Substituting objects based on steganographic encoding
US 7362879 B2
The application discloses various methods and systems to provide substitute information or objects for, e.g., substitution when making copies of media objects (e.g., audio, video or images). One method includes: receiving i) an identifier obtained from a steganographic encoding encoded in a media object, and ii) state information associated with the steganographic encoding or associated with the media object; obtaining—from a storage location—a substitute media object corresponding to the identifier; adjusting the substitute media object in accordance with the state information; providing the adjusted, substituted media object. Another method includes: receiving an identifier obtained from a steganographically encoded media object; accessing memory associated with at least a portion of the identifier to obtain an address of a remote data repository, the remote data repository including at least a plurality of substitute media objects corresponding respectively to a plurality of identifiers; forwarding: i) at least a portion of the identifier obtained from the steganographic encoding, and ii) an instruction to the remote data repository at the address, wherein the instruction includes a request to provide a substitute media object corresponding to at least a portion of the identifier obtained from the steganographic encoding. Of course, other methods and combinations are provided as well.
1. A method comprising:
receiving an identifier obtained from a steganographically encoded media object;
accessing memory associated with at least a portion of the identifier to obtain an address of a remote data repository, the remote data repository including at least a plurality of substitute media objects corresponding respectively to a plurality of identifiers;
forwarding: i) at least a portion of the identifier obtained from the steganographic encoding, and ii) an instruction to the remote data repository at the address,
wherein the instruction includes a request to provide a substitute media object corresponding to at least a portion of the identifier obtained from the steganographic encoding.
2. The method of claim 1 further comprising receiving the substitute media object from the remote data repository.
3. The method of claim 2 further comprising forwarding the substitute media object to a remotely located consumer device.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the substitute media object comprises a more pristine media object relative to the steganographically encoded media object.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the instruction further comprises a request to provide the substitute media object directly to a remotely located consumer device.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the media object comprises at least audio, video or an image.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the substitute media object comprises at least audio, video or an image.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the steganographically encoded media object is encoded with digital watermarking.
9. A method comprising:
receiving: i) an identifier obtained from a steganographic encoding encoded in a media object, and ii) state information associated with the steganographic encoding or associated with the media object;
obtaining—from a storage location—a substitute media object corresponding to the identifier;
adjusting the substitute media object in accordance with the state information;
providing the adjusted, substituted media object.
10. The method of claim 9 wherein the state information corresponds to size, synchronization or rotation.
11. The method of claim 9 wherein the media object comprises at least audio, video or an image.
12. The method of claim 11 wherein the substitute media object comprises at least audio, video or an image.
13. The method of claim 9 wherein the steganographic encoding comprises digital watermarking.
14. The method of claim 9 wherein the substitute media object comprises a more pristine media object relative to the encoded media object.
15. A method comprising:
in a consumer device:
obtaining an identifier from steganographic encoding that is encoded in a media object;
querying a data repository in the consumer device to determine whether substitute information corresponding to the identifier is located therein, the substitute information to be substituted for or in the media object by the consumer device, and if the substitute information is not located therein, querying a data repository remote from the consumer device to determine whether substitute information corresponding to the identifier is located therein, the substitute information to be substituted for or in the media object by the consumer device; and
and once substitute information is obtained, substituting obtained substitute information for or in the media object.
16. The method of claim 15 wherein the media object comprises at least audio, video or an image.
17. The method of claim 16 wherein the substitute information comprises at least audio, video or an image.
18. The method of claim 15 wherein the steganographic encoding comprises digital watermarking.
19. The method of claim 15 wherein the substitute information comprises more pristine information relative to information of the media object.
20. A method to provide a substitute object for an original media object, wherein the substitute object is to be provided in a copy of the original media object, and wherein the original media object comprises steganographic encoding including a plural-bit identifier, said method comprising:
decoding the steganographic encoding from the original media object or data representing the original media object to obtain the plural-bit identifier;
using the plural-bit identifier to request the substitute object from a remote location;
receiving the substitute object from the remote location; and
when generating a copy of the original media object, using the substitute object to augment or replace the original media object.
