Recherche Images Maps Play YouTube Actualités Gmail Drive Plus »
Connexion
Les utilisateurs de lecteurs d'écran peuvent cliquer sur ce lien pour activer le mode d'accessibilité. Celui-ci propose les mêmes fonctionnalités principales, mais il est optimisé pour votre lecteur d'écran.

Brevets

  1. Recherche avancée dans les brevets
Numéro de publicationUS7723993 B2
Type de publicationOctroi
Numéro de demandeUS 10/653,342
Date de publication25 mai 2010
Date de dépôt2 sept. 2003
Date de priorité5 sept. 2002
État de paiement des fraisPayé
Autre référence de publicationUS20040046566, WO2004023580A2, WO2004023580A3, WO2004023580A8
Numéro de publication10653342, 653342, US 7723993 B2, US 7723993B2, US-B2-7723993, US7723993 B2, US7723993B2
InventeursJames K. Klang
Cessionnaire d'origineMidtronics, Inc.
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet
Electronic battery tester configured to predict a load test result based on open circuit voltage, temperature, cranking size rating, and a dynamic parameter
US 7723993 B2
Résumé
A method and apparatus is provided for rapidly and safely estimating the high-rate load test voltage of a storage battery utilizing open-circuit voltage, temperature and a dynamic parameter such as conductance or resistance. An output indicative of the condition of the battery is provided as a function of the estimated load test voltage of the battery compared to industry standards without the necessity to charge the battery or discharge the battery with high-rate loads using bulky load testing equipment.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Revendications(19)
1. A method of testing a storage battery, comprising:
(a) measuring a dynamic parameter of the battery using a low alternating current signal;
(b) obtaining an open circuit voltage of the battery;
(c) measuring a temperature of the battery;
(d) obtaining a cranking size rating of the battery; and
(e) estimating a load test voltage of the battery as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter, the obtained open circuit voltage of the battery, the measured battery temperature, an activation voltage, which is calculated based on the measured temperature of the battery and the obtained open circuit voltage, and the cranking size rating of the battery, the estimated load test voltage indicative of power remaining in the battery.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the estimating step (e) further comprises predicting a battery dynamic parameter at a standard battery temperature value as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter and the measured battery temperature.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the estimating step (e) further comprises predicting a battery dynamic parameter at a standard battery temperature value and at a full battery state of charge level as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter, the measured battery temperature and a measured battery state of charge level.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the measured battery state of charge level is determined from the open circuit voltage of the battery.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the cranking size rating of the battery is a Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) rating of the battery.
6. The method of claim 1 further comprising providing an output indicative of a condition of the battery as a function of the estimated load test voltage of the battery.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein providing the output indicative of the condition of the battery further comprises receiving a rated load test voltage of the battery and comparing the estimated load test voltage with the rated load test voltage.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the measured battery dynamic parameter value is battery conductance.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the measured battery dynamic parameter value is battery resistance.
10. An electronic battery tester comprising:
a positive connector coupled to a positive terminal of the battery;
a negative connector coupled to a negative terminal of the battery;
a voltage sensor configured to measure an open circuit voltage of the battery;
a temperature sensor configured to measure a temperature of the battery;
an input configured to receive a cranking size rating of the battery; and
battery test circuitry configured to measure a dynamic parameter of the battery by applying a low alternating current signal to the battery using the first and second connectors, and to estimate a load test voltage of the battery as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter, the measured open circuit voltage of the battery, the measured battery temperature, an activation voltage, which is calculated based on the measured temperature of the battery and the measured open circuit voltage, and the cranking size rating of the battery, the estimated load test voltage indicative of power remaining in the battery.
11. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the battery test circuitry is further configured to provide an output indicative of a condition of the battery as a function of the estimated load test voltage of the battery.
12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the battery test circuitry is configured to provide the output indicative of the condition of the battery by receiving a rated load test voltage of the battery and comparing the estimated load test voltage with the rated load test voltage.
13. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the battery test circuitry is further configured to estimate the load test voltage of the battery by predicting a battery dynamic parameter at a standard battery temperature value as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter and the measured battery temperature.
14. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the battery test circuitry is further configured to estimate the load test voltage of the battery by predicting a battery dynamic parameter at a standard battery temperature value and at a full battery state of charge level as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter, the measured battery temperature and a measured battery state of charge level.
15. The apparatus of claim 14 wherein the battery test circuitry is further configured to obtain the measured battery state of charge level from the open circuit voltage of the battery.
16. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the cranking size rating of the battery is a Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) rating of the battery.
17. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the measured battery dynamic parameter value is battery conductance.
18. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the measured battery dynamic parameter value is battery resistance.
19. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the positive connector is a first Kelvin connector and the negative connector is a second Kelvin connector.
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

The present application is based on and claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/408,542, filed Sep. 5, 2002, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to testing storage batteries. More specifically, the present invention relates to predicting a high-rate load test result for a storage battery by using a dynamic parameter testing technique such as a conductance testing technique.

Storage batteries, such as lead acid storage batteries of the SLI (Starting, lighting and ignition) type used in the automotive industry, have existed for many years. However, understanding the nature of such storage batteries, how such storage batteries operate and how to accurately test such batteries has been an ongoing endeavor and has proved quite difficult.

There has been a long history of attempts to accurately test the condition of storage batteries for starting and other high-rate applications. A standard technique for testing a battery is referred as the Adjustable Load Test. This test is conducted on a charged battery according to the Battery Service Manual of the Battery Council International:

  • 1) Measure the temperature of a center cell. Cover battery with a damp cloth.
  • 2) Connect a voltmeter and load test leads to the appropriate battery terminals. Be sure the terminals are free of corrosion.
  • 3) Apply a test load equivalent to 50% of the Cold Cranking Ampere Performance (CCA) at 0° F. rating of the battery for 15 seconds.
  • 4) Read and record the voltage at 15 seconds; remove the load.
  • 5) Determine the minimum passing voltage based on the battery's test temperature:

a) 70° F. and above: 9.6 V
b) 60° F. 9.5 V
c) 50° F. 9.4 V
d) 40° F. 9.3 V
e) 30° F. 9.1 V
f) 20° F. 8.9 V
g) 10° F. 8.7 V
h)  0° F. 8.5 V

  • 6) If the test voltage is above the minimum, return the battery to service.
  • 7) If test voltage is below the minimum and the stable battery open circuit voltage is above 12.4 volts (75% state of charge), the battery should be replaced.
  • 8) If test voltage is below the minimum and the stable battery open circuit voltage is below 12.4 volts, the battery should be charged and the load test repeated. If the battery fails again, it should be replaced.

