US 8124274 B2
Electrochemical battery cells, and more particularly, to cells comprising a lithium negative electrode and an iron disulfide positive electrode. Before use in the cell, the iron disulfide has an inherent pH, or a mixture of iron disulfide and an pH raising additive compound have a calculated pH, of at least a predetermined minimum pH value. In a preferred embodiment, the pH raising additive compound comprises a Group IIA element of the Periodic Table of the Elements, or an acid scavenger or pH control agent such as an organic amine, cycloaliphatic epoxy, amino alcohol or overbased calcium sulfonate. In one embodiment, the iron disulfide particles utilized in the cell have a specific reduced average particle size range. Methods for preparing cathodes and electrochemical battery cells comprising such cathodes including (a) iron disulfide or (b) a mixture of iron disulfide and the pH raising additive compound, having (a) an inherent pH or (b) a calculated pH greater than or equal to a predetermined minimum value are disclosed.
1. An electrochemical battery cell, comprising:
a negative electrode comprising lithium;
a positive electrode coated onto a current collector, the positive electrode comprising a mixture of iron disulfide and a pH raising additive compound, wherein the pH raising additive compound is present in an effective amount to provide the mixture with a calculated pH of 6.5 to 14.0 and wherein the iron disulfide has a purity level of 95%;
wherein the pH raising additive compound is selected from the group consisting of: an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, triethylamine, diethylamine, butylene oxide, soybean oil epoxide, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and combinations thereof; and
a non-aqueous electrolyte mixture comprising at least one salt dissolved in a solvent disposed within the housing.
2. The electrochemical battery cell according to
3. The electrochemical battery cell according to
4. The electrochemical battery cell according to
5. The electrochemical battery cell according to
6. The electrochemical battery cell according to
7. The electrochemical battery cell according to
8. The electrochemical battery cell according to
9. An electrochemical battery cell, comprising:
a negative electrode comprising lithium;
a positive electrode coated onto a current collector the positive electrode comprising a mixture of iron disulfide and a pH raising additive compound, wherein the pH raising additive compound is present in an effective amount to provide the mixture with a calculated pH of 5.6 to 14.0, wherein the iron disulfide has an average particle size from 1 to 19 μm;
wherein the pH raising additive compound is selected from the group consisting of: an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, triethylamine, diethylamine, butylene oxide, soybean oil epoxide, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and combinations thereof; and
a non-aqueous electrolyte mixture comprising at least one salt dissolved in a solvent disposed within the housing.
10. The electrochemical battery cell according to
11. The electrochemical battery cell according to
12. The electrochemical battery cell according to
13. A process for making a cathode, comprising the steps of:
obtaining iron disulfide;
determining a pH of the iron disulfide; and
(a) if the iron disulfide pH is from 6.9 to 14.0 and an average iron disulfide particle size is 20 to 30 μm, coating a cathode onto a current collector using the iron disulfide;
(b) if the iron disulfide pH is from 5.6 to 14.0 and an average iron disulfide particle size is 1 to 19 μm, forming a cathode using the iron disulfide;
(c) if the iron disulfide pH is less than 6.9 and an average iron disulfide particle size is greater than 20 μm, forming a cathode by mixing the iron disulfide and an effective amount of a pH raising additive compound selected from the group consisting of: an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, triethylamine, diethylamine, butylene oxide, soybean oil epoxide, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and combinations thereof to provide a calculated pH of the iron disulfide and pH raising additive compound of 6.0 to 14.0 and coating the mixture onto a current collector; and
(d) if the iron disulfide pH is less than 5.6 and an average iron disulfide particle size is 1 to 19 μm, forming a cathode by mixing the iron disulfide and an effective amount of a pH raising additive compound selected from the group consisting of: an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, triethylamine, diethylamine, butylene oxide, soybean oil epoxide, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and combinations thereof to provide a calculated pH of the iron disulfide and pH raising additive compound of 5.0 to 14.0 and coating the mixture onto a current collector.
14. The process for making a cathode according to
15. A process for making an electrochemical battery cell, comprising the steps of:
combining the cathode of the process of
adding a non-aqueous electrolyte; and
sealing the anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte in a cell housing.
16. A process for making a cathode, comprising the steps of:
obtaining iron disulfide;
mixing a pH raising additive compound selected from the group consisting of: an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, triethylamine, diethylamine, butylene oxide, soybean oil epoxide, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and combinations thereof with the iron disulfide in an effective amount so that a calculated pH of the iron disulfide and pH raising additive compound is 6.9 to 14.0; and
adding a binder and a conductive additive to the mixture of iron disulfide and the pH raising additive compound and coating the resulting mixture onto a cathode substrate.
17. The process for making a cathode according to
18. A process for making an electrochemical battery cell, comprising the steps of:
spirally winding the cathode of the process of
adding a non-aqueous electrolyte; and
sealing the anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte in a cell housing.
This application is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/020,339, filed Dec. 22, 2004, now abandoned which is a continuation-in-part application of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/719,425, filed Nov. 21, 2003, now abandoned both entitled “HIGH DISCHARGE CAPACITY LITHIUM BATTERY”, both herein fully incorporated by reference.
The present invention relates to electrochemical battery cells, more particularly to cells comprising a lithium negative electrode and an iron disulfide positive electrode, and methods for preparing cathodes and electrochemical battery cells are disclosed.
Many electrical devices use electrochemical battery cells as power sources. The size and shape of the battery is often limited by the battery compartment of the device. Manufacturers continually try to increase the capabilities and features of electrical devices thereby increasing demands on the batteries used therein. As the shape and size of the battery is often fixed, battery manufacturers must modify cell characteristics to provide increased performance.
Solutions to provide increased performance have included minimizing volume taken up in the cell by the housing, including the seal and vent, as well as reducing the thickness of the separator between the negative electrode (anode) and positive electrode (cathode). Such solutions attempt to maximize the internal volume available for active materials.
It is also desirable to utilize natural pyrite or ion disulfide (FeS2) ore in the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell as an active material as it provides desirable performance characteristics. However, natural iron disulfide ore can contain any of a number of impurities, whether present in the natural product or added intentionally or unintentionally by a mining company or supplier. The type of impurities can vary by source, i.e. samples from different mining regions, or even by lot from the same location. While sampling and lot selection can be utilized to limit impurity types or levels, or a combination thereof, impurities cannot be eliminated entirely. In the past, lithium/iron disulfide batteries were prepared having an iron disulfide average particle size greater than 20 μm, and a median inherent pH value prior to use in an electrode of about 5.0 with pH values ranging from 3.75 to 6.86. Also, lithium/iron disulfide batteries were prepared having an iron disulfide average particle size from 1 to 19 μm, and a median inherent pH value of about 4.75 with pH values ranging from 4.03 to 5.56. Currently, the use of synthetic iron disulfide is cost prohibitive.
The pyrite or iron disulfide particles utilized in electrochemical cell cathodes are typically derived from natural ore which is crushed, heat treated, and dry milled to an average particle size of 20 to 30 microns. The fineness of the grind is limited by the reactivity of the particles with air and moisture. As the particle size is reduced, the surface area thereof is increased and is weathered. Weathering is an oxidation process in which the iron disulfide reacts with moisture and air to form iron sulfates. The weathering process results in an increase in acidity and a reduction in electrochemical activity. Small pyrite particles can generate sufficient heat during oxidation to cause hazardous fires within the processing operation. Prior art iron disulfide particles utilized can have particles sizes which approach the final cathode coating thickness of about 80 microns due to the inconsistencies of the dry milling process.
The dry milling process of iron disulfide is typically performed by a mining company or an intermediate wherein large quantities of material are produced. The processed iron disulfide is shipped and generally stored for extended periods of time before it can be used by the battery industry. Thus, during the storage period, the above-noted oxidation and weathering occur and the material degrades. Moreover, the large iron disulfide particles sizes can impact processes such as calendering, causing substrate distortion, coating to substrate bond disruption, as well as failures from separator damage.