21. The method of claim 20 wherein the steganographic encoding comprises digital watermarking.
22. The method of claim 20 wherein the original media object comprises audio or video.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein the substitute object comprises audio or video.
24. The method of claim 20 wherein the substitute object comprises more pristine version relative to the original media object.
25. The method of claim 20 wherein the substitute object only replaces a portion of the original media object when making a copy.
RELATED APPLICATION DATA
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/145,515, filed Jun. 3, 2005 (now U.S. Pat. No. 7,209,573), which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/448,544, filed May 29, 2003 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,917,691), which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/473,396, filed Dec. 28, 1999 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,577,746). Each of these patent documents is hereby incorporated by reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to data processing, and more particularly relates to use of watermark technology for object substitution.
BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Object linking and embedding (“OLE,” sometimes also known as dynamic data exchange, or “DDE”) is a well-known data processing construct by which a first digital object (e.g., a graph) can be embedded within a second digital object (e.g., a word processing document). In some embodiments, the embedding is static. That is, once the embedding takes place, subsequent changes to the first digital object (e.g., the graph) are not reflected in the second, composite digital object (e.g., the document). In other embodiments, the embedding is dynamic (and thus more commonly termed linking rather than embedding). In such arrangements, if the graph is changed, the document is automatically updated to incorporate the latest version of the graph.
The technology underlying OLE is sophisticated, but is well understood by artisans in the field. Reference may be made to the many patents (e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,581,760 and 5,581,686) and reference books (e.g., Brockschmidt, Inside OLE 2, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Wash., 1994) on the subject for further details.
In accordance with the present invention, OLE-like principles are implemented using watermark data in digital objects in order to effect object linking or embedding.
In one illustrative embodiment, a photocopier scans an original paper document to produce image data. This image data is analyzed for the presence of watermark data that identifies the graphic(s) on the document. With this watermark identifier, the photocopier can query a remote image database for pristine image data corresponding to the graphic(s) on the document. This pristine data can be relayed from the remote database to the photocopier and substituted into the scanned image data. Output printed from the photocopier is thus based, at least in part, on pristine image data, rather than on image data that has been subjected to various corruption mechanisms (e.g., degradation of the original paper document, artifacts due to scanning, etc.).
The foregoing and other features and advantages of the present invention will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description, which proceeds with reference to the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 shows an apparatus according to one embodiment of the present invention.
Referring to FIG. 1, an illustrative embodiment of the present invention is a photocopier 10. The photocopier includes a platen 12, a scanner assembly 14, a raw data memory 16, a watermark decoder 18, a processor 20, a network connection 22, a pristine image buffer 24, a compositing memory 26, and a reproduction engine 28.
A paper document, such as document 30, is placed on platen 12, and scanner assembly 14 is activated to generate scan data corresponding to the document. The scanner assembly is conventional and may include a linear array of CCD or CMOS sensor elements that optically scans along an axis of the platen to generate 2D image data. Alternatively, the scanner can comprise a 2D array of sensor elements onto which an image of the document is projected through one or more lenses. In the illustrated embodiment, the document 30 includes a picture 31 that is encoded with a plural-bit digital watermark. Document 30 may be referred to as a compound document since it incorporates plural components (e.g., text and picture).
The scan data from the scanner assembly 14 is stored in the raw data memory 16, where it is analyzed for the presence of watermark data by the watermark decoder 18.
There are many different techniques by which imagery can be digitally watermarked and decoded. One is the Digimarc watermark system detailed, e.g., in U.S. Pat. No. 5,862,260, and in pending application Ser. No. 09/452,023, filed Nov. 30, 1999 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,408,082), the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. A great variety of other systems are known. All that is required is that the watermark permit the conveyance of plural-bit auxiliary data without objectionable image degradation.