Although the load test provides data that is useful for determining the condition of a battery that has been in service, it has certain drawbacks. First, the load test requires that the battery be sufficiently, and preferably fully, charged in order that it can supply the battery's maximum power to the load. Second, the battery becomes somewhat depleted as a result of the test discharge and therefore leaves it in a less than ideal condition. Third, the standard load test equipment is quite heavy and bulky to handle heavy current loads and as such is not very portable. Fourth, sparks may be produced during the load test. Fifth, the load test takes a finite time to discharge the battery and the equipment must often be cooled between tests to prevent overheating. Sixth, the battery is often at a temperature that departs from ambient testing conditions (70° F.) and as such operators are not always aware of the correct comparison voltage to determine if the battery should be replaced. Typically, operators remember the 70° F. value of 9.6 volts only. Therefore, it is desirable to obtain such load test voltage data by using a more amenable testing technique than the method described above.

More recently, techniques have been pioneered by Dr. Keith S. Champlin and Midtronics, Inc. for testing storage batteries by measuring the conductance and other properties of the batteries. Aspects of these techniques are described in a number of United States patents, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,873,911, issued Mar. 25, 1975, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE; U.S. Pat. No. 3,909,708, issued Sep. 30, 1975, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE; U.S. Pat. No. 4,816,768, issued Mar. 28, 1989, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE; U.S. Pat. No. 4,825,170, issued Apr. 25, 1989, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE WITH AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE SCALING; U.S. Pat. No. 4,881,038, issued Nov. 14, 1989, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE WITH AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE SCALING TO DETERMINE DYNAMIC CONDUCTANCE; U.S. Pat. No. 4,912,416, issued Mar. 27, 1990, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE WITH STATE-OF-CHARGE COMPENSATION; U.S. Pat. No. 5,140,269, issued Aug. 18, 1992, to Champlin, entitled ELECTRONIC TESTER FOR ASSESSING BATTERY/CELL CAPACITY; U.S. Pat. No. 5,343,380, issued Aug. 30, 1994, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SUPPRESSING TIME VARYING SIGNALS IN BATTERIES UNDERGOING CHARGING OR DISCHARGING; U.S. Pat. No. 5,572,136, issued Nov. 5, 1996, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH AUTOMATIC COMPENSATION FOR LOW STATE-OF-CHARGE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,574,355, issued Nov. 12, 1996, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF THERMAL RUNAWAY IN A BATTERY UNDER CHARGE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,585,416, issued Dec. 10, 1996, entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR STEP-CHARGING BATTERIES TO OPTIMIZE CHARGE ACCEPTANCE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,585,728, issued Dec. 17, 1996, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH AUTOMATIC COMPENSATION FOR LOW STATE-OF-CHARGE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,589,757, issued Dec. 31, 1996, entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR STEP-CHARGING BATTERIES TO OPTIMIZE CHARGE ACCEPTANCE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,592,093, issued Jan. 7, 1997, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTING DEVICE LOOSE TERMINAL CONNECTION DETECTION VIA A COMPARISON CIRCUIT; U.S. Pat. No. 5,598,098, issued Jan. 28, 1997, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH VERY HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY; U.S. Pat. No. 5,656,920, issued Aug. 12, 1997, entitled METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE CHARGING LEAD-ACID BATTERIES AND AN INTERACTIVE CHARGER; U.S. Pat. No. 5,757,192, issued May 26, 1998, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING A BAD CELL IN A STORAGE BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 5,821,756, issued Oct. 13, 1998, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH TAILORED COMPENSATION FOR LOW STATE-OF-CHARGE; U.S. Pat. No. 5,831,435, issued Nov. 3, 1998, entitled BATTERY TESTER FOR JIS STANDARD; U.S. Pat. No. 5,914,605, issued Jun. 22, 1999, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 5,945,829, issued Aug. 31, 1999, entitled MIDPOINT BATTERY MONITORING; U.S. Pat. No. 6,002,238, issued Dec. 14, 1999, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING COMPLEX IMPEDANCE OF CELLS AND BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,037,751, issued Mar. 14, 2000, entitled APPARATUS FOR CHARGING BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,037,777, issued Mar. 14, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING BATTERY PROPERTIES FROM COMPLEX IMPEDANCE/ADMITTANCE; U.S. Pat. No. 6,051,976, issued Apr. 18, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AUDITING A BATTERY TEST; U.S. Pat. No. 6,081,098, issued Jun. 27, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARGING A BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,091,245, issued Jul. 18, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AUDITING A BATTERY TEST; U.S. Pat. No. 6,104,167, issued Aug. 15, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARGING A BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,137,269, issued Oct. 24, 2000, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRONICALLY EVALUATING THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL OR BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,163,156, issued Dec. 19, 2000, entitled ELECTRICAL CONNECTION FOR ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,172,483, issued Jan. 9, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING COMPLEX IMPEDANCE OF CELL AND BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,172,505, issued Jan. 9, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,222,369, issued Apr. 24, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING BATTERY PROPERTIES FROM COMPLEX IMPEDANCE/ADMITTANCE; U.S. Pat. No. 6,225,808, issued May 1, 2001, entitled TEST COUNTER FOR ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,249,124, issued Jun. 19, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH INTERNAL BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,259,254, issued Jul. 10, 2001, entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CARRYING OUT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS ON BATTERIES AND FOR RAPIDLY CHARGING BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,262,563, issued Jul. 17, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING COMPLEX ADMITTANCE OF CELLS AND BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,294,896, issued Sep. 25, 2001; entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING COMPLEX SELF-IMMITANCE OF A GENERAL ELECTRICAL ELEMENT; U.S. Pat. No. 6,294,897, issued Sep. 25, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ELECTRONICALLY EVALUATING THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL OR BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,304,087, issued Oct. 16, 2001, entitled APPARATUS FOR CALIBRATING ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,310,481, issued Oct. 30, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,313,607, issued