It has been found desirable to improve electrochemical battery cell performance by utilizing smaller average particle size iron disulfide. The average particle size of the iron disulfide is typically reduced via a milling process such as media or jet milling. As a result, the iron disulfide surface area is increased and additional impurity inclusions are exposed and can be released into the electrolyte.
Batteries having iron disulfide positive electrodes and preferably lithium negative electrodes occasionally exhibit defects which result in internal shorting. The defects are believed to be caused by impurities such as metals, for example zinc, which are present in raw material sources such as the iron disulfide. Some of the impurities are soluble in the non-aqueous electrolyte and deposit on the negative electrode as dendrites. The dendrites can grow large enough to form a conductive bridge across the separator and cause an internal short in the electrochemical cell.
For the foregoing reasons, there is a need for electrochemical cells in which internal short circuits or dendrite growth or formation can be reduced or substantially prevented. The prevention of dendrite growth or internal short circuits should not come at the expense of cell performance.
In view of the above problems and considerations, it is an object of the present invention to provide an electrochemical battery cell that has high capacity, performs well under expected temperature and operating conditions, has a long storage life at a plurality of temperatures, and is not prone to failure as a result of internal short circuits.
It is also an object of the present invention to provide an electrochemical battery cell that exhibits desirable discharge capacity and efficiency on both low and high power discharge.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a Li/FeS2 cell with increased cathode interfacial capacity and having both improved energy density and good resistance to internal short circuits.
It is an additional object of the present invention to provide an electrochemical cell having a positive electrode comprising relatively small average particle size FeS2 particles. A further object is to provide an electrochemical cell having increased low and high rate product performance. Yet another object is to provide an electrochemical cell which maintains a high voltage output for an extended period of time. Still a further object of the invention is to provide methods for producing electrochemical cells and especially a positive electrode therefore with the method including the steps of forming a slurry comprising FeS2 particles and a wetting agent; utilizing a mill, particularly a media mill, to reduce the average particle size of the FeS2 particles, and subsequently forming the positive electrode utilizing the slurry. Another object of the present invention is to provide electrochemical cells having a positive electrode comprising iron disulfide particles which have been milled to a desired average particle size range utilizing a process such as jet milling, in which substantially no heat is generated and a narrow particle size distribution is obtained.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an electrochemical battery cell having a positive electrode comprising (a) FeS2 or (b) FeS2 and an optional pH raising additive compound, which prior to use in the electrode has a pH of at least a predetermined minimum value. In one embodiment, the FeS2 has an average particle size from 1 to 19 μm. In one aspect of the invention, the pH raising additive compound is provided which comprises a Group IIA element of the Periodic Table of the Elements or an acid scavenger or pH control agent such as an organic amine, cycloaliphatic epoxy, amino alcohol or overbased calcium sulfonate.
An additional object of the present invention is to provide methods for preparing a positive electrode for an electrochemical battery cell as well as cells comprising the positive electrode, including the steps of determining the pH of an FeS2 sample, optionally adding a pH raising additive compound to increase the pH to at least a predetermined minimum value, and applying the FeS2, and optionally the pH raising additive compound to a cathode substrate. In one embodiment, the method for making an electrochemical battery cell includes the steps of forming a cell comprising the cathode comprising (a) FeS2 having an inherent pH, or (b) a mixture comprising FeS2 and the pH raising additive compound having a calculated pH, greater than or equal to a predetermined minimum value.
The above objects are met and the above disadvantages of the prior art are overcome by the present invention.
One aspect of the invention is directed to an electrochemical battery cell, comprising a housing; a negative electrode comprising lithium; a positive electrode comprising either (a) iron disulfide having an inherent pH from 6.0 to 14.0, or (b) a mixture of iron disulfide and a pH raising additive compound, wherein the pH raising additive compound is present in an effective amount to provide the mixture with a calculated pH of 5.0 to 14.0; and a non-aqueous electrolyte mixture comprising at least one salt dissolved in a solvent disposed within the housing.
Yet another aspect of the invention is directed to an electrochemical battery cell, comprising a housing; a negative electrode comprising lithium; a positive electrode comprising either (a) iron disulfide having an inherent pH from 5.0 to 14.0 prior to use in the cell, or (b) a mixture of iron disulfide and a pH raising additive compound, wherein the pH raising additive compound is present in an effective amount to provide the mixture with a calculated pH of 5.0 to 14.0, wherein the iron disulfide has an average particle size from 1 to 19 μm; and a non-aqueous electrolyte mixture comprising at least one salt dissolved in a solvent disposed within the housing.
Yet another aspect of the invention is directed to an electrochemical battery cell, comprising a housing; a negative electrode comprising lithium; a positive electrode comprising iron disulfide and a pH raising additive compound comprising a Group IIA element, an organic amine, a cycloaliphatic epoxide, an amino alcohol, an overbased metal sulfonate, or a combination thereof, wherein the positive electrode is free of lithium carbonate if calcium hydroxide is present as the pH raising additive compound; a non-aqueous electrolyte mixture comprising at least one salt dissolved in a solvent disposed within the housing; and a separator disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode.
Yet another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for making a cathode, comprising the steps of obtaining iron disulfide; determining a pH of the iron disulfide; and (a) if the iron disulfide pH is from 6.0 to 14.0 and an average iron disulfide particle size is 20 to 30 μm, forming a cathode using the iron disulfide; and (b) if the iron disulfide pH is from 5.0 to 14.0 and an average iron disulfide particle size is 1 to 19 μm, forming a cathode using the iron disulfide. An electrochemical cell can be made by combining a cathode made according to this process with lithium and a separator situated between the anode and the cathode, adding a non-aqueous electrolyte, and sealing the anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte in a cell housing.
Yet another aspect of the invention is directed to a process for making a cathode, comprising the steps of obtaining iron disulfide; adding a pH raising additive compound to the iron disulfide in an effective amount so that a calculated pH of the iron disulfide and pH raising additive compound is 4.0 to 14.0; and applying the iron disulfide and the pH raising additive compound to a cathode substrate. An electrochemical cell can be made by combining a cathode made according to this process with an anode comprising lithium and a separator situated between the anode and cathode, adding a non-aqueous electrolyte, and sealing the anode, cathode, separator and electrolyte in a cell housing.
These and other features, advantages and objects of the present invention will be further understood and appreciated by those skilled in the art by reference to the following specification, claims and appended drawings.
Unless otherwise specified, as used herein the terms listed below are defined as follows:
The invention will be better understood and other features and advantages will become apparent by reading the detailed description of the invention, taken together with the drawings, wherein:
The battery cell of the invention has an anode comprising metallic lithium as the negative electrode active material. The anode and cathode are both in the form of strips, which are joined together in an electrode assembly to provide a high interfacial surface area relative to the volumes of the electrodes containing active material. The higher the interfacial surface area, the lower the current density and the better the cell's capability to deliver high power on discharge. The cell also has a high ratio of cathode interfacial capacity to electrode assembly interfacial volume—at least 710 mAh/cm2. This means that the volume of active materials in the electrode assembly is high, to provide a high discharge capacity. The high volume of active materials can be achieved by controlling a number of variables, including: the ratio of interfacial input capacity to total input capacity, the volume of the cathode current collector, the concentration of active cathode material in the cathode mixture and the volume of separator in the electrode assembly.