Upon detection of the watermark in picture 31, the processor 20 is programmed to initiate communication with a remote server 32 (e.g., over the internet) through the network connection 22. The programmed processor sends to the server a query message identifying the detected watermark (which may be, e.g., an identifier of 16-64 bits). A database 34 at the server 32 searches its records 37 for a digital object indexed by that watermark ID 39 and, if located, causes a pristine version of the object 38 (in this case a pristine version of the picture 31) to be sent to the photocopier.
In the embodiment illustrated, the database has the pristine version of the object stored within the database record for that watermark ID, and relays same directly back to the photocopier. In other embodiments, the object itself is not stored in the database. Instead, the database stores (in a record associated with the watermark ID) the address of a remote data repository at which the pristine object is stored. In this case the object server 32 can transmit an instruction to the remote repository (e.g., again over the internet), requesting the remote repository to provide the pristine object. The object can be sent directly from the remote data repository to the photocopier, or may be relayed through the object server 32. In any case, the pristine object may be provided in TIFF, JPEG, GIF, or other format. (In some embodiment, the request signal from the photocopier specifies the format desired, or may specify plural formats that the photocopier can accept, and the pristine object is then output by the server 32 or remote repository in such a format. In other embodiments, the request signal from the photocopier does not include any format data.)
In some embodiments, the object server 32 can be of the sort more particularly detailed in copending application 60/164,619 (filed Nov. 10, 1999), and Ser. No. 09/343,104 (filed Jun. 29, 1999), the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
In addition to detecting the ID of any watermark in the scanned image data, the photocopier's watermark detector also discerns the placement of the watermarked picture within the document image, and its state (e.g., size, rotation, etc.), and produces corresponding state information. In some embodiments, this state information is passed to the object server 32, permitting the pristine object 38 to be sized/rotated/etc. (e.g., by the object server) to match the object detected in the document image. In other embodiments, a generic version of the pristine object is passed back to the photocopier, and the processor 20 attends to sizing, rotating, etc., of the pristine picture 38 as necessary to match that of the original picture 31.
In some embodiments the picture 31 in the paper document has been cropped. (The watermark can nonetheless be detected from the cropped image.) When the pristine picture 38 is received from the remote location, it can be pattern-matched to the picture 31 detected in the original document to determine the cropping boundaries (if any), and corresponding cropping of the pristine picture can be effected.
Once the foregoing scaling/rotation/cropping, etc., adjustments (if any) have been made on the pristine picture 38 stored in buffer 24, the processed pristine picture is combined with the original document scan data in compositing memory 26, yielding a composite document image that includes the pristine picture data 38 in lieu of the scanned picture 31. (The substitution of the pristine picture for the original picture data can be accomplished by various known image processing techniques, including masking, overwriting, etc.) The composite document image is then passed to the reproduction engine 28 to produce a hard-copy output (i.e., an enhanced compound document 30′) in the conventional manner. (The reprographic engine 28 can take many different forms including, e.g., xerography, ink-jet printing, etc.)
The pristine picture 38 received from the server 32 can, itself, be watermarked or not. If watermarked, the watermark will usually convey the same payload information as the watermark in the original picture 31, although this need not always be the case. In other embodiments, the pristine picture 38 received from the remote server 32 has no watermark. In such case the pristine picture can be substituted into the compound document 30 in its unwatermarked state. Alternatively, the apparatus 10 can embed a watermark into the picture prior to (or as part of) the substitution operation.
If the substituted picture is watermarked, this permits later watermark-based enhancement or updating. For example, if the enhanced compound document 30′ including the pristine picture 38 is printed by the photocopier, and the resulting photocopy is thereafter photocopied, the latter photocopying operation can again substitute pristine picture data for the scanned picture data produced by the second photocopier's scanner. Moreover, in applications where it is appropriate for a picture to be updated with the latest version whenever printed, the watermarking of the picture 38 permits substitution of a latest version whenever the document is scanned for printing.