Nov. 6, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EVALUATING STORED CHARGE IN AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL OR BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,313,608, issued Nov. 6, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARGING A BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,316,914, issued Nov. 13, 2001, entitled TESTING PARALLEL STRINGS OF STORAGE BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,323,650, issued Nov. 27, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,329,793, issued Dec. 11, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARGING A BATTERY; U.S. Pat. No. 6,331,762, issued Dec. 18, 2001, entitled ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE; U.S. Pat. No. 6,332,113, issued Dec. 18, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,351,102, issued Feb. 26, 2002, entitled AUTOMOTIVE BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,359,441, issued Mar. 19, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,363,303, issued Mar. 26, 2002, entitled ALTERNATOR DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM, U.S. Pat. No. 6,392,414, issued May 21, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,417,669, issued Jul. 9, 2002, entitled SUPPRESSING INTERFERENCE IN AC MEASUREMENTS OF CELLS, BATTERIES AND OTHER ELECTRICAL ELEMENTS; U.S. Pat. No. 6,424,158, issued Jul. 23, 2002, entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CARRYING OUT DIAGNOSTIC TESTS ON BATTERIES AND FOR RAPIDLY CHARGING BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,441,585, issued Aug. 17, 2002, entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR TESTING RECHARGEABLE ENERGY STORAGE BATTERIES; U.S. Pat. No. 6,445,158, issued Sep. 3, 2002, entitled VEHICLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TESTER WITH ENCODED OUTPUT; U.S. Pat. No. 6,456,045, issued Sep. 24, 2002, entitled INTEGRATED CONDUCTANCE AND LOAD TEST BASED ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,466,025, issued Oct. 15, 2002, entitled ALTERNATOR TESTER; U.S. Pat. No. 6,466,026, issued Oct. 15, 2002, entitled PROGRAMMABLE CURRENT EXCITER FOR MEASURING AC IMMITTANCE OF CELLS AND BATTERIES; U.S. Ser. No. 09/703,270, filed Oct. 31, 2000, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 09/780,146, filed Feb. 9, 2001, entitled STORAGE BATTERY WITH INTEGRAL BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 09/816,768, filed Mar. 23, 2001, entitled MODULAR BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 09/756,638, filed Jan. 8, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING BATTERY PROPERTIES FROM COMPLEX IMPEDANCE/ADMITTANCE; U.S. Ser. No. 09/862,783, filed May 21, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING CELLS AND BATTERIES EMBEDDED IN SERIES/PARALLEL SYSTEMS; U.S. Ser. No. 09/960,117, filed Sep. 20, 2001, entitled IN-VEHICLE BATTERY MONITOR; U.S. Ser. No. 09/908,389, filed Jul. 18, 2001, entitled BATTERY CLAMP WITH INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SENSOR; U.S. Ser. No. 09/908,278, filed Jul. 18, 2001, entitled BATTERY CLAMP WITH EMBEDDED ENVIRONMENT SENSOR; U.S. Ser. No. 09/880,473, filed Jun. 13, 2001; entitled BATTERY TEST MODULE; U.S. Ser. No. 09/940,684, filed Aug. 27, 2001, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EVALUATING STORED CHARGE IN AN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL OR BATTERY; U.S. Ser. No. 60/330,441, filed Oct. 17, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH RELATIVE TEST OUTPUT; U.S. Ser. No. 60/348,479, filed Oct. 29, 2001, entitled CONCEPT FOR TESTING HIGH POWER VRLA BATTERIES; U.S. Ser. No. 10/046,659, filed Oct. 29, 2001, entitled ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE; U.S. Ser. No. 09/993,468, filed Nov. 14, 2001, entitled KELVIN CONNECTOR FOR A BATTERY POST; U.S. Ser. No. 09/992,350, filed Nov. 26, 2001, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER, U.S. Ser. No. 60/341,902, filed Dec. 19, 2001, entitled BATTERY TESTER MODULE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/042,451, filed Jan. 8, 2002, entitled BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL DEVICE, U.S. Ser. No. 10/073,378, filed Feb. 8, 2002, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS USING A CIRCUIT MODEL TO EVALUATE CELL/BATTERY PARAMETERS; U.S. Ser. No. 10/093,853, filed Mar. 7, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH NETWORK COMMUNICATION; U.S. Ser. No. 60/364,656, filed Mar. 14, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH LOW TEMPERATURE RATING DETERMINATION; U.S. Ser. No. 10/098,741, filed Mar. 14, 2002, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR AUDITING A BATTERY TEST; U.S. Ser. No. 10/101,543, filed Mar. 19, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 10/112,114, filed Mar. 28, 2002; U.S. Ser. No. 10/109,734, filed Mar. 28, 2002; U.S. Ser. No. 10/112,105, filed Mar. 28, 2002, entitled CHARGE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE BATTERY; U.S. Ser. No. 10/112,998, filed Mar. 29, 2002, entitled BATTERY TESTER WITH BATTERY REPLACEMENT OUTPUT; U.S. Ser. No. 10/119,297, filed Apr. 9, 2002, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING CELLS AND BATTERIES EMBEDDED IN SERIES/PARALLEL SYSTEMS; U.S. Ser. No. 10/128,790, filed Apr. 22, 2002, entitled METHOD OF DISTRIBUTING JUMP-START BOOSTER PACKS; U.S. Ser. No. 60/379,281, filed May 8, 2002, entitled METHOD FOR DETERMINING BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/143,307, filed May 10, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 60/387,046, filed Jun. 7, 2002, entitled METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR INCREASING THE LIFE OF A STORAGE BATTERY; U.S. Ser. No. 10/177,635, filed Jun. 21, 2002, entitled BATTERY CHARGER WITH BOOSTER PACK; U.S. Ser. No. 10/207,495, filed Jul. 29, 2002, entitled KELVIN CLAMP FOR ELECTRICALLY COUPLING TO A BATTERY CONTACT; U.S. Ser. No. 10/200,041, filed Jul. 19, 2002, entitled AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DIAGNOSTIC DEVICE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/217,913, filed Aug. 13, 2002, entitled, BATTERY TEST MODULE; U.S. Ser. No. 60/408,542, filed Sep. 5, 2002, entitled BATTERY TEST OUTPUTS ADJUSTED BASED UPON TEMPERATURE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/246,439, filed Sep. 18, 2002, entitled BATTERY TESTER UPGRADE USING SOFTWARE KEY; U.S. Ser. No. 60/415,399, filed Oct. 2, 2002, entitled QUERY BASED ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; and U.S. Ser. No. 10/263,473, filed Oct. 2, 2002, entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER WITH RELATIVE TEST OUTPUT; U.S. Ser. No. 60/415,796, filed Oct. 3, 2002, entitled QUERY BASED ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER; U.S. Ser. No. 10/271,342, filed Oct. 15, 2002, entitled IN VEHICLE BATTERY MONITOR; U.S. Ser. No. 10/270,777, filed Oct. 15, 2002, entitled PROGRAMMABLE CURRENT EXCITER FOR MEASURING AC IMMITTANCE OF CELLS AND BATTERIES; U.S. Ser. No. 10/310,515, filed Dec. 5, 2002, entitled BATTERY TEST MODULE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/310,490, filed Dec. 5, 2002, entitled BATTERY TEST MODULE; U.S. Ser. No. 10/310,385 entitled ELECTRONIC BATTERY TESTER, U.S. Ser. No. 60/437,255, filed Dec. 31, 2002, entitled REMAINING TIME PREDICTIONS, U.S. Ser. No. 60/437,224, filed Dec. 31, 2002, entitled DISCHARGE VOLTAGE PREDICTIONS, U.S. Ser. No. 60/437,611, entitled REMAINING TIME PREDICTIONS, which are incorporated herein in their entirety.

