Recherche Images Maps Play YouTube Actualités Gmail Drive Plus »
Connexion
Les utilisateurs de lecteurs d'écran peuvent cliquer sur ce lien pour activer le mode d'accessibilité. Celui-ci propose les mêmes fonctionnalités principales, mais il est optimisé pour votre lecteur d'écran.

Brevets

  1. Recherche avancée dans les brevets
Numéro de publicationUSRE43901 E1
Type de publicationOctroi
Numéro de demandeUS 11/223,907
Date de publication1 janv. 2013
Date de dépôt8 sept. 2005
Date de priorité28 nov. 2000
État de paiement des fraisPayé
Autre référence de publicationCN1293926C, CN1477985A, EP1349612A1, EP1349612B1, US6618620, WO2002043804A1
Numéro de publication11223907, 223907, US RE43901 E1, US RE43901E1, US-E1-RE43901, USRE43901 E1, USRE43901E1
InventeursDavid Freundlich, Jacob Vortman, Roni Yagel, Shuki Vitek, Naama Brenner
Cessionnaire d'origineInsightec Ltd.
Exporter la citationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
Liens externes: USPTO, Cession USPTO, Espacenet
Apparatus for controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system
US RE43901 E1
Résumé
A thermal treatment system including a heat applying element for generating thermal doses for ablating a target mass in a patient, a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the heat applying element, an imager for providing preliminary images of the target mass and thermal images during the treatment, and a planner for automatically constructing a treatment plan, comprising a series of treatment sites that are each represented by a set of thermal dose properties. The planner automatically constructs the treatment plan based on input information including one or more of a volume of the target mass, a distance from a skin surface of the patient to the target mass, a set of default thermal dose prediction properties, a set of user specified thermal dose prediction properties, physical properties of the heat applying elements, and images provided by the imager. The default thermal dose prediction properties are preferably based on a type of clinical application and include at least one of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site, cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element. The user specified thermal dose prediction properties preferably include at least one or more of overrides for any default thermal dose prediction properties, treatment site grid density; and thermal dose prediction properties not specified as default thermal dose prediction properties from the group comprised of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element.
Images(12)
Previous page
Next page
Revendications(67)
1. A thermal treatment system, comprising:
a heat applying element for generating a delivering thermal dose doses used to ablate a target mass in a patient;
a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the heat applying element;
an imager for providing preliminary images of the target mass; and
a planner for automatically constructing a treatment plan, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites that are each represented by a set of thermal dose properties;
wherein the planner automatically constructs the treatment plan based on input information including one or more of:
a volume of the target mass,
a distance from a skin surface of the patient to the target mass,
a set of default thermal dose prediction properties,
a set of user specified thermal dose prediction properties,
physical properties of the heat applying elements, and
images provided by the imager.
2. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the thermal dose properties translate, at least in part, to electrical and mechanical properties of the heat applying element.
3. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the default thermal dose prediction properties are based on a type of clinical application and include at least one of:
thermal dose threshold,
thermal dose prediction algorithm,
maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose,
thermal dose duration for each treatment site,
cooling time between thermal doses, and
electrical properties for the heat applying element.
4. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the user specified thermal close dose prediction properties include at least one of:
overrides for any default thermal dose prediction properties,
treatment site grid density, and
thermal dose prediction properties not specified as default thermal dose prediction properties selected from the group comprised consisting of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element.
5. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the treatment plan ensures that the entire target mass is covered by a series of thermal doses so as to obtain a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire target mass.
6. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the thermal dose properties are automatically optimized using physiological properties as the optimization criterion.
7. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the planner limits the thermal dose at each treatment site in order to prevent carbonization or evaporation.
8. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the planner constructs a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan.
9. The treatment system of claim 1, further comprising a User Interface (UI) for entering user specified thermal dose prediction properties and for editing the treatment plan once the treatment plan is constructed.
10. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the treatment plan is constructed in three dimensions.
11. The treatment system of claim 1, further comprising a feedback imager for providing thermal images illustrating the an actual thermal dose distribution resulting from a respective thermal dose delivery at each treatment site.
12. The treatment system of claim 11, wherein the imager acts as the feedback imager.
13. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the heat applying element applies one of the following:
ultrasound energy,
laser light energy,
RF energy,
microwave energy, and
electrical energy.
14. A focused ultrasound system, comprising:
a transducer for generating delivering successive delivered thermal doses of ultrasound energy that results in thermal doses to ablate for ablating a target mass in a patient;
a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the transducer;
an imager for providing preliminary images of the target mass, and for providing thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution in the patient resulting from a delivered thermal dose of ultrasound energy to the target mass; and
a planner configured for automatically constructing a treatment plan using the preliminary images, the treatment plan comprising a series of predicted thermal doses to treatment sites represented by a set of thermal dose properties used by a controller to control the transducer of the target mass;
wherein the planner further constructs a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan;
wherein after a thermal dose is delivered to each treatment site in the treatment plan, the actual thermal dose distribution is compared to the predicted thermal dose distribution to determine remaining untreated locations within the target mass.
15. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein after a thermal dose is delivered to a treatment site in the treatment plan, the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution is compared to the predicted thermal dose distribution is used to determine changes to the dosing parameters in neighboring sonication sites treatment plan for treating the remaining untreated locations.
16. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein the planner automatically evaluates the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations and updates, in order to ensure complete ablation of the target mass, either changes the treatment plan to ensure complete ablation of the target mass is achieved by one or more of adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, modifying existing treatment sites, or leaving leaves the treatment plan unchanged, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution.
17. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein a user can manually adjust the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations.
18. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein the preliminary images and the thermal images represent three-dimensional data.
19. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein the predicted thermal dose distribution and actual thermal dose distribution represent three-dimensional data.
20. The focused ultrasonic system of claim 14, wherein the imager further provides outlines of sensitive regions within the patient where ultrasonic waves are not allowed to pass that are sensitive to ultrasound.
21. The focused ultrasonic system of claim 20, wherein the processor planner uses the outlines in constructing the treatment plan so as to avoid exposing the sensitive regions to ultrasound.
22. The focused ultrasound system of claim 20 21, wherein the sensitive regions comprise bones, gas, and other sensitive tissues.
23. The focused ultrasound system of claim 14, wherein based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution for a given treatment site, the planner adjusts the treatment plan to include delivery of an additional thermal dose to the same or substantially the same treatment site.
24. A thermal treatment system, comprising:
a heat applying element for delivering thermal doses to ablate a target mass in a patient;
a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the heat applying element;
an imager for providing preliminary images of the target mass; and
a planner for automatically constructing a treatment plan, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites that are each represented by a set of thermal dose properties,
wherein the planner automatically constructs the treatment plan based on input information including thermal dose prediction properties comprising at least one of
a set of default thermal dose prediction properties, or
a set of user specified thermal dose prediction properties.
25. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the thermal dose properties translate, at least in part, to electrical and mechanical properties of the heat applying element.
26. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the default thermal dose prediction properties are based on a type of clinical application and include at least one of:
thermal dose threshold,
thermal dose prediction algorithm,
maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose,
thermal dose duration for each treatment site,
cooling time between thermal doses, and
electrical properties for the heat applying element.
27. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the user specified thermal dose prediction properties include at least one of:
overrides for any default thermal dose prediction properties,
treatment site grid density, and
thermal dose prediction properties not specified as default thermal dose prediction properties and selected from the group consisting of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element.
28. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the treatment plan ensures that the entire target mass is covered by a series of thermal doses so as to obtain a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire target mass.
29. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the thermal dose properties are automatically optimized using physiological properties as the optimization criterion.
30. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the planner limits the thermal dose at each treatment site in order to prevent carbonization or evaporation.
31. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the planner constructs a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan.
32. The treatment system of claim 24, further comprising a user interface for entering user specified thermal dose prediction properties and for editing the treatment plan once the treatment plan is constructed.
33. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the treatment plan is constructed in three dimensions.
34. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the imager provides thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution resulting from a respective thermal dose delivery at each treatment site.
35. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the heat applying element applies one of the following:
ultrasound energy,
laser light energy,
RF energy,
microwave energy, and
electrical energy.
36. The treatment system of claim 24, wherein the input information further includes a volume of the target tissue mass.
37. A method of treating a target tissue mass in a patient using a focused ultrasound system, the system comprising a transducer for delivering thermal doses of ultrasound energy to the target tissue mass, an imager for providing images of the target mass, a controller for controlling the transducer, and a planner for constructing a treatment plan, the method comprising
obtaining preliminary images of the target tissue mass; and
based on the preliminary images, constructing a treatment plan for ablating the target mass, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites in the target mass that are to each receive a thermal dose of ultrasound energy from the transducer, each treatment site represented by a set of thermal dose properties to be used by the controller to control the delivery of ultrasound energy by the transducer.
38. The method of claim 37, further comprising constructing a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan.
39. The method of claim 37, further comprising delivering thermal doses of ultrasound energy to one or more of the treatment sites.
40. The method of claim 37, wherein the imager provides thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution in the target tissue mass resulting from a thermal dose of ultrasound energy to a treatment site, the method further comprising
constructing a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan,
delivering thermal doses of ultrasound energy to the treatment sites according to the treatment plan, and
after a thermal dose is delivered to a treatment site in the treatment plan, comparing the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution for the treatment site.
41. The method of claim 40, further comprising, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution, selectively changing the treatment plan by one or more of adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, and modifying treatment sites, to ensure complete ablation of the target mass.
42. The method of claim 40, further comprising, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution, delivering an additional thermal dose of ultrasound energy to the same or substantially the same treatment site.
43. The method of claim 37, further comprising manually adjusting the treatment plan.
44. The method of claim 37, further comprising:
identifying in images used to construct the treatment plan outlines of regions within the patient that are sensitive to the application of ultrasound, and
constructing the treatment plan so as to avoid exposure of the sensitive regions to ultrasound energy delivered by the transducer.
45. The method of claim 37, wherein the thermal dose properties translate, at least in part, to electrical and mechanical properties of the transducer.
46. The method of claim 37, wherein the treatment plan ensures that the entire target mass is covered by a series of thermal doses of ultrasound energy so as to obtain a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire target mass.
47. The method of claim 37, further comprising optimizing the thermal dose properties based on physiological properties as optimization criterion.
48. A method for treating a target tissue mass in a patient using a thermal energy treatment system, the system comprising a heat applying element for delivering thermal doses used to ablate the target mass, a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the heat applying element, an imager for providing images of the target mass, and a planner for constructing a treatment plan, the method comprising:
receiving input information including preliminary images of the target mass; and
based on the input information, automatically constructing a treatment plan for ablating the target mass, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites in the target mass that are to each receive a thermal dose from the heat applying element, each treatment site represented by a set of thermal dose properties to be used by the controller to control the delivery of the thermal doses.
49. The method of claim 48, further comprising automatically constructing a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan.
50. The method of claim 48, further comprising delivering thermal doses from the heat applying element to one or more of the treatment sites.
51. The method of claim 48, wherein the imager provides thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution in the target tissue mass resulting from a thermal dose delivered to a treatment site, the method further comprising
constructing a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan,
delivering thermal doses to the treatment sites according to the treatment plan, and
after a thermal dose is delivered to a treatment site in the treatment plan, comparing the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution for the treatment site.
52. The method of claim 51, further comprising, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution, changing the treatment plan by one or more of adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, and modifying treatment sites, to ensure complete ablation of the target mass.
53. The method of claim 51, further comprising, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution, leaving the treatment plan unchanged in order to ensure complete ablation of the target mass.
54. The method of claim 51, further comprising, based on the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution, delivering an additional thermal dose to the same or substantially the same treatment site.
55. The method of claim 48, further comprising manually adjusting the treatment plan.
56. The method of claim 48, wherein the thermal dose properties translate, at least in part, to electrical and mechanical properties of the heat applying element.
57. The method of claim 48, wherein the treatment plan ensures that the entire target mass is covered by a series of thermal doses so as to obtain a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire target mass.
58. The method of claim 48, further comprising optimizing the thermal dose properties based on physiological properties as optimization criterion.
59. The method of claim 48, wherein the input information further includes one or more of the group consisting of:
a volume of the target mass,
default thermal dose prediction properties, and
user specified thermal dose prediction properties.
60. The method of claim 53, wherein the heat applying element applies one of the following:
ultrasound energy,
laser light energy,
RF energy,
microwave energy, and
electrical energy.
61. A method of treating a target tissue mass in a patient using a focused ultrasound system, the system comprising a transducer for delivering thermal doses of ultrasound energy to the target tissue mass, an imager for providing images of the target mass, a controller for controlling the transducer, and a planner for constructing a treatment plan, the method comprising
obtaining preliminary images of the target tissue mass;
based on the preliminary images, automatically constructing, with the planner, a treatment plan for ablating the target mass, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites in the target mass that are to each receive a thermal dose of ultrasound energy from the transducer, each treatment site represented by a set of thermal dose properties to be used by the controller to control the delivery of ultrasound energy by the transducer;
constructing a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of the treatment sites in the treatment plan; and
delivering thermal doses of ultrasound energy to the treatment sites according to the treatment plan,
wherein the imager provides thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution in the target tissue mass resulting from a thermal dose delivered to a treatment site, and
wherein after a thermal dose is delivered to each treatment site, the actual thermal dose distribution is compared to the predicted thermal dose distribution to determine remaining untreated locations within the target mass.
62. The method of claim 61, wherein the comparison of the actual thermal dose distribution to the predicted thermal dose distribution is used to determine changes to the treatment plan for treating the remaining untreated locations.
63. The method of claim 61, wherein the planner automatically evaluates the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations and, in order to ensure complete ablation of the target mass, either changes the treatment plan by one or more of adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, and modifying existing treatment sites, or leaves the treatment plan unchanged.
64. The method of claim 61, further comprising manually adjusting the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations.
65. The method of claim 61, wherein the preliminary images and the thermal images represent three-dimensional data.
66. The method of claim 61, wherein the predicted thermal dose distribution and actual thermal dose distribution represent three-dimensional data.
67. The method of claim 61, wherein the imager further provides outlines of regions within the patient that are sensitive to ultrasound, and wherein the planner uses the outlines in constructing the treatment plan so as to avoid exposing the sensitive regions to ultrasound.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a reissue of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/724,670, filed Nov. 28, 2000, issued as U.S. Pat. No. 6,618,620.