In other situations, it is desirable for the picture 38 included in the enhanced compound document 30′ to be unwatermarked. This is the case, for example, in certain archival applications where it is important that the document 30′ not be changed after archiving. By assuring that the picture 38 is not watermarked, inadvertent changing of the picture in subsequent photocopying can be avoided. (In cases where the pristine image 38 is provided from server 32 in a watermarked state, the photocopier may remove or disable the watermark in response to corresponding instructions from a user through a user interface or the like.)
From the foregoing, it will be recognized that the illustrative embodiment can produce “photocopies” that are better than the “originals.” This is accomplished by watermark-based substitution of pristine digital objects to replace less pristine counterparts.
Having described and illustrated the principles of our invention with reference to an illustrative embodiment, it will be recognized the invention is not so limited.
For example, while the invention is particularly illustrated with reference to a photocopier, the same principles are equally applicable in other systems, including personal computers (e.g., in conjunction with image editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop). In such case the input image data needn't come from a scanner but may come, e.g., from a digital file, from a network location, etc.
Likewise, while the invention is particularly illustrated with reference to picture (i.e., graphic) data, the same principles are equally applicable in connection with other data types, such as video, sound, text, etc. Moreover, the reference to “documents” is illustrative only; the invention can similarly be employed with any compound object that includes a watermarked component—whether in digital or analog form.
While the detailed embodiment is described as using separate raw data memory 16, pristine image buffer 24, and compositing memory 26, more typically some or all of these functions are served by a single memory, which may be a computer system's main RAM memory.
Likewise, while the detailed embodiment employs a processor 20 programmed in accordance with software instructions (e.g., stored in a memory or on a storage medium), in other embodiments some or all of the described functionality can be achieved using dedicated hardware (e.g., ASICs), or programmable hardware (e.g., PLAs).
Still further, while the invention is illustrated with reference to an arrangement in which a document includes a single watermarked photograph, it will be recognized that plural such watermarked components may be present in a compound document, and the system may be arranged to obtain pristine versions of each, and edit/composite same as necessary as to recreate an enhanced version of the original document.
Moreover, while the illustrative embodiment contemplates that a watermarked photograph may be a component of the original document, in other embodiments the watermarked object may comprise the entirety of the original document.
While reference has been made to substitution of pristine image components, in some embodiments it may be desirable to substitute components that are not “pristine.” Indeed, in some embodiments an object may be substituted that is visually dissimilar to the original object. Consider artwork for a Christmas card. The artwork may include a watermarked “generic” corporate logo. When encountered by a computer according to the present invention, the generic logo may be replaced with a logo corresponding to the corporate owner of the computer. In such case, the substitute imagery may be stored within the computer itself, obviating the need for any network connection. The registry database maintained by the computer's operating system may include keys defined by watermark IDs. When a watermark ID is encountered, the registry database can be consulted to identify a corresponding graphic that can be substituted into the object being processed. If none is found, the watermark ID can be passed to the remote server 32.
While, for expository convenience, the illustrative embodiment was described as always substituting pristine data when available, more typically this is a function that would be enabled or disabled by an operator of the device, e.g., by an appropriate switch, button, or user interface control. In some embodiments, the device may be arranged to query the user when substitution of a pristine component is possible, in some cases presenting the user with a depiction of the image component proposed to be substituted.
The illustrative embodiment may be said to employ watermark-based object embedding, since the hard-copy output is static (i.e., cannot change) after printing. In other embodiments, the enhanced compound document 30′ is not printed, but stored. Each time the compound document is utilized (e.g., opened for editing, or printed), any watermarked component(s) therein can be updated to include the latest-available version(s) of the watermarked component(s). In such case, the document may be said to employ watermark-based object linking.
In view of the many embodiments to which the principles of our invention may be applied, it should be apparent that the detailed embodiment is illustrative only and should not be taken as limiting the scope of our invention. Rather, we claim as our invention all such modifications as may fall within the scope and spirit of the following claims, and equivalents thereto.
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