The invention will be better understood with reference to
The cell container is often a metal can with an integral closed bottom; though a metal tube that is initially open at both ends may also be used instead of a can. The can is generally steel, plated with nickel on at least the outside to protect the outside of the can from corrosion. The type of plating can be varied to provide varying degrees of corrosion resistance or to provide the desired appearance. The type of steel will depend in part on the manner in which the container is formed. For drawn cans the steel can be a diffusion annealed, low carbon, aluminum killed, SAE 1006 or equivalent steel, with a grain size of ASTM 9 to 11 and equiaxed to slightly elongated grain shape. Other steels, such as stainless steels, can be used to meet special needs. For example, when the can is in electrical contact with the cathode, a stainless steel may be used for improved resistance to corrosion by the cathode and electrolyte.
The cell cover is typically metal. Nickel plated steel may be used, but a stainless steel is often desirable, especially when the cover is in electrical contact with the cathode. The complexity of the cover shape will also be a factor in material selection. The cell cover may have a simple shape, such as a thick, flat disk, or it may have a more complex shape, such as the cover shown in
The terminal cover should have good resistance to corrosion by water in the ambient environment, good electrical conductivity and, when visible on consumer batteries, an attractive appearance. Terminal covers are often made from nickel plated cold rolled steel or steel that is nickel plated after the covers are formed. Where terminals are located over pressure relief vents, the terminal covers generally have one or more holes to facilitate cell venting.
The gasket is made from any suitable thermoplastic material that provides the desired sealing properties. Material selection is based in part on the electrolyte composition. Examples of suitable materials include polypropylene, polyphenylene sulfide, tetrafluorideperfluoroalkyl vinylether copolymer, polybutylene terephthalate and combinations thereof. Preferred gasket materials include polypropylene (e.g., PRO-FAX® 6524 from Basell Polyolefins, Wilmington, Del., USA), polybutylene terephthalate (e.g., CELANEX® PBT, grade 1600A from Ticona-US, Summit, N.J., USA) and polyphenylene sulfide (e.g., TECHTRON® PPS from Boedeker Plastics, Inc., Shiner, Tex, USA). Small amounts of other polymers, reinforcing inorganic fillers and/or organic compounds may also be added to the base resin of the gasket.
The gasket may be coated with a sealant to provide the best seal. Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) is a suitable sealant material, but other suitable materials can be used.
The vent bushing is made from a thermoplastic material that is resistant to cold flow at high temperatures (e.g., 75° C.). The thermoplastic material comprises a base resin such as ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, polybutylene terephthlate, polyphenylene sulfide, polyphthalamide, ethylenechloro-trifluoroethylene, chlorotrifluoroethylene, perfluoro-alkoxyalkane, fluorinated perfluoroethylene polypropylene and polyetherether ketone. Ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (ETFE), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyphthalamide are preferred. The resin can be modified by adding a thermal-stabilizing filler to provide a vent bushing with the desired sealing and venting characteristics at high temperatures. The bushing can be injection molded from the thermoplastic material. TEFZEL® HT2004 (ETFE resin with 25 weight percent chopped glass filler) is a preferred thermoplastic material.
The vent ball can be made from any suitable material that is stable in contact with the cell contents and provides the desired cell sealing and venting characteristic. Glasses or metals, such as stainless steel, can be used.
The anode comprises a strip of lithium metal, sometimes referred to as lithium foil. The composition of the lithium can vary, though for battery grade lithium the purity is always high. The lithium can be alloyed with other metals, such as aluminum, to provide the desired cell electrical performance. Battery grade lithium-aluminum foil containing 0.5 weight percent aluminum is available from Chemetall Foote Corp., Kings Mountain, N.C., USA.
The anode may have a current collector, within or on the surface of the metallic lithium. As in the cell in
A thin metal strip often serves as an electrical lead, or tab, connecting the anode to one of the cell terminals (the can in the case of the FR6 cell shown in
The cathode is in the form of a strip that comprises a current collector and a mixture that includes one or more electrochemically active materials, usually in particulate form. Iron disulfide (FeS2) is a preferred active material. In a Li/FeS2 cell the active material comprises greater than 50 weight percent FeS2. The cathode can also contain one or more additional active materials, depending on the desired cell electrical and discharge characteristics. The additional active cathode material may be any suitable active cathode material. Examples include Bi2O3, C2F, CFx, (CF)n, CoS2, CuO, CuS, FeS, FeCuS2, MnO2, Pb2Bi2O5 and S. More preferably the active material for a Li/FeS2 cell cathode comprises at least 95 weight percent FeS2, yet more preferably at least 99 weight percent FeS2, and most preferably FeS2 is the sole active cathode material. Battery grade FeS2 having a purity level of at least 95 weight percent is available from American Minerals, Inc., Camden, N.J., USA; Chemetall GmbH, Vienna, Austria; Washington Mills, North Grafton, Mass.; and Kyanite Mining Corp., Dillwyn, Va., USA.
In addition to the active material, the cathode mixture contains other materials. A binder is generally used to hold the particulate materials together and adhere the mixture to the current collector. One or more conductive materials such as metal, graphite and carbon black powders may be added to provide improved electrical conductivity to the mixture. The amount of conductive material used can be dependent upon factors such as the electrical conductivity of the active material and binder, the thickness of the mixture on the current collector and the current collector design. Small amounts of various additives may also be used to enhance cathode manufacturing and cell performance. The following are examples of active material mixture materials for Li/FeS2 cell cathodes. Graphite: KS-6 and TIMREX® MX15 grades synthetic graphite from Timcal America, Westlake, Ohio, USA. Carbon black: Grade C55 acetylene black from Chevron Phillips Company LP, Houston, Tex., USA. Binder: ethylene/propylene copolymer (PEPP) made by Polymont Plastics Corp. (formerly Polysar, Inc.) and available from Harwick Standard Distribution Corp., Akron, Ohio, USA; non-ionic water soluble polyethylene oxide (PEO): POLYOX® from Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich., USA; and G1651 grade styrene-ethylene/butylenes-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer from Kraton Polymers, Houston, Tex. Additives: FLUO HT® micronized polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) manufactured by Micro Powders Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., USA (commercially available from Dar-Tech Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and AEROSIL® 200 grade fumed silica from Degussa Corporation Pigment Group, Ridgefield, N.J.
The current collector may be disposed within or imbedded into the cathode surface, or the cathode mixture may be coated onto one or both sides of a thin metal strip. Aluminum is a commonly used material. The current collector may extend beyond the portion of the cathode containing the cathode mixture. This extending portion of the current collector can provide a convenient area for making contact with the electrical lead connected to the positive terminal. It is desirable to keep the volume of the extending portion of the current collector to a minimum to make as much of the internal volume of the cell available for active materials and electrolyte.
A preferred method of making FeS2 cathodes is to roll coat a slurry of active material mixture materials in a highly volatile organic solvent (e.g., trichloroethylene) onto both sides of a sheet of aluminum foil, dry the coating to remove the solvent, calender the coated foil to compact the coating, slit the coated foil to the desired width and cut strips of the slit cathode material to the desired length. It is desirable to use cathode materials with small particle sizes to minimize the risk of puncturing the separator. For example, FeS2 is preferably sieved through a 230 mesh (63 μm) screen before use. Coating thicknesses of 100 μm and less are common.
In a further embodiment, a cathode or positive electrode is disclosed which provides beneficial properties to an electrochemical cell incorporating the same therein. The cathode comprises FeS2 particles having a predetermined average particle size produced by a wet milling method such as a media mill, or a dry milling method using a non-mechanical milling device such as a jet mill. Electrochemical cells prepared with the reduced average particle size FeS2 particles exhibit increased cell voltage at any given depth of discharge, irrespective of cell size. The smaller FeS2 particles also make possible thinner coatings of cathode material on the current collector; for example, coatings as thin as about 10 μm can be used.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the cathode comprises small particle size FeS2 particles, preferably natural, produced by a wet milling method, preferably utilizing a media mill. A media mill has also been referred to in the art as a ball mill, basket mill, bead mill, sand mill, rotary-tumbling mixer, or the like, which can use milling media in a wet milling process. The wet milling step is preferably performed in-line during cathode or positive electrode construction thereby substantially eliminating weathering or oxidation, as well as hazardous dry dust pyrite fires. By utilizing the wet milling process of the present invention, the above noted sieving operation can be eliminated.