FIELD OF INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to thermal treatment systems, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system.

BACKGROUND

Thermal energy, such as generated by high intensity focused ultrasonic waves (acoustic waves with a frequency greater than about 20 kilohertz), may be used to therapeutically treat internal tissue regions within a patient. For example, ultrasonic waves may be used to ablate tumors, thereby obviating the need for invasive surgery. For this purpose, piezoelectric transducers driven by electric signals to produce ultrasonic energy have been suggested that may be placed external to the patient but in close proximity to the tissue to be ablated. The transducer is geometrically shaped and positioned such that the ultrasonic energy is focused at a “focal zone” corresponding to a target tissue region within the patient, heating the target tissue region until the tissue is coagulated. The transducer may be sequentially focused and activated at a number of focal zones in close proximity to one another. This series of “sonications” is used to cause coagulation necrosis of an entire tissue structure, such as a tumor, of a desired size and shape.

In such focused ultrasound systems, the transducer is preferably geometrically shaped and positioned so that the ultrasonic energy is focused at a “focal zone” corresponding to the target tissue region, heating the region until the tissue is necrosed. The transducer may be sequentially focused and activated at a number of focal zones in close proximity to one another. For example, this series of “sonications” may be used to cause coagulation necrosis of an entire tissue structure, such as a tumor, of a desired size and shape.

By way of illustration, FIG. 1A depicts a phased array transducer 10 having a “spherical cap” shape. The transducer 10 includes a plurality of concentric rings 12 disposed on a curved surface having a radius of curvature defining a portion of a sphere. The concentric rings 12 generally have equal surface areas and may also be divided circumferentially 14 into a plurality of curved transducer sectors, or elements 16, creating a “tiling” of the face of the transducer 10. The transducer elements 16 are constructed of a piezoelectric material such that, upon being driven with a sinus wave near the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric material, the elements 16 vibrate according to the phase and amplitude of the exciting sinus wave, thereby creating the desired ultrasonic wave energy.