In general, battery testers, which determine the condition of the battery as a function of measured dynamic conductance of the battery, carry out the conductance measurement by injecting or drawing a small AC current (less than about 2 amperes) through the battery and measuring the resulting AC voltage. Since this technique only involves the use of a small AC current to determine conductance, it is easy to perform, does not discharge the battery, is relatively rapid and is free from sparking.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to the use of a dynamic battery parameter, coupled with battery voltage, temperature and Cold Cranking Performance rating (CCA), to determine how a battery would perform under an actual load test. A method and apparatus for testing a storage battery is provided in which a battery is measured to obtain a battery dynamic parameter value such as conductance. The battery is measured to obtain a stable open circuit voltage and a battery temperature value. The load test voltage of the battery is estimated as a function of the battery dynamic parameter value, the open circuit voltage value, the battery temperature value and the battery CCA rating. This voltage value is compared to the minimum requirements for the battery listed above and an output indicative of a condition of the battery is provided.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a simplified schematic diagram showing battery test circuitry in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a simplified block diagram showing the steps of a method of programming a battery tester in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 3 is a simplified block diagram showing the steps of a method of testing a battery in accordance with the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for predicting how a battery would perform under a load test by employing a dynamic parameter testing technique. Although the example embodiments of the present invention described below relate to estimating load test values from battery conductance measurements, dynamic parameters other than battery conductance may be utilized without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Examples of other dynamic parameters include dynamic resistance, admittance, impedance, reactance, susceptance or their combinations.

FIG. 1 is a simplified block diagram of battery test circuitry 16 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Apparatus 16 is shown coupled to battery 12, which includes a positive battery terminal 22 and a negative battery terminal 24. Battery 12 has a CCA rating and a load test voltage rating.

In preferred embodiments, circuitry 16 operates, with the exceptions and additions as discussed below, in accordance with battery testing methods described in one or more of the United States patents obtained by Dr. Champlin and Midtronics, Inc. and listed above. Circuitry 16 operates in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention and determines the conductance (G) of battery 12 and the open circuit voltage (OCV) between terminals 22 and 24 of battery 12. Circuitry 16 includes current source 50, differential amplifier 52, analog-to-digital converter 54 and microprocessor 56. Amplifier 52 is capacitively coupled to battery 12 through capacitors C1 and C2. Amplifier 52 has an output connected to an input of analog-to-digital converter 54. Microprocessor 56 is connected to system clock 58, memory 60, memory 62 and analog-to-digital converter 54. Microprocessor 56 is also capable of receiving an input from input devices 66 and 68. Microprocessor 56 also connects to output device 72.

In operation, current source 50 is controlled by microprocessor 56 and provides a current I in the direction shown by the arrow in FIG. 1. In one embodiment, this is a square wave or a pulse. Differential amplifier 52 is connected to terminals 22 and 24 of battery 12 through capacitors C1 and C2, respectively, and provides an output related to the voltage potential difference between terminals 22 and 24. In a preferred embodiment, amplifier 52 has a high input impedance. Circuitry 16 includes differential amplifier 70 having inverting and noninverting inputs connected to terminals 24 and 22, respectively. Amplifier 70 is connected to measure the OCV of battery 12 between terminals 22 and 24. The output of amplifier 70 is provided to analog-to-digital converter 54 such that the voltage across terminals 22 and 24 can be measured by microprocessor 56.