In the wet milling method, a cathode electrochemically active material mixture is formed comprising the FeS2 and a wetting agent. At this point in the process, the FeS2 has an average particle size greater than 20 μm. Any of the above described active or inactive materials such as, but not limited to, binders, conductive material, additives, etc. can also be utilized in the active material mixture, if desired. In one embodiment, the cathode active material mixture components are combined and optionally, but preferably, mixed in a suitable vessel. The cathode active material mixture is metered into the media mill wherein the average particle size of the FeS2 particles is reduced during milling. The dwell time of the cathode active material mixture within the media mill is sufficient to produce the desired FeS2 average particle size range.
The wetting agent is any liquid or the like, preferably of a low viscosity, which substantially prevents the FeS2 or the other components of the slurry from combusting during the milling process. The preferred wetting agent is a solvent which is generally non-flammable at processing conditions used during the wet milling operation. Examples of suitable wetting agents include, but are not limited to trichloroethylene, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), butyl glycol acetate, mineral spirits, and water. The wetting agent is selected to at least be compatible with and preferably able to substantially dissolve the binder utilized in preparation of the cathode. The amount of wetting agent can vary, and can generally range from about 0.1 cc to about 5 cc, and preferably is about 0.5 cc per gram of solid components of the cathode active material mixture.
The cathode active material slurry mixture is transferred to a milling device and milled at an appropriate flow rate and rotor rpm until the desired FeS2 average particle size is achieved. A media mill is utilized in a preferred embodiment. Media mills typically comprise shaft mounted rotating disks and/or rotors as well as grinding media in order to reduce particle size of components of the composition to be milled. Grinding media can be substantially spherical, cylindrical or the like, with spheres being preferred, with mean diameters which range from about 0.2 mm to about 30 mm, and desirably about 0.5 to about 10 mm, and preferably from about 1.2 to about 1.7 mm. Cylinder height ranges from about 1 mm to about 20 mm with about 5 to about 15 mm preferred. Numerous types of media can be utilized and include, but are not limited to, soda lime, zirconia-silica, alumina oxide, yittria stabilized zirconia silica, chrome steel, zirconium silicate, cerium stabilized zirconia, yittria stabilized zirconia, and tungsten carbide. Suitable grinding media are available from suppliers such as Saint-Gobain of Worcester, Mass. as Glass, ER120, Zirstar and Zirmil; Glenn Mill of Cliffton, N.J. as Alumina, Steel, and Carbide; and Jyoti Ceramic Industries of Satpur, Nashik, India as Zirconox and Zircosil. A suitable media mill is available from Morehouse-COWLES of Fullerton, Calif.
The cathode active material slurry mixture is transferred to the milling chamber of the media mill which contains grinding media and preferably shaft mounted rotatable rotors. The media is accelerated at a relatively high velocity through the slurry towards the milling chamber wall thereby impacting, shearing, and reducing the size of the slurry mixture particles. The milled slurry mixture is subsequently discharged from the media mill for further processing into a cathode after a desired average particle size of FeS2 particles has been achieved.
After processing utilizing the wet milling method of the invention, the FeS2 particles have an average particle size of about 1 to about 19 μm, desirably from about 2 to about 17 or about 18 μm and preferably from about 5 or about 10 to about 15 μm. The FeS2 particles also have a narrower particle size distribution due to the media milling process performed thereon.
The wet milled active cathode material mixture is subsequently roll coated on a sheet such as aluminum foil as described hereinabove, and dried to remove the wetting agent. The coated foil laminate can then be calendered to compact the coating and produce a smooth surface, and the coated foil can be slit to a desired width and length for use in the assembly of an electrochemical cell, such as described herein.
In a further embodiment of the present invention, the cathode comprises FeS2 particles, preferably natural, of a predetermined average particle size range obtained by a non-mechanical milling device, preferably a jet mill. The term “non-mechanical milling device” refers to an apparatus which does not utilize pressure or contact between two or more mill surfaces to reduce the particle size of a material such as by crushing, chipping, fracturing, or the like. Mechanical milling devices include, but are not limited to, roll mills, granulating mills, ball mills, media mills, bead mills, and hammer mills. Non-mechanical milling devices typically reduce average particle size of the FeS2 particles without utilizing moving milling parts, and instead reduce size utilizing collisions between particles and/or particles and a single surface of the milling device.
A jet mill typically includes a central chamber into which a fluid such as air, steam, or gas is introduced through nozzles or jets which create a near-sonic, sonic or supersonic grinding stream. No grinding media are utilized. Particles of the feed material comprising FeS2 particles are fed or injected into the high speed grinding stream in the jet mill. Size reduction results due to the high velocity collisions between particles of the iron disulfide or other particles themselves or collision with a mill surface. Jet mills are designed to allow recirculation of oversized particles, enhancing the incidence and effect of particle collisions. As the FeS2 particles are reduced in size, they migrate towards a discharge port from which they are collected for use in an active material mixture utilized to form a cathode. In a preferred embodiment, the jet milling of the FeS2 is performed in a inert atmosphere utilizing a gas such as nitrogen, argon, or the like with nitrogen being most preferred, in order to prevent ignition or combustion of the FeS2 particles. Although heat may be generated by the friction of the FeS2 particles rubbing over mill surfaces and from the collisions taking place in the mill, due at least to the Jewel-Thompson effect on air temperature when throttling, there is reportedly no net temperature increase during milling. The product temperature is substantially equal to the temperature of the fluid supplied to the mill. Jet mills are available from the Jet Pulverizer Company of Moorestown, N.J.; Sturtevant of Hanover, Mass.; as well as Fluid Energy of Telford, Pa.
After processing utilizing the non-mechanical or jet milling method of the invention, the FeS2 particles have an average particle size of about 1 to about 19 μm, desirably from about 1.5 to about 10 or about 15 μm, and preferably from about 2 to about 6 μm. The jet milled FeS2 particles have a particle size distribution wherein 80% of the total particles are between about 1.0 and about 15 μm, and preferably about 1.0 and about 10 μm. Particle size distribution was determined utilizing the Microtrac Honeywell Particle Size Analyzer X-100 described herein above, wherein sonification is utilized during testing in order to prevent aggregation of particles.
The milling processes of the present invention utilized to reduce the average particle size of the FeS2 particles within the ranges stated herein have been shown to offer several advantages which include for example, improved low temperature battery performance, improved adhesion of the cathode active material mixture to the aluminum substrate, less damage to the polymer separator insulator film due to the small particle sizes of the active material mixture, improved cathode efficiency as a result of more pyrite particles with increased surface area to accept lithium ions upon cell discharge, improved cell operating voltage from decreased anode polarization which allows the cells to operate at lower currents on constant power device applications, and more efficient and uniform discharge at the opposing lithium anode as the current distribution can be more uniformly applied over it's interfacial surface area.
FR6 type electrochemical cells prepared utilizing wet milled FeS2 particles or jet milled FeS2 particles are capable of providing a discharge capacity of at least 3,000 milliamp-hours (mAh) when discharged at a rate of 200 mA continuously to one volt, as well as at least 2,700 mAh or preferably at least 2,800 mAh when discharged at a rate of 1 amp continuously to one volt at room temperature. Accordingly, the cells of the present invention provide excellent results for both low and high rate applications.