As illustrated in FIG. 1B, the phase shift and amplitude of the respective sinus “drive signal” for each transducer element 16 is individually controlled so as to sum the emitted ultrasonic wave energy 18 at a focal zone 20 having a desired mode of focused planar and volumetric pattern. This is accomplished by coordinating the signal phase of the respective transducer elements 16 in such a manner that they constructively interfere at specific locations, and destructively cancel at other locations. For example, if each of the elements 16 are driven with drive signals that are in phase with one another, (known as “mode 0”), the emitted ultrasonic wave energy 18 are focused at a relatively narrow focal zone. Alternatively, the elements 16 may be driven with respective drive signals that are in a predetermined shifted-phase relationship with one another (referred to in U.S. Pat. No. 4,865,042 to Umemura et al. as “mode n”). This results in a focal zone that includes a plurality of 2n zones disposed about an annulus, i.e., generally defining an annular shape, creating a wider focus that causes necrosis of a larger tissue region within a focal plane intersecting the focal zone. Multiple shapes of the focal spot can be created by controlling the relative phases and amplitudes of the emmitted energy from the array, including steering and scanning of the beam, enabling electronic control of the focused beam to cover and treat multiple of spots in the defined zone of a defined tumor inside the body.

More advanced techniques for obtaining specific focal distances and shapes are disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/626,176, filed Jul. 27, 2000, entitled “Systems and Methods for Controlling Distribution of Acoustic Energy Around a Focal Point Using a Focused Ultrasound System;” U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/556,095, filed Apr. 21, 2000, entitled “Systems and Methods for Reducing Secondary Hot Spots in a Phased Array Focused Ultrasound System;” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/557,078, filed Apr. 21, 2000, entitled “Systems and Methods for Creating Longer Necrosed Volumes Using a Phased Array Focused Ultrasound System.” The foregoing (commonly assigned) patent applications, along with U.S. Pat. No. 4,865,042, are all hereby incorporated by reference for all they teach and disclose.

It is significant to implementing these focal positioning and shaping techniques to provide a transducer control system that allows the phase of each transducer element to be independently controlled. To provide for precise positioning and dynamic movement and reshaping of the focal zone, it is desirable to be able to alter the phase and/or amplitude of the individual elements relatively fast, e.g., in the μ second range, to allow switching between focal points or modes of operation. As taught in the above-incorporated U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/556,095, it is also desirable to be able to rapidly change the drive signal frequency of one or more elements.

Further, in a MRI-guided focused ultrasound system, it is desirable to be able to drive the ultrasound transducer array without creating electrical harmonics, noise, or fields that interfere with the ultra-sensitive receiver signals that create the images. A system for individually controlling and dynamically changing the phase and amplitude of each transducer element drive signal in phased array focused ultrasound transducer in a manner which does not interfere with the imaging system is taught in commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. [not-yet-assigned; Lyon & Lyon Attorney Docket No. 254/189, entitled “Systems and Methods for Controlling a Phased Array Focussed Ultrasound System,”], which was filed on the same date herewith and which is hereby incorporated by reference for all it teaches and discloses.

Notably, after the delivery of a thermal dose, e.g., ultrasound sonication, a cooling period is required to avoid harmful and painful heat build up in healthy tissue adjacent a target tissue structure. This cooling period may be significantly longer than the thermal dosing period. Since a large number of sonications may be required in order to fully ablate the target tissue site, the overall time required can be significant. If the procedure is MRI-guided, this means that the patient must remain motionless in a MRI machine for a significant period of time, which can be very stressful. At the same time, it may be critical that the entire target tissue structure be ablated (such as, e.g., in the case of a malignant cancer tumor), and that the procedure not take any short cuts just in the name of patient comfort.

Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide systems and methods for treating a tissue region using thermal energy, such as focused ultrasound energy, wherein the thermal dosing is applied in a more efficient and effective manner.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, a thermal treatment system is provided, the system including a heat applying element for generating a thermal dose used to ablate a target mass in a patient, a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the heat applying element, an imager for providing preliminary images of the target mass and thermal images during the treatment, and a planner for automatically constructing a treatment plan, comprising a series of treatment sites that are each represented by a set of thermal dose properties. By way of non-limiting example only, the heat applying element may apply any of ultrasound energy, laser light energy, radio frequency (RF) energy, microwave energy, or electrical energy.

In a preferred embodiment, the planner automatically constructs the treatment plan based on input information including one or more of a volume of the target mass, a distance from a skin surface of the patient to the target mass, a set of default thermal dose prediction properties, a set of user specified thermal dose prediction properties, physical properties of the heat applying elements, and images provided by the imager. The default thermal dose prediction properties are preferably based on a type of clinical application and include at least one of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site, cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element. The user specified thermal dose prediction properties preferably include at least one or more of overrides for any default thermal dose prediction properties, treatment site grid density; and thermal dose prediction properties not specified as default thermal dose prediction properties from the group comprised of thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element.

Preferably, the treatment plan ensures that the entire target mass is covered by a series of thermal doses so as to obtain a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire target mass, and the thermal dose properties are automatically optimized using physiological properties as the optimization criterion. Preferably, the planner limits the thermal dose at each treatment site in order to prevent evaporation or carbonization.

In a preferred embodiment, the planner constructs a predicted thermal dose distribution in three dimensions, illustrating the predicted thermal dose threshold contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan. A User Interface (UI) may also be provided for entering user specified thermal dose prediction properties and for editing the treatment plan once the treatment plan is constructed. A feedback imager for providing thermal images may also be provided, wherein the thermal images illustrate the actual thermal dose distribution resulting at each treatment site. In one embodiment, the imager acts as the feedback imager.

In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a focused ultrasound system is provided, including a transducer for generating ultrasound energy that results in thermal doses used to ablate a target mass in a patient, a controller for controlling thermal dose properties of the transducer, an imager for providing preliminary images of the target, and for providing thermal images illustrating an actual thermal dose distribution in the patient, and a planner for automatically constructing a treatment plan using the preliminary images, the treatment plan comprising a series of treatment sites represented by a set of thermal dose properties used by the controller to control the transducer.