Circuitry 16 is connected to battery 12 through a four-point connection technique known as a Kelvin connection. This Kelvin connection allows current I to be injected into battery 12 through a first pair of terminals while the voltage V across the terminals 22 and 24 is measured by a second pair of connections. Because very little current flows through amplifier 52, the voltage drop across the inputs to amplifier 52 is substantially identical to the voltage drop across terminals 22 and 24 of battery 12. The output of differential amplifier 52 is converted to a digital format and is provided to microprocessor 56. Microprocessor 56 operates at a frequency determined by system clock 58 and in accordance with programming instructions stored in memory 60.

Microprocessor 56 determines the conductance of battery 12 by applying a current pulse I using current source 50. The microprocessor determines the change in battery voltage due to the current pulse I using amplifier 52 and analog-to-digital converter 54. The value of current I generated by current source 50 is known and is stored in memory 60. Microprocessor 56 calculates the conductance of battery 12 using the following equation:

Conductance = G = Δ I Δ V Equation 1
where ΔI is the change in current flowing through battery 12 due to current source 50 and ΔV is the change in battery voltage due to applied current ΔI. In some embodiments circuitry 16 also includes a temperature sensor 74, coupled to microprocessor 56, that can be thermally coupled to battery 12 to thereby measure a temperature of battery 12 and provide the measured battery temperature value(s) to microprocessor 56. In the preferred embodiment, the battery temperature would be measured using an infrared signal from the outside of the battery. In other embodiments, instead of being measured, the temperature of battery 12 may be estimated or input by a tester user through input 66, for example. Microprocessor 56 can also use other information input from input device 66 provided by, for example, an operator. This information may consist of the particular type of battery, location, time, the name of the operator, the CCA rating of the battery, the rated load test voltage of the battery, etc.

Under the control of microprocessor 56, battery tester 16 estimates a load test voltage of battery 12 as a function of the battery conductance G, the OCV, the battery temperature and the CCA rating of battery 12. Further, battery tester 16 compares the estimated load test voltage with the rated load test voltage of battery 12 and outputs the state of health of battery 12 based on this comparison. Details regarding the derivation of an algorithm utilized by battery tester 16 to estimate the load test voltage of battery 12 are provided below. The algorithm included below was derived by taking a representative sample of batteries of different sizes and ages and testing them for their conductance and reactions to various loads at various temperatures.

It was found that battery conductance varied with temperature in a substantially predictable curvilinear manner. At cold temperatures it would drop rapidly, while at high temperatures it was higher and more constant. This occurs primarily as a result of the variation of the resistance of the electrolyte with temperature. It was found that the specific conductance could be fitted to a third order polynomial equation with temperature. Using the given temperature of the battery, the conductance at any other temperature can then be predicted by multiplying and dividing by the appropriate temperature factors obtained from this temperature curve.

With fully charged batteries of a given conductance, it is found that the instantaneous loaded voltage is dependent on a voltage that is less than the OCV of the battery. This activation voltage is temperature dependent and can be linearly related:
V=V act −I*R
or
V=V act −I/G  (Equation 2)
where V is an instantaneous voltage, Vact is the temperature related fully charged activation voltage, I is the discharge current, R is the battery resistance and G is the battery conductance.

Because batteries are not always at full charge and at a standard temperature (temperature defined in a battery test standard), properties of the battery in a fully charged condition at a standard temperature need be estimated. It was found that using the initial voltage or OCV as a measure of the discharge of the battery and also using the temperature of the battery, the conductance could be compensated for by a mathematical relationship to predict that of a fully charged battery under standard conditions. For example, conductance can be expressed as:
Gcomp=G*f1(T,OCV)  Equation 3
G 70 =Gcomp*f2(70)/f2(T)  Equation 4
where Gcomp is conductance compensated to full charge at the OCV and temperature of the battery, G70 is conductance at full charge and 70° F., f1(T,OCV) is a function to compensate the conductance at a given temperature and voltage, and f2(T) is a function of the specific conductance at a given temperature.

Since the conductance can be corrected mathematically to full charge, the need to recharge moderately discharged batteries before testing or warming or cooling the battery to test conditions is eliminated.

Thus, knowing the temperature and the conductance (compensated mathematically to full charge) the initial voltage under load can be estimated. Vact is easily calculated for various temperatures by measuring the conductance or the resistance of the fully charged battery and then running the discharge for a short time (2 seconds, for example). Using Equation 2, Vact can be calculated by adding the I*R (or I/G) value to the initial voltage where I is half the CCA rating. By comparing many temperatures and battery types, it is found that Vact varies approximately linearly with temperature and therefore can be predicted using temperature alone.
V act =k1*T+k2  Equation 5
where T is the battery temperature and k1 and k2 are constants.

Thus the instantaneous load test value at a standard test temperature (70° F.) can be predicted using the combined equations:
V init70=70*k1+k2−(CCA/2)/G(70)  Equation 6
Where Vinit70=the initial or instantaneous voltage predicted at full charge and 70° F. and G(70) is the projected conductance at full charge and 70° F.

As mentioned above, the load test must sustain its load for a period of time (15 seconds). For good batteries, the initial voltage (2-second voltage) and the 15-second voltage are not substantially different. However, as a battery approaches the end of life, its voltage can decay markedly during the discharge, thus causing a failure even though the initial voltage may be above the minimum specification level. This decay between the initial voltage and the 15-second voltage can be linearly related to the initial battery voltage at standard temperature for most batteries. Thus the decay voltage (DV) can be estimated by using the following relationship:
DV=k3*V init70 −k4  Equation 7
where Vinit70 is the initial or instantaneous load test voltage at 70° F. and k3 and k4 are constants.

Combining the above Equations, the load test voltage (LTV) at a standard test temperature of 70° F. can be estimated as:
LTV 70 =V init70 −DV
or
LTV 70 =k4+LTV 70*(1−k3)  Equation 8
This value can then be compared to the rated load test voltage for the battery at the standard test temperature and a judgment on the state of health of the battery can be easily rendered. The rated load test voltage of 9.6 Volts at 70° F. for 12V batteries is used as a comparison. It can also be appreciated that the load test voltage at any other temperature of the battery can similarly be predicted.