It has also been found that FR6 electrochemical cells utilizing jet milled FeS2 particles as disclosed in the present invention have a discharge time generally of at least 300 minutes, desirably at least 320 minutes, preferably at least 325 minutes, and most preferably at least 330 or 340 minutes to 1.05 volts according to a 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test. It has also been found that FR6 type electrochemical cells comprising jet milled FeS2 particles, having an average particle size within the range specified in the invention, maintain a voltage ≧1.2 for at least 180 minutes, desirably at least 240 minutes, and preferably at least 270 minutes according to the 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test. The DSC procedure cycles the electrochemical cell utilizing two pulses, the first pulse at 1500 mW for 2 seconds followed by the second pulse at 650 mW for 28 seconds. The pulse sequence is repeated 10 times, followed by a rest period for 55 minutes. Afterwards, the pulse sequence and rest period are repeated to a predetermined voltage. Furthermore, it has been found that FR6 type electrochemical cells comprising wet milled FeS2 particles maintain a voltage ≧1.2 for at least 180 minutes, desirably at least 210 minutes, and preferably at least 230 minutes according to the 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test. FR6 type electrochemical cells utilizing wet milled FeS2 particles have a discharge time generally of at least 300 minutes, and preferably at least 320 minutes to 1.05 volts according to the 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test. The measurements were performed at room temperature.
FR6 electrochemical cells prepared utilizing relatively small average particle size FeS2 particles derived from the milling methods of the present invention such as wet or jet milling provide reduced anode voltage values at varying depth of discharge percentages when compared to prior art cells containing FeS2 particles having an average size greater than or equal to about 22 micrometers as illustrated in
In a further embodiment, the FeS2 utilized in the cathode of the cells of the invention has at least a predetermined minimum pH before use in a cell. Alternatively, a pH raising additive compound can be added to the FeS2 to increase the pH of the FeS2 to at least a predetermined minimum level. Natural FeS2 is generally a mined commodity. Depending on the source, lot, handling and processing equipment utilized to process the FeS2, or the like, the FeS2 can contain various naturally occurring or possibly supplier added impurities in various amounts. Such impurities can include, but are not limited to, minerals or other naturally occurring compounds including elements such as Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Ti, Tl, V, Zn and Zr in amounts which range from a few parts per billion to about a few parts per thousand of FeS2 and quartz at less than about 10 parts per 100 parts FeS2. The amounts and types of impurities, as well as other factors such as the amount of weathering or exposure of FeS2 to the atmosphere and FeS2 ore processing conditions such as the use of flotation are believed to contribute to the inherent pH of FeS2. It is desirable to store the FeS2 in a manner suitable to prevent weathering and to minimize the storage time between FeS2 processing and use in cathode manufacture.
It has been unexpectedly discovered that incorporating (a) FeS2 or (b) FeS2 and a pH raising additive compound having at least a minimum pH value into a cathode of an electrochemical battery cell substantially prevents internal short circuits, or reduces the frequency and severity of internal short circuits. It is believed that use of the (a) FeS2 or (b) FeS2 and the pH raising additive compound of at least a minimum pH value prevents or substantially prevents internal short circuits by making the impurities, such as Lewis acids, present in the cell, especially in the FeS2, less soluble and thus less able to form dendrites which can bridge the anode and cathode.
Alternatively, the pH raising additive compound can be included in other internal components of the cell, such as the electrolyte, but including the additive in the cathode is preferred.
The pH raising additive compounds are optionally added to the FeS2 in an effective amount to adjust the pH value to at least a predetermined minimum value, in some embodiments. The pH raising additive compounds are preferably bases or at least weak bases which can increase the pH of the FeS2. In general, the stronger the base is, the less additive required. In one embodiment, pH raising additive compounds include one or more Group IIA elements of the Periodic Table of the Elements, acid scavengers, or pH control agents, such as overbased metal, e.g. calcium, sulfonates; cycloaliphatic epoxides; organic amines; amino alcohols; or combinations thereof. Classes of pH raising additive compounds include oxides, hydroxides, and stearates.
Examples of suitable additive Group IIA element containing pH raising additive compounds include, but are not limited to, calcium oxide (CaO), calcium stearate (Ca(C18H35O2)2), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), magnesium oxide (MgO), strontium oxide (SrO), and barium oxide (BaO). The pH raising additive compound and thus the cathode and electrochemical cell of the present invention are free of the combination of calcium hydroxide and lithium carbonate.
Overbased calcium sulfonates which can be used as pH raising additive compounds in one embodiment have the following formula:
Suitable organic amines which can be utilized as pH raising additive compounds include, but are not limited to, diethylamine and triethylamine.
Examples of suitable cycloaliphatic epoxies which can be utilized as pH raising additive compounds include, but are not limited to, butylene oxide and soybean oil epoxide.
Amino alcohols suitable as pH raising additive compounds include, but are not limited to, 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-dimethylamino-2-methyl-1-propanol.
The effective amount of pH raising additive compound utilized to increase the pH of FeS2 to at least a predetermined minimum value can vary depending on a number of factors including, but not limited to, the inherent pH value of FeS2, target pH values for the FeS2 and pH raising additive compound mixture, and effectiveness of the particular pH raising additive compound or compounds in adjusting pH of the FeS2.
For example, if it was determined that FeS2 had a pH of 3.5, theoretical calculations indicate 90 parts per million (ppm) of calcium oxide would be needed to raise the pH to 7.0. Iron disulfide having a pH of 2.5 would theoretically require 900 ppm calcium oxide to raise the pH to 7.0. The above values were calculated given the following: pH=−log[H+], wherein [H+] is the proton concentration in a water suspension (not the FeS2 itself). For the pH measurement as described above, 5 g of FeS2 are suspended in 50 mL of water as indicated to measure inherent pH of the FeS2. This gives a “measurement dilution” ratio (mL solution/g pyrite) of 10. In this example, calcium oxide was utilized to raise pH. According to the formula CaO+2H+→Ca2++H2O, two moles of acid react with every mole of calcium oxide. This gives a stoichiometry ratio of 0.5. The amount of pH raising additive compound, in this example calcium oxide, can be calculated using the formula: ppm pH raising additive compound=[H+](measurement dilution ratio)(stoichiometry ratio)(FW)1000. The FW (formula weight) of CaO is 56.08. Accordingly, the amount of calcium oxide theoretically needed is calculated from the formula: ppm CaO=2.8×105[H+].
In order to hinder or prevent dendrite formation and thus internal short circuits in electrochemical battery cells, the FeS2 having an average particle size greater than or equal to 20 μm, utilized alone or in combination with a pH raising additive compound, has a pH value, prior to use in the cell, of generally from 4.0 to about 14.0, desirably from 5.0 or 6.0 to 12.0, and preferably from 6.5 or 6.9 to 9.0. When the FeS2 has an average particle size of 19 μm or less, such as the described about 1 to about 19 μm, about 1.5 to about 10 or about 15 μm, or about 2 to about 6 μm FeS2 obtained utilizing a particle size reduction milling process described herein, the pH value of the FeS2 or FeS2 and pH raising additive compound is generally from 4.0 or 5.0 to about 14.0, desirably from 5.3 to 12.0, and preferably from 5.6 to 9.0. Relatively high pH values achieved utilizing large amounts of pH raising additive compound can reduce the active material content in the cathode and can affect performance of the electrochemical battery cell. Accordingly, pH values should be closely monitored to balance battery characteristics.
Cathodes containing pH controlled FeS2 can be prepared utilizing either a wet or dry process, with the wet process being preferred. The term dry process refers to a process where the cathode active material mixture components are mixed with the FeS2 in dry form. The dry mix is subsequently formed into a cathode employing molding or other techniques know to those of ordinary skill in the art of battery manufacture. The wet process, as described hereinabove, refers to a process wherein the active material mixture components include at least one wetting agent, for example, a liquid such as an organic solvent.