The planner preferably constructs a predicted thermal dose distribution illustrating the predicted thermal dose contours of each treatment site in the treatment plan, wherein after a thermal dose is delivered to a treatment site in the treatment plan, the actual thermal dose distribution is compared to the predicted thermal dose distribution to determine remaining untreated locations within the target mass. The planner preferably automatically evaluates the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations and will update the treatment plan to ensure complete ablation of the target mass is achieved by adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, modifying existing treatment sites, or leaving the treatment plan unchanged. In some embodiments, a user can manually adjust the treatment plan based on the remaining untreated locations.

Preferably, the imager provides outlines of sensitive regions within the patient where ultrasonic waves are not allowed to pass, wherein the processor uses the outlines in constructing the treatment plan so as to avoid exposing the sensitive regions to ultrasound.

In accordance with still another aspect of the invention, a method of controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system is provided, which includes selecting an appropriate clinical application protocol, the selected application protocol having associated with it certain default thermal dosing properties; retrieving relevant magnetic resonant images for thermal dose planning; tracing a target mass on the images; entering user specified thermal dosing properties and selectively modifying the default thermal dosing properties; and automatically constructing a treatment plan representing thermal doses to be applied to treatment sites, the treatment plan based on the default thermal dosing properties and the user specified thermal dosing properties.

In preferred implementations, tracing the target mass can be done manually or automatically, and may include evaluating the target mass to ensure that obstacles including bones, gas, or other sensitive tissue will not interfere with the thermal doses and repositioning a patient or a heat applying element in order to bypass any such obstacles. Preferably, the treatment plan ensures that a target mass receives a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the target mass, wherein automatically constructing the treatment plan includes predicting and displaying a predicted thermal dose distribution. Preferably, automatically constructing the treatment plan further includes calculating limits for each thermal dose to be applied to each treatment site in order to prevent evaporation or carbonation.

In a preferred implementation, the treatment plan may be manually edited, including at least one of adding treatment sites, deleting treatment sites, changing the location of treatment sites, changing thermal dosing properties, and reconstructing the entire treatment plan with new thermal dosing properties.

In one implementation, the method includes applying a low energy thermal dose at a predetermined spot within the target mass in order to verify proper registration, and evaluating said predetermined spot and adjusting and/or re-verifying if necessary. In a following step, the low energy thermal dose could be extended to a full dose sonication that will be evaluated to assess the thermal dosing parameters as a scaling factor for the full treatment.

Other aspects and features of the invention will become apparent hereinafter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The drawings illustrate both the design and utility of preferred embodiments of the invention, in which similar elements in different embodiments are referred to by the same reference numbers for purposes of ease in illustration, and wherein:

FIG. 1A is a top view of an exemplary spherical cap transducer comprising a plurality of transducer elements to be driven in a phased array as part of a focussed ultrasound system.

FIG. 1B is a partially cut-away side view of the transducer of FIG. 1A, illustrating the concentrated emission of focused ultrasonic energy in a targeted focal region.

FIG. 2 is simplified schematic block diagram of a thermal treatment system for providing thermal energy dosing of a target tissue region in a patient.

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of an ultrasonic transducer and target tissue mass to be treated in a preferred embodiment of the system of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of a target tissue mass, illustrating a series of planned sonication areas.

FIG. 5 is a preferred process flow diagram for constructing a three-dimensional treatment plan using the system of FIG. 2.

FIG. 6 is a simplified schematic block diagram of an alternate thermal treatment system comprising a feedback image generator.

FIGS. 7A and 7B are two-dimensional representations of a target sonication areas, illustrating instances in which the actual thermal ablation is either greater than (FIG. 7A), or less than (FIG. 7B), the predicted amount.

FIG. 8 illustrates a comparison of actual versus predicted thermal doses for an entire target tissue region constructed by the system of FIG. 6 using images from the feedback image generator.

FIG. 9 illustrates a preferred method of controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system.

FIG. 10A illustrates a two dimensional pixel representation of a predicted thermal dose to be applied to a target tissue region.

FIG. 10B illustrates a two dimensional pixel representation of an actual thermal dose resulting from a thermal treatment intended to result in the predicted thermal dose of FIG. 10A.

FIG. 10C illustrates a two dimensional pixel representation of a remaining untreated target tissue region derived by subtracting the pixel representation of FIG. 10B from the pixel representation of FIG. 10A.

FIG. 11 illustrates a preferred method for updating a thermal treatment plan.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The invention will now be illustrated by examples that use an ultrasound transducer as the means of delivering energy to a target mass. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art, however, that other energy delivery vehicles can be used. For example, the invention is equally applicable to systems that use laser light energy, radio frequency (RF) energy, microwave energy, or electrical energy converted to heat, as in an ohmic heating coil or contact. Therefore, the following preferred embodiments should not be considered to limit the invention to an ultrasound system.

FIG. 2 illustrates a thermal treatment system 100 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. Thermal treatment system 100 uses a heat applying element 102 to focus an energy beam 112 on a target mass 104, which is typically a tumor within a patient 116. In one preferred implementation, the thermal treatment system 100 is a focused ultrasound system and the heat applying element 102 is a transducer that delivers an ultrasound beam. In this embodiment, the transducer 102 may consist of a spherical cap transducer such as that disclosed in the above-incorporated Umemura patent. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that a variety of geometric designs for transducer 102 may be employed. Additionally, alternate embodiments of system 100 will use focused radiators, acoustic lenses, or acoustic reflectors in order to achieve optimal focus of beam 112.

