display with integrated isolation barrier and support on substrate
US701258227 nov. 200214 mars 2006Sony CorporationSpacer-less field emission display
US702589231 janv. 199511 avr. 2006Candescent Technologies CorporationMethod for creating gated filament structures for field emission displays
US704214826 févr. 20049 mai 2006Micron Technology, Inc.Field emission display having reduced power requirements and method
US706447612 janv. 200120 juin 2006Micron Technology, Inc.Emitter
US707162931 mars 20034 juil. 2006Sony CorporationImage display device incorporating driver circuits on active substrate and other methods to reduce interconnects
US707871627 janv. 200418 juil. 2006Nano-Proprietary, Inc.Large area electron source
US707885512 janv. 200518 juil. 2006Zhizhang ChenDielectric light device
US711843913 avr. 200510 oct. 2006Sony CorporationField emission display utilizing a cathode frame-type gate and anode with alignment method
US71296317 sept. 200431 oct. 2006Micron Technology, Inc.Black matrix for flat panel field emission displays
US717549527 févr. 200313 févr. 2007Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod of manufacturing field emission device and display apparatus
US723907625 sept. 20033 juil. 2007General Electric CompanySelf-aligned gated rod field emission device and associated method of fabrication
US727908519 juil. 20059 oct. 2007General Electric CompanyGated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication
US731727823 janv. 20048 janv. 2008Cabot Microelectronics CorporationMethod of operating and process for fabricating an electron source
US732632819 juil. 20055 févr. 2008General Electric CompanyGated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication
US737536622 févr. 200120 mai 2008Sharp Kabushiki KaishaCarbon nanotube and method for producing the same, electron source and method for producing the same, and display
US74113418 août 200712 août 2008General Electric CompanyGated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication
US744660123 juin 20044 nov. 2008Astronix Research, LlcElectron beam RF amplifier and emitter
US745649122 juil. 200525 nov. 2008Pilla Subrahmanyam V SLarge area electron emission system for application in mask-based lithography, maskless lithography II and microscopy
US750797210 oct. 200524 mars 2009Owlstone Nanotech, Inc.Compact ionization source
US756417814 févr. 200521 juil. 2009Agere Systems Inc.High-density field emission elements and a method for forming said emission elements
US7564671 *19 juin 200721 juil. 2009Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.Ion generator and method for controlling amount of ozone generated in the same
US767168731 oct. 20082 mars 2010Lechevalier Robert EElectron beam RF amplifier and emitter
US782141214 sept. 200726 oct. 2010Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc.Smoke detector
US787546912 déc. 200725 janv. 2011Cabot Microelectronics CorporationMethod of operating and process for fabricating an electron source
US79027369 janv. 20088 mars 2011General Electric CompanyGated nanorod field emitter structures and associated methods of fabrication
US20110242829 *18 nov. 20096 oct. 2011Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Cooling arrangement for a luminaire
DE3817604A1 *24 mai 19888 déc. 1988Mitsubishi Electric CorpIon beam generator for semiconductor processing
DE3817604C2 *24 mai 198818 mai 2000Mitsubishi Electric CorpIonenstrahlgenerator
DE3845007C2 *24 mai 198828 sept. 2000Mitsubishi Electric CorpIon beam generator for semiconductor processing
DE4304103A1 *11 févr. 199319 août 1993Micron Technology IncTitre non disponible
DE4304103C2 *11 févr. 199314 févr. 2002Micron Technology IncVerfahren zum Bilden selbstausgerichteter Gatestrukturen
DE4312049A1 *13 avr. 199328 oct. 1993Micron Technology IncVerfahren zum Bilden von zwischen Elektroden befindlichen Stützstrukturen
DE4312049C2 *13 avr. 199322 mai 2003Micron Technology Inc N D GesVerfahren zum Bilden von zwischen Elektroden befindlichen Stützstrukturen
DE4315731B4 *11 mai 199327 avr. 2006Micron Technology, Inc. (N.D.Ges.D. Staates Delaware)Halbleiteranordnung mit Makrokorn-Substrat und Verfahren zu dessen Herstellung
DE19501387A1 *18 janv. 19953 août 1995Micron Technology IncAtomic sharp emission tips uniform array forming
DE19501387B4 *18 janv. 199511 janv. 2007Micron Technology, Inc.Verfahren zum Bilden einer im wesentlichen gleichmäßigen Anordnung scharfer Emitterspitzen
EP0066409A1 *18 mai 19828 déc. 1982Hitachi, Ltd.Charged particle source
EP0834897A14 oct. 19968 avr. 1998SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS S.r.l.Method of fabricating flat field emission display screens and flat screen obtained thereby
EP0945885A1 *8 sept. 199429 sept. 1999Silicon Video CorporationFabrication and structure of electron-emitting devices having high emitter packing density
EP1793404A216 nov. 19996 juin 2007Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.Field emission-type electron source and manufacturing method thereof and display using the electron source
WO1988001098A1 *28 juil. 198711 févr. 1988Commtech IntMatrix-addressed flat panel display
WO1991002375A1 *17 avr. 19904 févr. 1991Fraunhofer Ges ForschungMicrominiaturized electrostatic pump
WO1992002030A1 *17 oct. 199019 janv. 1992IbmProcess and structure of an integrated vacuum microelectronic device
WO1993018536A1 *3 mars 199316 sept. 1993McncVertical microelectronic field emission devices and methods of making same
WO1995007543A1 *8 sept. 199416 mars 1995Silicon Video CorpFabrication and structure of electron-emitting devices having high emitter packing density
WO1998002784A1 *15 juil. 199622 janv. 1998David A Cathey JrMethod of phase shift lithography
WO1998057349A1 *12 juin 199817 déc. 1998Baptist RobertX-ray tube comprising an electron source with microtips and magnetic guiding means
WO2000021112A1 *30 sept. 199913 avr. 2000Commissariat Energie AtomiqueElectron source comprising at least a protective electrode against spurious emissions
WO2007044379A2 *2 oct. 200619 avr. 2007Paul BoyleCompact ionization source
Classifications
Classification aux États-Unis313/351, 250/423.00F, 313/336, 250/423.00R, 313/309
Classification internationaleH01T23/00, H01J1/304, H01J35/06, H01J49/16
Classification coopérativeH01J49/168, H01T23/00, H01J27/26, H01J1/3042, H01J35/065, H01J2237/0807
Classification européenneH01J1/304B, H01T23/00, H01J35/06B, H01J49/16F, H01J27/26
Événements juridiques
DateCodeÉvénementDescription
23 févr. 1996ASAssignment
Owner name: SONATA INVESTMENT COMPANY, LTD., OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007854/0182
Effective date: 19951107
23 févr. 1996AS06Security interest
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION
Effective date: 19951107
Owner name: SONATA INVESTMENT COMPANY, LTD. 6480 BUSCH BOULEVA
11 oct. 1994AS06Security interest
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIP
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY 6480 BUSCH BLVD., STE. 321
Effective date: 19940930
11 oct. 1994ASAssignment
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY, OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION, A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPTEL HOLDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007308/0213
Effective date: 19940930
13 juin 1994AS06Security interest
Owner name: COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPT
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY SUITE 321 6480 BUSCH BLVD.
Effective date: 19940517
13 juin 1994ASAssignment
Owner name: STANDARD ENERGY COMPANY, OHIO
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:COLORAY DISPLAY CORPORATION A SUBSIDIARY OF SCRIPTEL HOLDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007020/0857
Effective date: 19940517