In either process, a source of FeS2 is obtained and the pH is determined such as described hereinabove. If the inherent pH value is at least at a predetermined minimum level for the appropriate FeS2 average particle size, a cathode is prepared utilizing the FeS2. As stated hereinabove, FeS2 is obtained from suppliers having an average particle size greater than 20 μm. If the FeS2 pH is less than the minimum value, one or more pH raising additive compounds are combined with the FeS2 in an amount sufficient to provide a calculated pH of a mixture of the FeS2 and pH raising additive compound of at least the required minimum value. The mixture of the FeS2 and pH raising additive compound is subsequently utilized to form a cathode.
In one embodiment as described hereinabove, in addition to comprising FeS2 with an inherent pH, and optionally a mixture of FeS2 and the pH raising additive compound with a calculated pH, of a predetermined minimum value, the active material mixture can include additional active materials, or other materials such as binders, conductive materials, or other additives. The desired active material mixture is subsequently applied to the cathode substrate to form the cathode. If a wet cathode forming process is utilized, a slurry of the active material mixture, preferably in a volatile organic solvent, is roll coated onto one or preferably both sides of the cathode substrate. Thereafter, the coating is dried to remove the solvent or other wetting agent. The coated substrate is calendered to compact the coating, subsequently slit to the desired width, and cut to the desired length.
In a preferred embodiment, it is desirable to utilize FeS2 having an average particle size from 1 to 19 μm or range therewithin as described above, and further having at least a minimum predetermined pH in a cathode for an electrochemical battery cell.
A preferred embodiment for preparing a cathode begins with obtaining FeS2 with an average particle size greater than 20 μm. The inherent pH of the relatively large particle size FeS2 is determined. A slurry is formed comprising a wetting agent, the FeS2, and optionally a pH raising additive compound in an effective amount to provide a calculated pH value for the mixture of the FeS2 and the pH raising additive compound of at least a minimum predetermined level if the inherent pH of the FeS2 is less than the predetermined level. The slurry is then processed, such as by milling described herein, in order to reduce the average FeS2 particle size to between 1 to 19 μm or a range therebetween. The milled slurry is applied to a cathode substrate to form a cathode. The cathode is dried in a subsequent step and optionally further processed as described.
As described herein, the cathode containing FeS2 (and optionally a pH raising additive compound) having at least a predetermined minimum pH can be combined with an anode comprising lithium, and also a separator generally positioned between the anode and a cathode are placed in a cell housing. A nonaqueous electrolyte is added to the cell and the anode, cathode, separator, and electrolyte are sealed in a cell housing.
The cathode is electrically connected to the positive terminal of the cell. This may be accomplished with an electrical lead, often in the form of a thin metal strip or a spring, as shown in
The separator is a thin microporous membrane that is ion-permeable and electrically nonconductive. It is capable of holding at least some electrolyte within the pores of the separator. The separator is disposed between adjacent surfaces of the anode and cathode to electrically insulate the electrodes from each other. Portions of the separator may also insulate other components in electrical contact with the cell terminals to prevent internal short circuits. Edges of the separator often extend beyond the edges of at least one electrode to insure that the anode and cathode do not make electrical contact even if they are not perfectly aligned with each other. However, it is desirable to minimize the amount of separator extending beyond the electrodes.
To provide good high power discharge performance it is desirable that the separator have the characteristics (pores with a smallest dimension of at least 0.005 μm and a largest dimension of no more than 5 μm across, a porosity in the range of 30 to 70 percent, an area specific resistance of from 2 to 15 ohm-cm2 and a tortuosity less than 2.5) disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,290,414, issued Mar. 1, 1994, and hereby incorporated by reference. Suitable separator materials should also be strong enough to withstand cell manufacturing processes as well as pressure that may be exerted on the separator during cell discharge without tears, splits, holes or other gaps developing that could result in an internal short circuit.
To minimize the total separator volume in the cell, the separator should be as thin as possible, but at least about 1 μm or more so a physical barrier is present between the cathode and anode to prevent internal short circuits. That said, the separator thickness ranges from about 1 to about 50 μm, desirably from about 5 to about 25 μm, and preferably from about 10 to about 16 or about 20 μm. The required thickness will depend in part on the strength of the separator material and the magnitude and location of forces that may be exerted on the separator where it provides electrical insulation.
A number of characteristics besides thickness can affect separator strength. One of these is tensile stress. A high tensile stress is desirable, preferably at least 800, more preferably at least 1000 kilograms of force per square centimeter (kgf/cm2). Because of the manufacturing processes typically used to make microporous separators, tensile stress is typically greater in the machine direction (MD) than in the transverse direction (TD). The minimum tensile stress required can depend in part on the diameter of the cell. For example, for a FR6 type cell the preferred tensile stress is at least 1500 kgf/cm2 in the machine direction and at least 1200 kgf/cm2 in the transverse direction, and for a FR03 type cell the preferred tensile strengths in the machine and transverse directions are 1300 and 1000 kgf/cm2, respectively. If the tensile stress is too low, manufacturing and internal cell forces can cause tears or other holes. In general, the higher the tensile stress the better from the standpoint of strength. However, if the tensile stress is too high, other desirable properties of the separator may be adversely affected.
Tensile stress can also be expressed in kgf/cm, which can be calculated from tensile stress in kgf/cm2 by multiplying the later by the separator thickness in cm. Tensile stress in kgf/cm is also useful for identifying desirable properties related to separator strength. Therefore, it is desirable that the separator have a tensile stress of at least 1.0 kgf/cm, preferably at least 1.5 kgf/cm and more preferably at least 1.75 kgf/cm in both the machine and transverse directions. For cells with diameters greater than about 0.45 inch (11.4 mm), a tensile stress of at least 2.0 kgf/cm is most preferable.
Another indicator of separator strength is its dielectric breakdown voltage. Preferably the average dielectric breakdown voltage will be at least 2000 volts, more preferably at least 2200 volts. For cylindrical cells with a diameter greater than about 0.45 in (11.4 mm), the average dielectric breakdown voltage is most preferably at least 2400 volts. If the dielectric breakdown voltage is too low, it is difficult to reliably remove cells with defective or damaged separators by electrical testing (e.g., retention of a high voltage applied to the electrode assembly before the addition of electrolyte) during cell manufacturing. It is desirable that the dielectric breakdown is as high as possible while still achieving other desirable separator properties.
The average effective pore size is another of the more important indicators of separator strength. While large pores are desirable to maximize ion transport through the separator, if the pores are too large the separator will be susceptible to penetration and short circuits between the electrodes. The preferred maximum effective pore size is from 0.08 μm to 0.40 μm, more preferably no greater than 0.20 μm.
The BET specific surface area is also related to pore size, as well as the number of pores. In general, cell discharge performance tends to be better when the separator has a higher specific surface area, but the separator strength tends to be lower. It is desirable for the BET specific surface area to be no greater than 40 m2/g, but it is also desirable that it be at least 15 m2/g, more preferably at least 25 m2/g.
For good high rate and high power cell discharge performance a low area specific resistance is desirable. Thinner separators tend to have lower resistances, but the separator should also be strong enough, limiting how thin the separator can be. Preferably the area specific resistance is no greater than 4.3 ohm-cm2, more preferably no greater than 4.0 ohm-cm2, and most preferably no greater than 3.5 ohm-cm2.
Separator membranes for use in lithium batteries are often made of polypropylene, polyethylene or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, with polyethylene being preferred. The separator can be a single layer of biaxially oriented microporous membrane, or two or more layers can be laminated together to provide the desired tensile strengths in orthogonal directions. A single layer is preferred to minimize the cost. Suitable single layer biaxially oriented polyethylene microporous separator is available from Tonen Chemical Corp., available from EXXON Mobile Chemical Co., Macedonia, N.Y., USA. Setela F20DHI grade separator has a 20 μm nominal thickness, and Setela 16MMS grade has a 16 μm nominal thickness.