FIG. 2 is a flowchart 100 showing steps of a method of programming battery tester 16 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in flow chart 100, at step 102, a characteristic curve for the variation of battery conductance with temperature is established. At step 104, the characteristic conductance-temperature curve is programmed into memory 60 of battery tester 16 via input 66. At step 106, mathematical relationships to estimate the load test voltage from the conductance, temperature, OCV and CCA rating of the battery are established (Equations 1-8 above). At step 108, the mathematical relationships are programmed into memory 60 of battery tester 16. At this point, battery tester 16 is ready to estimate battery load test voltages and provide load test results for batteries.

FIG. 3 is a flowchart 150 showing steps of a method of testing a battery in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. At step 152, dynamic parameter of the battery is measured. At step 154, an open circuit voltage of the battery is obtained. At step 156, a temperature of the battery is measured. At step 158, a cranking size rating (such as the CCA rating) of the battery is obtained. At step 160, a load test voltage of the battery is estimated as a function of the measured battery dynamic parameter, the open circuit voltage of the battery, the measured battery temperature and the cranking size rating of the battery. Different techniques, some of which are set forth above, can be employed to carry out the steps shown in the flow chart of FIG. 3 while maintaining substantially the same functionality without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.

In embodiments of the present invention, battery tester 16 is configured to issue a warning that the battery should be recharged before a judgment on the state of health of the battery can be rendered, if it determines that the battery is in an over discharged condition. Also, battery faults such as shorts can be determined by suitably combining the voltage and conductance information using known techniques.

Thus, a rapid test can be performed using the parameters of conductance, OCV, temperature and the CCA rating of the battery to provide data that the industry has accepted for batteries in service.

Although the present invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments, workers skilled in the art will recognize that changes may be made in form and detail without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. As mentioned above, although the example embodiments of the present invention described above relate to estimating load test values from battery conductance measurements, dynamic parameters other than battery conductance may be utilized without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Examples of other dynamic parameters include dynamic resistances, admittance, impedance, reactance, susceptance or their combinations. In general, a dynamic parameter of the battery can be obtained measuring a response of the battery to any suitable active or passive source.