Ultrasound is a vibrational energy that is propagated as a mechanical wave through a target medium. In system 100, transducer 102 generates the mechanical wave by converting an electronic drive signal into mechanical motion. The frequency of the mechanical wave, and therefore ultrasound beam 112, is equal to the frequency of the drive signal. The ultrasound frequency spectrum begins at 20 Khz and typical implementations of system 100 employ frequencies in the range from 0.5 to 10 Mhz. Transducer 102 also converts the electronic drive signal power into acoustic power in ultrasound beam 112. Ultrasound beam 112 raises the temperature of target mass 104 by transferring this power as heat to target mass 104. Ultrasound beam 112 is focused on the target mass 104 in order to raise the temperature of the target mass tissue to a point where the tissue is destroyed. The heat distribution within the tissue is controlled by the intensity distribution in the focal spot of beam 112, the intensity distribution, in turn, is shaped by the interaction of the beam with the tissue and the frequency, duration, and power of beam 112, which are directly related to the frequency, duration, and power of the electronic drive signal.

As seen in FIG. 3, the transducer 102 focuses beam 112 on a target tissue mass 104, which is within a patient 116 some distance from skin surface 202. The distance from skin surface 202 to target mass 104 is the near field 204, which contains healthy tissue. It is important that tissue in near field 204 is not damaged by beam 112. Energy zone 206 is the target zone for beam 112, wherein energy is transferred as heat to the tissue of the target mass 104. Energy zone 206 is divided into several cross sections of varying depth. Varying the frequency of the electric signal driving transducer 102 can target particular cross sections within energy zone 206.

Two proportionalities illustrate this point: (1) d is proportional to k1(v/f)(R/2a); and (2) l is proportional to k2(v/f) (R/2a)2. In (1), d represents the diameter of the focal spot of beam 112. R represents the radius of curvature, and 2a represents the diameter, respectively, of transducer 102. Therefore, the physical parameters associated with transducer 102 are important parameters, as well. In (2), l represents the axial length of the focus of beam 112. Different cross sections can be targeted by changing the frequency f, which will vary the focal length l. In both (1) and (2), v is the speed of sound in body tissue and is approximately 1540 m/s.

As can be seen, the same parameters that play an important role in determining the focal length l, also play an important role in determining the focal spot diameter d. Because the focal spot will typically be many times smaller than transducer 102, the acoustic intensity will be many times higher in the focal spot as compared to the intensity at the transducer. In some implementations, the focal spot intensity can be hundreds or even thousands of times higher than the transducer intensity. The frequency f also effects the intensity distribution within energy zone 206: The higher the frequency, the tighter the distribution, which is beneficial in terms of not heating near field 204.

The duration of a sonication determines how much heat will actually be transferred to the target mass tissue at the focal spot. For a given signal power and focal spot diameter, a longer duration results in more heat transfer and, therefore, a higher temperature. Thermal conduction and blood flow, however, make the actual temperature distribution within the tissue unpredictable for longer sonication duration. As a result, typical implementations use duration of only a few seconds. In focused ultrasound systems, care must also be taken not to raise the temperature at the focal point too high. A temperature of 100° C. will cause water in the tissue to boil forming gas in the path of beam 112. The gas blocks the propagation of beam 112, which significantly impacts the performance of system 100.

Controller 106 controls the mechanical and electrical properties of transducer 102. For example, controller 106 controls electrical properties such as the frequency, duration, and amplitude of the electronic drive signal and mechanical properties such as the position of transducer 102. By controlling the position of transducer 102, the position of the focal spot within target mass 116 can be controlled. In one embodiment, controller 106 controls the x-position, z-position, the pitch, and the roll of transducer 102. A preferred mechanical positioning system for controlling the physical position of the transducer is taught in commonly assigned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/628,964, entitled “Mechanical Positioner for MRI Guided Ultrasound Therapy System,” which is hereby incorporated by reference for all it teaches and discloses.

In one implementation, electromechanical drives under the control of controller 106 are used to control these positional aspects. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that other implementations may employ other means to position transducer 102 including hydraulics, gears, motors, servos, etc. Additionally, it must be remembered that controlling the electrical properties, mainly frequency f and phase of transducer 102 controls the position of the focal spot along the y-axis of transducer 102 and the dimensions of the focal volume. Controller 106 uses properties provided by planner 108 to control the mechanical and electrical properties of transducer 102.

Planner 108 automatically constructs a treatment plan, which consists of a series of treatment site represented by thermal dose properties. The purpose of the treatment plan is to ensure complete ablation of target mass 104 by planning a series of sonications that will apply a series of thermal doses at various points within target mass 104, resulting in a composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the entire mass.

For example, the plan will include the frequency, duration, and power of the sonication and the position and mode of the focal spot for each treatment site in series of treatment sites. The mode of the focal spot refers to the fact that the focal spot can be of varying dimensions. Typically, there will be a range of focal modes from small to large with several intermediate modes in between. The actual size of the focal spot will vary, however, as a function of the focal distance (l), the frequency and focal spot dispersion mode. Therefore, planner 108 must take the mode and focal spot size variation into account when planning the position of the focal spot for a treatment site. The treatment plan is then passed to controller 106 in the relevant format to allow controller 106 to perform its tasks.

In order to construct the treatment plan, planner 108 uses input from User Interface (UI) 110 and imager 114. For example, in one implementation, a user specifies the clinical application protocol, i.e., breast, pelvis, eye, prostate, etc., via UI 110. Selection of the clinical application protocol may control at least some of the default thermal dose prediction properties such as thermal dose threshold, thermal dose prediction algorithm, maximum allowed energy for each thermal dose, thermal dose duration for each treatment site, cooling time between thermal doses, and electrical properties for the heat applying element.