The anode, cathode and separator strips are combined together in an electrode assembly. The electrode assembly may be a spirally wound design, such as that shown in
Rather than being spirally wound, the electrode assembly may be formed by folding the electrode and separator strips together. The strips may be aligned along their lengths and then folded in an accordion fashion, or the anode and one electrode strip may be laid perpendicular to the cathode and another electrode strip and the electrodes alternately folded one across the other (orthogonally oriented), in both cases forming a stack of alternating anode and cathode layers.
The electrode assembly is inserted into the housing container. In the case of a spirally wound electrode assembly, whether in a cylindrical or prismatic container, the major surfaces of the electrodes are perpendicular to the side wall(s) of the container (in other words, the central core of the electrode assembly is parallel to a longitudinal axis of the cell). Folded electrode assemblies are typically used in prismatic cells. In the case of an accordion-folded electrode assembly, the assembly is oriented so that the flat electrode surfaces at opposite ends of the stack of electrode layers are adjacent to opposite sides of the container. In these configurations the majority of the total area of the major surfaces of the anode is adjacent the majority of the total area of the major surfaces of the cathode through the separator, and the outermost portions of the electrode major surfaces are adjacent to the side wall of the container. In this way, expansion of the electrode assembly due to an increase in the combined thicknesses of the anode and cathode is constrained by the container side wall(s).
A nonaqueous electrolyte, containing water only in very small quantities as a contaminant (e.g., no more than about 500 parts per million by weight, depending on the electrolyte salt being used), is used in the battery cell of the invention. Any nonaqueous electrolyte suitable for use with lithium and active cathode material the may be used. The electrolyte contains one or more electrolyte salts dissolved in an organic solvent. For a Li/FeS2 cell examples of suitable salts include lithium bromide, lithium perchlorate, lithium hexafluorophosphate, potassium hexafluorophosphate, lithium hexafluoro-arsenate, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate and lithium iodide; and suitable organic solvents include one or more of the following: dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, methylethyl carbonate, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, 1,2-butylene carbonate, 2,3-butylene carbonate, methyl formate, γ-butyrolactone, sulfolane, acetonitrile, 3,5-dimethylisoxazole, n,n-dimethyl formamide and ethers. The salt/solvent combination will provide sufficient electrolytic and electrical conductivity to meet the cell discharge requirements over the desired temperature range. Ethers are often desirable because of their generally low viscosity, good wetting capability, good low temperature discharge performance and good high rate discharge performance. This is particularly true in Li/FeS2 cells because the ethers are more stable than with MnO2 cathodes, so higher ether levels can be used. Suitable ethers include, but are not limited to acyclic ethers such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane, 1,2-diethoxyethane, di(methoxyethyl)ether, triglyme, tetraglyme and diethyl ether; and cyclic ethers such as 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran and 3-methyl-2-oxazolidinone.
Accordingly, various combinations of electrolyte salts and organic solvents can be utilized to form the electrolyte for electrochemical cells. The molar concentration of the electrolyte salt can be varied to modify the conductive properties of the electrolyte. Examples of suitable nonaqueous electrolytes containing one or more electrolyte salts dissolved in an organic solvent include, but are not limited to, a 1 mole per liter solvent concentration of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (14.60% by weight) in a solvent blend of 1,3-dioxolane, 1,2-diethoxyethane, and 3,5-dimethyl isoxazole (24.80:60.40:0.20% by weight) which has a conductivity of 2.5 mS/cm; a 1.5 moles per liter solvent concentration of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (20.40% by weight) in a solvent blend of 1,3-dioxolane, 1,2-diethoxyethane, and 3,5-dimethylisoxazole (23.10:56.30:0.20% by weight) which has a conductivity of 3.46 mS/cm; and a 0.75 mole per liter solvent concentration of lithium iodide (9.10% by weight) in a solvent blend of 1,3-dioxolane, 1,2-diethoxyethane, and 3,5-dimethylisoxazole (63.10:27.60:0.20% by weight) which has a conductivity of 7.02 mS/cm. Electrolytes utilized in the electrochemical cells of the present invention have conductivity generally greater than about 2.0 mS/cm, desirably greater than about 2.5 or about 3.0 mS/cm, and preferably greater than about 4, about 6, or about 7 mS/cm.
Specific anode, cathode and electrolyte compositions and amounts can be adjusted to provide the desired cell manufacturing, performance and storage characteristics.
The cell can be closed and sealed using any suitable process. Such processes may include, but are not limited to, crimping, redrawing, colleting and combinations thereof. For example, for the cell in
The above description is particularly relevant to cylindrical Li/FeS2 cells, such as FR6 and FR03 types, as defined in International Standards IEC 60086-1 and IEC 60086-2, published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland. However, the invention may also be adapted to other cell sizes and shapes and to cells with other electrode assembly, housing, seal and pressure relief vent designs.
Features of the invention and advantages thereof are further illustrated in the following examples, wherein unless otherwise noted, experiments were conducted at room temperature:
FR6 type cylindrical Li/FeS2 cells with spirally wound electrode assemblies were made with varying electrode assembly void volumes per centimeter of interfacial electrode assembly height over a range of about 0.373 to about 0.455 cm3/cm. The void volumes were varied by adjusting the volume of the voids within the active material mixture coated on the cathode. This was done with various combinations of mixture formulations, thickness and packing. The separator material used in all cells was a highly crystalline, uniaxially oriented, microporous polypropylene material with a 25 μm nominal thickness.
Samples of the cells from Example 1 were prepared for testing. For each group with a given void volume per unit of height, some cells remained undischarged and some cells were 50% discharged (discharged at a rate of 200 mA for the time required to remove 50 percent of the rated capacity). Undischarged and 50% discharged cells were tested on an Impact Test, and the external temperature of each of the cells tested was monitored during and for six hours after testing.
For the Impact Test a sample cell is placed on a flat surface, a 15.8 mm diameter bar is placed across the center of the sample, and a 9.1 kg mass is dropped from a height of 61±2.5 cm onto the sample. The sample cell is impacted with its longitudinal axis parallel to the flat surface and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the 15.8 mm diameter bar lying across the center of the cell. Each sample is subjected to only a single impact.
None of the undischarged cells had an external temperature that exceeded 170° C. The percentage of 50% discharged cells whose external temperatures exceeded 170° C. was plotted. The best curve fitting the plotted points is shown in
The Impact Test results show that as the electrode assembly void volume decreases, the percentage of cells with an external temperature exceeding 170° C. increases. From the graph in
Subsequent examination of both FR6 Li/FeS2 cells after different levels of discharge revealed that a net increase in the FR6 cell total electrode volume, which becomes greater as discharge proceeds, causes bending and buckling of the electrode strips and collapsing of the central core of the electrode assembly by the time the cells are 50% discharged. In contrast, similar examination of Li/MnO2 cells with spirally wound electrodes showed little if any discernable change in the electrode assembly at 50% discharge. The difference between the active material volumes and the volumes of the discharge reaction products provides an explanation for the difference in the effects of discharge on the spirally wound electrode assemblies of Li/FeS2 vs. Li/MnO2 cells.
Four lots of FR6 cells were made, each with a separator made from a different material. A description of the separator materials is provided in Table 1, and typical separator properties, as determined by the methods described below, are summarized in Table 2. The separator material used for Lot A is the same as that used in the cells in Example 1. Each cell contained about 1.60 g of electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of 9.14 weight percent LiI salt in a solvent blend of 1,3-dioxolane, 1,2-dimethoxyethane and 3,5-dimethylisoxazole (63.05:27.63:0.18 by weight).