Citations de brevets
Brevet cité Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US251474519 déc. 194611 juil. 1950Heyer Ind IncChangeable scale electrical testing instrument
US335693612 févr. 19645 déc. 1967Litton Prec Products IncMethod and means for total battery voltage testing
US356263416 déc. 19689 févr. 1971Atomic Energy CommissionMethod for determining the state of charge of nickel cadmium batteries by measuring the farad capacitance thereof
US359309924 juil. 196913 juil. 1971Scholl Hans KAutomatic battery tester with recording means for battery performance
US360767318 mars 196821 sept. 1971Magna CorpMethod for measuring corrosion rate
US367677015 mai 197011 juil. 1972Anderson Power ProductsPulse sampling battery fuel gauging and resistance metering method and means
US372998910 déc. 19701 mai 1973Little DHorsepower and torque measuring instrument
US375309424 juil. 197214 août 1973Matsushita Electric Ind Co LtdOhmmeter for measuring the internal resistance of a battery and directly reading the measured resistance value
US38085223 nov. 197230 avr. 1974Anderson Power ProductsMethod of testing the capacity of a lead-acid battery
US381108914 juil. 197214 mai 1974Gen Motors CorpRemote engine tachometer
US387391122 févr. 197325 mars 1975Champlin Keith SElectronic battery testing device
US387693126 déc. 19738 avr. 1975Fox Prod CoMethod and apparatus for determining battery performance at one temperature when battery is at another temperature
US388644329 mai 197327 mai 1975Asahi Optical Co LtdElectric camera shutter with voltage checking circuit
US388924821 mai 197310 juin 1975Ritter EstherFaulty battery connection indicator
US390632927 août 197316 sept. 1975Deutsche AutomobilgesellschMethod of measuring the charge condition of galvanic energy sources and apparatus for carrying out this method
US3909708 *2 janv. 197430 sept. 1975Keith S ChamplinElectronic battery testing device
US393674430 avr. 19743 févr. 1976David PerlmutterAutomotive alternator and solid state regulator tester
US394629911 févr. 197523 mars 1976Gould, Inc.Battery state of charge gauge
US394775724 févr. 197530 mars 1976Grube Donald BVoltage regulator tester
US396966720 déc. 197413 juil. 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyDevice for determining the state of charge in batteries
US39796643 mars 19757 sept. 1976Brunswick CorporationCapacitor discharge ignition testing apparatus employing visual spark gap indicator
US39847627 mars 19755 oct. 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyMethod for determining battery state of charge by measuring A.C. electrical phase angle change
US398476811 juin 19755 oct. 1976Champion Spark Plug CompanyApparatus for high voltage resistance measurement
US398954428 juil. 19752 nov. 1976Santo Charles PQuick disconnect battery
US400861917 nov. 197522 févr. 1977Mks Instruments, Inc.Vacuum monitoring
US402495318 juin 197624 mai 1977E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyBattery snap terminal
US404709121 juil. 19766 sept. 1977National Semiconductor CorporationCapacitive voltage multiplier
US405382426 juil. 197611 oct. 1977Compagnie Europeenne D'accumulateurs S.A.Method and device for checking a storage battery
US407062426 juil. 197624 janv. 1978American Generator & Armature Co.Apparatus for testing starters and alternators
US408653126 avr. 197625 avr. 1978Compunetics, IncorporatedElectrical system test apparatus
US41123511 sept. 19775 sept. 1978United Technologies CorporationDual threshold low coil signal conditioner
US411408315 juin 197712 sept. 1978The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyBattery thermal runaway monitor
US412687420 déc. 197621 nov. 1978Canon Kabushiki KaishaPower supply circuit for camera
US41785466 janv. 197811 déc. 1979Rca CorporationAlternator test apparatus and method
US419302523 déc. 197711 mars 1980Globe-Union, Inc.Automatic battery analyzer
US420761118 déc. 197810 juin 1980Ford Motor CompanyApparatus and method for calibrated testing of a vehicle electrical system
US421764525 avr. 197912 août 1980Barry George HBattery monitoring system
US429763918 juil. 197927 oct. 1981Branham Tillman WBattery testing apparatus with overload protective means
US431520422 mai 19809 févr. 1982Motorola, Inc.Ripple detector for automotive alternator battery charging systems
US431618517 juil. 198016 févr. 1982General Electric CompanyBattery monitor circuit
US432268529 févr. 198030 mars 1982Globe-Union Inc.Automatic battery analyzer including apparatus for determining presence of single bad cell
US435140530 nov. 197928 sept. 1982Hybricon Inc.Hybrid car with electric and heat engine
US436180920 nov. 198030 nov. 1982Ford Motor CompanyBattery diagnostic method and apparatus
US436340722 janv. 198114 déc. 1982Polaroid CorporationMethod and system for testing and sorting batteries
US436940724 août 198118 janv. 1983Sheller-Globe CorporationRegulator tester
US43799896 mai 198012 avr. 1983Robert Bosch GmbhSystem for preventing damage to a battery charger due to application of a battery with wrong polarity
US437999022 mai 198012 avr. 1983Motorola Inc.Fault detection and diagnostic system for automotive battery charging systems
US43852699 janv. 198124 mai 1983Redifon Telecommunications LimitedBattery charger
US439082817 mars 198228 juin 1983Transaction Control IndustriesBattery charger circuit
US43921015 janv. 19825 juil. 1983Black & Decker Inc.Method of charging batteries and apparatus therefor
US43968805 juin 19812 août 1983Firing Circuits Inc.Method and apparatus for charging a battery
US44081574 mai 19814 oct. 1983Associated Research, Inc.Resistance measuring arrangement
US441216925 nov. 198125 oct. 1983Marelli Autronica S.P.A.Circuit for detecting and indicating faults and operating anomalies in a system for recharging electric accumulators
US44233784 déc. 198127 déc. 1983Bear Automotive Service Equipment CompanyAutomotive battery test apparatus
US442337931 mars 198127 déc. 1983Sun Electric CorporationBattery testing techniques
US442449120 mai 19813 janv. 1984The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyAutomatic voltage imbalance detector
US445954812 nov. 198110 juil. 1984Snap-On Tools CorporationAlternator testing apparatus
US451469423 juil. 198230 avr. 1985Curtis InstrumentsQuiescent battery testing method and apparatus
US452035326 mars 198228 mai 1985Outboard Marine CorporationState of charge indicator
US45647986 oct. 198214 janv. 1986Escutcheon AssociatesBattery performance control
US463341811 juil. 198430 déc. 1986The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air ForceBattery control and fault detection method
US46599771 oct. 198421 avr. 1987Chrysler Motors CorporationMicrocomputer controlled electronic alternator for vehicles
US46635809 janv. 19865 mai 1987Seiscor Technologies, Inc.Sealed lead-acid battery float charger and power supply
US466537015 sept. 198012 mai 1987Holland John FMethod and apparatus for monitoring and indicating the condition of a battery and the related circuitry
US466714323 déc. 198519 mai 1987Phillips Petroleum CompanyBattery charger having temperature compensated charge rate
US46672791 avr. 198619 mai 1987Hewlett-Packard CompanyTransformer coupled pard bucker for DC power supplies
US46789989 déc. 19857 juil. 1987Nissan Motor Company, LimitedBattery condition monitor and monitoring method
US467900020 juin 19857 juil. 1987Robert ClarkBidirectional current time integration device
US46805284 mars 198614 juil. 1987Toko, Inc.Battery charging device
US468644228 avr. 198611 août 1987General Motors CorporationDual voltage electrical system
US469713431 juil. 198629 sept. 1987Commonwealth Edison CompanyApparatus and method for measuring battery condition