In other implementations, some or all of these properties are input through UI 110 as user specified thermal dose prediction properties. Other properties that may be input as user specified thermal dose prediction properties are the sonication grid density (how much the sonications should overlap) and the physical parameters of transducer 102. The latter two properties may also be defined as default parameters in certain implementations.

Additionally, a user may edit any of the default parameters via UI 110. In one implementation, UI 110 comprises a Graphical User Interface (GUI): A user employs a mouse or touch screen to navigate through menus or choices as displayed on a display device in order to make the appropriate selections and supply the required information.

To further aid planner 108 in constructing the treatment plan, imager 114 supplies images of target mass 104 that can be used to determine volume, position, and distance from skin surface 202. In a typical implementation, imager 114 is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) device and, in one implementation, the images provided are three-dimensional images of target mass 104. Once planner 108 receives the input from UI 110 and the images from imager 114, planner 108 automatically constructs the treatment plan.

As illustrated in FIG. 4, the goal of the treatment plan is to completely cover a target tissue mass 300 with a series of sonications 304 so that the entire target mass is fully ablated. In one implementation, once the treatment plan is constructed a user may, if required, edit the plan by using UI 110. In one implementation, planner 108 will also produce a predicted thermal dose distribution. This distribution is similar to the distribution illustrated in FIG. 4, wherein the predicted thermal doses 304 are mapped onto images of target mass 104 provided by imager 114. In one implementation, the distribution is a three-dimensional distribution. Additionally an algorithm is included in planner 108 that limits the peak temperature of the focal zone so as to prevent evaporation. The algorithm is referred to as the dose predictor.

In one implementation, the treatment plan is a three-dimensional treatment plan. FIG. 5 illustrates one preferred process flow diagram for constructing a three-dimensional treatment plan, using three-dimensional images of target mass 104 and a three-dimensional predicted thermal dose distribution 300. The ability of focusing at different focal lengths (l) leads to variable focal spots and variable lesion sizes in target mass 104 as a function of (y), the transducer axis. Therefore, as a result of the process illustrated in FIG. 5, planner 108 finds a minimum number of overlapping cross-sectional treatment layers required to ablate a portion of target mass 104 extending from ynear to yfar.

Planner 108 will also predict the lesion size in the cross-sectional layer and will provide the maximal allowed energy in each layer, taking into account the maximum allowed temperature rise. The energy or power will be normalized among different layers, such that the maximal temperature at the focus remains approximately constant throughout the treatment zone 206.

Constructing the three-dimensional treatment plan begins in step 402 with obtaining diagnostic quality images of the target mass. For example, the diagnostic quality images may be the preliminary images supplied by an imager such as imager 114. In step 404, planner 108 uses the diagnostic images to define the treatment region. Then, in step 406, a line y=[ynear:yfar] is defined such that (y) cuts through target zone 206 perpendicular to transducer along the transducer axis from the nearest point within target mass 104 (ynear) to the furthest point (yfar). Line (y) will be the axis along which the treatment layers will be defined.

Once (y) is defined planner 108 will perform a dose prediction in step 408 using the maximal power required for small and large spot sizes at (yfar). In step 410, planner 108 determines if the resulting maximal temperature exceeds the allowed limit. It should be noted that properties such as the maximal power and the maximal temperature limit may be supplied as default thermal dose prediction properties or may be supplied as user supplied thermal dose prediction properties. If the resulting maximal temperature does exceed the allowable limit, the power is scaled down linearly in step 412 until the temperature elevation is within the allowable limit.

The small and large focal modes may correspond to modes 0 and 4, respectively, with additional modes 1, 2 and 3 falling between modes 0 and 4. Therefore, in step 414, planner 108 predicts the maximal power for the intermediate modes 1, 2 and 3, from the scaled max powers at modes 0 and 4. Thus, in step 416, if there are further modes, planner 108 reverts to step 408 and predicts the maximal power for these modes. If it is the last mode for (yfar) then planner 108 uses the same scaled max power, as in step 418, to find the corresponding maximal powers for each focal mode at (ynear). Then in step 420, planner 108 finds the maximal temperature elevation and lesion size for the appropriate mode and the required maximal power at a point (yl), such that ynear<yl<yfar. Preferably, (yl) is close to (ynear). For example, in one implementation, yl=ynear+25 mm. If the temperature elevation at (yl) exceeds the allowable limit as determined in step 422, then in step 424 the power is scaled down until the temperature elevation is within the limit, and then planner 108 determines the resulting lesion size at (yl).

Using an overlap criterion with respect to the (ynear) boundary, which may be provided via a sonication grid density, the first treatment is placed. The treatment will actually be a three-dimensional layer or slice. Then, in step 428, using an inter-layer overlap criterion, an auxiliary treatment slice is placed on top of the previous treatment layer using the same height for the second slice as for the first slice. In step 430, planner 108 determines if more layers are needed to reach (yfar). If more layers are needed, then the process reverts to step 418, and (yl) replaces (ynear) (step 432) in the algorithm.

Once the last treatment layer is reached, planner 108 will determine if the layer extends beyond the target limit (yfar). If the layer does extend too far, then the overlap criterion should be used with the outer limit (yfar) as a boundary instead of the previous layer. Using (yfar) in the overlap criterion may cause overdose but will not damage healthy tissue outside target mass 104.

In one implementation, the thermal dose properties are automatically optimized using physiological parameters as the optimization criterion in one implementation mechanical tissue parameters like compressibility, stiffens and scatter are used.