The same cell design was used for all of Lots A-D. The cell design was one with greater amounts of active materials, a higher concentration of FeS2 in the cathode mixture and an increased electrode interfacial surface area, as well as a lower anode: cathode total input capacity ratio, than cells from Example 1 with an electrode assembly void volume to interfacial height ratio of about 0.452, resulting in a 22% increase in the cell interfacial capacity.
Cells from each lot in Example 3 were discharged 50% and then tested on the Impact Test. The percentage of cells exceeding 170° C. on the test was 20% for Lot A, 80% for Lot B and 0% for Lots C and D.
By increasing the interfacial capacity 22% compared to cells from Example 1 with an electrode assembly void volume to interfacial height ratio of about 0.452, the percentage of cells exceeding 170° C. on the Impact Test increased from 0% to 20%. Cells from Lot A had a reduced amount of void space to accommodate a net increase in volume of discharge reaction products compared the volume of the unreacted active materials, increasing the adverse effects of discharge on the Li/FeS2 electrode assembly observed in Example 2.
The reduced separator material thickness in Lot B compared to Lot A contributed in a further increase in the percentage of cells exceeding 170° C. on the Impact Test from 20% to 80%.
Although the thicknesses of the separator materials in Lots C and D were the same as the thickness of the Lot B separator, there were no cells in either Lot C or Lot D. The results for Lots C and D were comparable to those for cells from Example 1 with an electrode assembly void volume to interfacial height ratio of about 0.452, even though the void volume within the cathode and the separator material thickness were both reduced in Lots C and D.
Three lots of FR6 cells were used to compare actual performance of FR6 cells on relatively low rate and high rate discharge tests. The first lot was Lot D from Example 3. Features of Lot D are summarized in Table 3. The values listed are nominal values and can vary within typical manufacturing tolerances.
Cells in Lots E and F were made according to the prior art. The cells in Lot F were like those in Example 1 with an electrode assembly void volume to interfacial height ratio of about 0.452. The features of Lots E and F are shown in Table 3. In Lot E the same separator material as that in Lot F was used, but in Lot E the cathode mixture composition was modified and the cell interfacial capacity was increased by 18% compared to Lot F. The use of a thinner (20 μm thick) separator in Lot D allowed a 22% increase in cell interfacial capacity compared to Lot F.
Cells from each of Lots D, E and F were discharged at 200 mA continuously to 1.0 volt and at 1000 mA continuously to 1.0 volt. Table 4 compares the results.
The following separator material properties are determined according to the corresponding methods. Unless otherwise specified, all disclosed properties are as determined at room temperature (20-25° C.).
Cylindrical FR6 type lithium/FeS2 cells having spirally wound electrode assemblies were constructed with varying average particle size FeS2 particles of 22 μm (control), coarse size FeS2 of 75 μm, media milled FeS2 between 5 and 10 μm (calculated estimate), and jet milled FeS2 of 4.9 μm. The cells were identical to the cells of Lot D of Table 3 except for FeS2 average particle size and typical and expected process variation.
The discharge time of each cell was tested using the 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test described hereinabove. The results are illustrated in Tables 5a and 5b. Two sets of tests were conducted with the media milled FeS2-containing cells.
As evident from Tables 5a and 5b, it is illustrated that cells prepared with the media and jet milled FeS2 particles provide a substantially longer discharge time to 1.05 volts when compared to the prior art control FeS2 particles of 22 μm average particle size and coarse sized FeS2 particles of 75 μm average particle size. The media milled FeS2-containing cells also maintained a cut voltage of ≧1.2 for an average 69.6% of service time ≧1 volt, whereas the control only maintained such voltage for an average of 58.9% of service time. Likewise, the jet milled FeS2-containing cell maintained a cut voltage of ≧1.2 for 85.7% of discharge time ≧1 volt.
FR6 type cylindrical lithium/FeS2 cells with spirally wound electrode assemblies were constructed. Average FeS2 particle size, electrolyte composition, and separator thickness were varied as set forth in Table 6. The rest of the cell features were the same as described for Lot D of Table 3 except for typical and expected process variation. Cells 1-4 represent prior art cells.
Each cell was tested utilizing the 1500/650 mW 2/28 s×10 per hour DSC test. The effect of electrolyte-separator resistance and FeS2 particle size is illustrated in
The anode voltage of FR6 type cylindrical lithium/FeS2 cells having spirally wound electrode assemblies was measured over the life of the cells. The cells were of substantially identical construction as set forth in Lot D of Table 3 except that one cell was constructed of FeS2 average particle of 22 μm, a second cell utilized media milled FeS2 particles of average size between 5 and 10 μm (calculated estimate), and the third cell utilized jet milled FeS2 particles of 4.9 μm average size and typical and expected process variation. The anode voltage of each cell was plotted as a function of depth of discharge as set forth in
At 50% depth of discharge, the anode voltage is reduced by 40 millivolts where the average particle size is reduced from 22 to 5.2 μm. Reducing the average FeS2 particle size from 22 μm to 4.9 μm reduced the anode voltage 150 millivolts. L92 size electrochemical cells were constructed and tested in a similar manner. It was discovered that utilizing FeS2 of average particle size ranges disclosed herein increase the overall cell voltage at any given depth of discharge independent of cell size.
The FeS2 average particle size, while strongly influencing high cell performance at standard ambient conditions, has an even greater influence at low temperature. The following Table 7 compares two different studies of media milled cathodes of average particle size between 5 and 10 μm (calculated estimate) and control FeS2 of average particle size 22 μm, and cell performance as a function of temperature. The cells were constructed substantially the same as described for Lot D of Table 3 except for typical and expected process variation. The test is a proposed standard simulated DSC—ANSI application previously defined (1500 mW/650 mW) to 1.05 volts. While reducing particle size improves performance by 5% or more at ambient conditions, improvements of over 600% are observed at −20° C.
Two lots of Li/FeS2 cells were assembled, one (Lot G) substantially identical to Lot D (Tables 2 and 3), and the other (Lot H) was like Lot G except for the cathode mixture composition. The FeS2 used for both lots had an inherent pH of 3.9 as received from the supplier and was subsequently media milled with a bench top media mill using 1.2 to 1.7 mm diameter Zirconox media to produce a bimodal particle size distribution, one mode with an average diameter of about 2 μm and the other mode, of similar distribution, with an average diameter of about 10 μm, as determined by acoustic attenuation, using a Model DT1200 spectrometer from Dispersion Technology, Inc., Bedford Hills, N.Y., USA. The cathode mixture used in Lot H contained 91.3 weight percent FeS2, 1.40 weight percent acetylene black, 4.00 weight percent graphite, 2.00 weight percent binder, 0.3 weight percent PTFE, 0.3 weight percent silica and 0.7 weight percent CaO. It differed from the cathode mixture used for Lot G in that CaO was substituted for a portion of the FeS2, the amount of CaO being an amount calculated to be sufficient to raise the pH of the FeS2 from 3.9 to about 12.4. After the electrodes assemblies were wound and inserted into cans, the addition of electrolyte to the cells was delayed for three days to exaggerate detrimental effects of FeS2 weathering.
After the cells were filled with electrolyte, sealed and predischarged, cells from both lots were stored for one week at 71° C. and then tested for OCV. The OCV distributions are shown in Table 8. Thirty percent of the cells in Lot G had OCV's below 1.80 volts, while all cells in Lot H were above 1.80 volts.
Accordingly, cells of the present invention including FeS2 having at least a predetermined minimum pH value were shown to possess desirable open current voltage values, and thus no internal short circuits, when compared to a control formulation having an inherent pH below the predetermined minimum pH value.
It will be understood by those who practice the invention and those skilled in the art that various modifications and improvements may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit of the disclosed concepts. The scope of protection afforded is to be determined by the claims and by the breadth of interpretation allowed by law.
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