US470779520 juin 198517 nov. 1987Alber Engineering, Inc.Battery testing and monitoring system
US470920219 juin 198624 nov. 1987Norand CorporationBattery powered system
US47108613 juin 19861 déc. 1987Martin KannerOn a d.c. signal
US47194284 juin 198512 janv. 1988Tif Instruments, Inc.Storage battery condition tester utilizing low load current
US47438553 nov. 198610 mai 1988Randin Jean PaulMethod of and apparatus for measuring the state of discharge of a battery
US474534916 oct. 198617 mai 1988Allied CorporationApparatus and method for charging and testing batteries
US481676818 mars 198828 mars 1989Champlin Keith SElectronic battery testing device
US482096613 juin 198811 avr. 1989Ron FridmanBattery monitoring system
US482517025 mai 198825 avr. 1989Champlin Keith SElectronic battery testing device with automatic voltage scaling
US484754721 juil. 198811 juil. 1989John Fluke Mfg., Co. Inc.Battery charger with Vbe temperature compensation circuit
US484970015 mars 198818 juil. 1989Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaDevice for detecting residual capacity of battery
US487649527 juin 198824 oct. 1989Allied-Signal Inc.Apparatus and method for charging and testing batteries
US488103818 nov. 198814 nov. 1989Champlin Keith SElectric battery testing device with automatic voltage scaling to determine dynamic conductance
US488871613 avr. 198719 déc. 1989Hitachi, Ltd.Life diagnosis apparatus for automotive battery
US491241616 juin 198927 mars 1990Champlin Keith SElectronic battery testing device with state-of-charge compensation
US49131167 mars 19893 avr. 1990Hitachi, Ltd.Ignition timing control apparatus for an internal combustion engine
US492993122 déc. 198829 mai 1990Honeywell Inc.Battery monitor
US493173827 janv. 19895 juin 1990Kaufel Group, Ltd.Battery monitoring system of cell groups and display
US493752814 oct. 198826 juin 1990Allied-Signal Inc.Method for monitoring automotive battery status
US49471244 avr. 19897 août 1990Habra Elektronik GmbhMethod for charging a nickel-cadmium accumulator and simultaneously testing its condition
US495659728 févr. 198911 sept. 1990American Monarch CorporationMethod and apparatus for charging batteries
US496894113 juil. 19886 nov. 1990Rogers Wesley AApparatus for monitoring the state of charge of a battery
US496894221 févr. 19896 nov. 1990Allied-Signal Inc.Method for monitoring aircraft battery status
US500497916 mars 19902 avr. 1991Bear Automotive Service Equipment CompanyBattery tach
US50328252 mars 199016 juil. 1991Motorola, Inc.Battery capacity indicator
US503777812 mai 19896 août 1991Intel CorporationGold, silicon cladding
US504772217 avr. 198910 sept. 1991Ssmc Inc.Apparatus for measuring internal resistance of wet cell storage batteries having non-removable cell caps
US508788119 sept. 198911 févr. 1992Peacock David J HIc engine cylinder output power measurement apparatus by monitoring the output of an alternator driven by the engine
US509522321 mai 199110 mars 1992U.S. Philips CorporationDc/dc voltage multiplier with selective charge/discharge
US6051976 *29 juil. 199618 avr. 2000Midtronics, Inc.Method and apparatus for auditing a battery test
US6259254 *26 juil. 199910 juil. 2001Midtronics, Inc.Apparatus and method for carrying out diagnostic tests on batteries and for rapidly charging batteries
US6534992 *7 févr. 200218 mars 2003Vb Autobatterie GmbhMethod for determining the performance of a storage battery
Citations hors brevets
Référence
1"#12: LM78S40 Simple Switcher DC to DC Converter", ITM e-Catalog, downloaded from http://www.pcbcafe.com, undated.
2"A Bridge for Measuring Storage Battery Resistance", by E. Willihncanz, The Electrochemical Society, preprint 79-20, Apr. 1941, pp. 253-258.
3"A Look at the Impedance of a Cell", by S. Debardelaben, IEEE, 1988, pp. 394-397.
4"A Package for Impedance/Admittance Data Analysis", by B. Boukamp, Solid State Ionics, 1986, pp. 136-140.
5"Alligator Clips with Wire Penetrators" J.S. Popper, Inc. product information, downloaded from http://www.jspopper.com/, undated.
6"Battery Impedance", by E. Willihnganz et al., Electrical Engineering, Sep. 1959, pp. 922-925.
7"DC-DC Converter Basics", Power Designers, downloaded from http://www.powederdesigners.com/InforWeb.design-center/articles/DC-DC/converter.shtm, undated.
8"Determining The End of Battery Life", by S. DeBardelaben, IEEE, 1986, pp. 365-368.
9"Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in Battery Development and Testing", Batteries International, Apr. 1997, pp. 59 and 62-63.
10"Field and Laboratory Studies to Assess the State of Health of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid Batteries: Part I Conductance/Capacity Correlation Studies", by D. Feder et al., IEEE, Aug. 1992, pp. 218-233.
11"JIS Japanese Industrial Standard-Lead Acid Batteries for Automobiles", Japanese Standards Association UDC, 621.355.2:629.113.006, Nov. 1995.
12"Notification of Transmittal of the International Search Report or the Declaration", PCT/US02/29461.
13"Notification of Transmittal of the International Search Report or the Declaration", PCT/US03/06577.
14"Notification of Transmittal of the International Search Report or the Declaration", PCT/US03/07546.
15"Performance of Dry Cells"; by C. Hambuechen, Preprint of Am. Electrochem. Soc., Apr. 18-20, 1912, paper No. 19, pp. 1-5.
16"Precision of Impedance Spectroscopy Estimates of Bulk, Reaction Rate, and Diffusion Parameters", by J. Macdonald et al., J. Electroanal, Chem., 1991, pp. 1-11.
17"Simple DC-DC Converts Allows Use of Single Battery", Electronix Express, downloaded from http://www.elexp.com/t-dc-dc.htm, undated.
18"The Impedance of Electrical Storage Cells", by N.A. Hampson et al., Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 1980, pp. 3-11.
19"DC-DC Converter Basics", Power Designers, downloaded from http://www.powederdesigners.com/InforWeb.design—center/articles/DC-DC/converter.shtm, undated.
20"Simple DC-DC Converts Allows Use of Single Battery", Electronix Express, downloaded from http://www.elexp.com/t—dc-dc.htm, undated.
21Burr-Brown Corporation, "Design a 60 Hz Notch Filter with the UAF42", Jan. 1994, AB-071, 1994.
22IEEE Recommended Practice For Maintenance, Testings, and Replacement of Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., ANSI/IEEE Std. 450-1987, Mar. 9, 1987.
23Internal Resistance: Harbinger of Capacity Loss in Starved Electrolyte Sealed Lead Acid Batteries, by Vaccaro, F.J. et al., AT & T Bell Laboratories, 1987 IEEE, Ch. 2477, pp. 128, 131.
24National Semiconductor Corporation, "High Q Notch Filter", Mar. 1969, Linear Brief 5, Mar. 1969.
25National Semiconductor Corporation, "LMF90-4th-Order Elliptic Notch Filter", Dec. 1994, RRD-B30M115, Dec. 1994.
Référencé par
Brevet citant Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US871084728 oct. 201129 avr. 2014Donald MarvinSelf-correcting amplifier system
US87383108 déc. 201027 mai 2014Paul SwantonAutomatic determination of baselines for battery testing
Classifications
Classification aux États-Unis324/431, 320/152, 324/427, 320/144, 324/429
Classification internationaleH01M, H01M10/46, G01N27/416
Classification coopérativeG01R31/3634, G01R31/3662
Classification européenneG01R31/36T3
Événements juridiques
DateCodeÉvénementDescription
28 oct. 2013FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
2 sept. 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: MIDTRONICS, INC., ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KLANG, JAMES K.;REEL/FRAME:014464/0886
Effective date: 20030902
Owner name: MIDTRONICS, INC.,ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:KLANG, JAMES K.;US-ASSIGNMENT DATABASE UPDATED:20100525;REEL/FRAME:14464/886