Referring to FIG. 6, a thermal treatment system 500, similar to system 100 of FIG. 2, includes an online feedback imager 502. In practice, the actual thermal dose delivered with a particular sonication is not the same as the thermal dose predicted by planner 108. As mentioned previously, absorption coefficient blood flow, uneven heat conduction, different rates of conduction for different tissue masses, tissue induced beam aberration and variances in system tolerances make it difficult to accurately predict thermal dosages. Moreover, the actual focal spot dimensions are variable as a function of focal distance (l) and of focal spot dispersion, making accurate thermal dosing predictions even more difficult.

As illustrated in FIGS. 7A-B, the actual thermal dose 606 will often not ablate the predicted amount of tissue. In particular, two situations can occur. First, as illustrated by comparison 602 in FIG. 7A, actual thermal dose 606 may be larger than predicted thermal dose 608. In this case there will be an overlap of ablated tissue 610. The second situation is illustrated by comparison 604 in FIG. 7B. In this case, actual thermal dose 606 is smaller than predicted thermal dose 608. Therefore, there is an area 612 of non-ablated tissue remaining after sonication.

The online feedback imager 502 provides real-time temperature sensitive magnetic resonance images of target mass 104 after some or all of the sonications. The planner 108 uses the images from the feedback imager 502 to construct an actual thermal dose distribution 600 comparing the actual composite thermal dose to the predicted composite thermal dose as illustrated in FIG. 8. In particular, thermal dose distribution 600 illustrates a comparison of the actual versus predicted thermal dose for each or some of the sonications. As can be seen, overlapping areas 610 and non-ablated areas 612 will result in over- or under-dosing as the treatment plan is implemented and thermal doses are applied to different treatment sites 614 within target mass 104.

In one implementation, the images provided by feedback imager 502 and the updated thermal dose distributions 600 represent three-dimensional data. Planner 108 uses thermal dose distribution 600 to automatically adjust the treatment plan, in real-time, after each sonication or uses the thermal dose distribution 600 in some of the points to adjust for the neighboring points. Planner 108 can adjust the treatment plan by adding treatment sites, removing treatment sites, or continuing to the next treatment site. Additionally, the thermal dose properties of some or all remaining treatment sites may automatically be adjusted by planner 108 based on real-time feedback from feedback imager 502.

As mentioned, planner 108 reformulates the treatment plan automatically after each thermal dose or after some of the sonication points, thus ensuring that target mass 104 is completely ablated in an efficient and effective manner. In addition, the feedback provided by online feedback imager 502 might be used to manually adjust the treatment plan or to override the changes made by planner 108. It should be noted that in one example embodiment, imager 114 also functions as feedback imager 502.

A preferred method of controlling thermal dosing in a thermal treatment system (e.g., systems 100 and 500) is illustrated in FIG. 9. Initially, a user selects an appropriate clinical application protocol in step 702. For example, a user may use an interface such as UI 110 to select the clinical application protocol. In one embodiment, selecting the clinical application protocol controls a set of default thermal dose prediction parameters. After the clinical application is selected, relevant magnetic resonant images of a target mass are retrieved in step 704. For example, the images may be retrieved by a means such as imager 114. In step 706, the images are used to define a target region such as a treatment slice as discussed previously. In one embodiment, defining the target region involves manually or automatically tracing the target mass onto the images retrieved in step 704. In one implementation, the target mass is traced in three dimensions onto three-dimensional images for three-dimensional treatment planning. In another embodiment that uses ultrasound, the operator is allowed to account for obstacles such as bones, gas, or other sensitive tissue and plan accordingly to ensure that the ultrasound beam will not pass through these obstacles. Based on this planning, a patient may be repositioned or the transducer may be repositioned and/or tilted in order to avoid the obstacles.

In step 708, the user may enter additional thermal dose prediction properties or modify any default thermal dose prediction properties already selected. For example, these additional properties may be entered via UI 110. Then in step 710, a treatment plan is automatically constructed based on the properties obtained in the previous steps. The purpose of the treatment plan is to ensure a proper composite thermal dose sufficient to ablate the target mass by applying a series of thermal doses to a series of treatment sites, automatically accounting for variations in the focal spot sizes and in the thermal dose actually delivered to the treatment site.

The treatment plan may, for example, be automatically constructed by a planning means such as planner 108. In one embodiment, automatically constructing the treatment plan includes constructing an expected thermal dose distribution showing the predicted thermal dose at each treatment site. This thermal dose distribution may represent a three-dimensional distribution, and, in such an implementation, constructing the treatment plan may follow the steps illustrated in FIG. 5, and described above. In another embodiment, constructing the treatment plan further comprises calculating limits for the ultrasonic energy associated with each sonication so as to prevent evaporation.

In step 712, the treatment plan is edited by manual input. For example, UI 110 may be used to edit the treatment plan. In one embodiment, editing the plan may include adding treatment sites, deleting treatment sites, changing the location of some or all of the treatment sites, changing other thermal dose properties for some or all treatment sites, or reconstructing the entire plan. As illustrated by step 720, if the plan is edited, then the process reverts to step 708 and continues from there. Once the plan is set, then verification step 714 is performed. Verification is required to ensure that treatment system 100 is properly registered with regard to the position of the focal spot relative to patient 116 and target mass 104. In one embodiment, verification comprises performing a low energy thermal dose at a predefined spot within said target mass in order to verify proper registration. In a following step, the verification could be repeated at full energy level to calibrate the dosing parameters. As illustrated by step 722, re-verification may be required depending on the result of step 714. In this case, the process reverts back to step 714 and verification is performed again. On the other hand, mechanical properties, such as position, relating to transducer 102 may need to be changed (step 720) and, therefore, the process reverts to step 708.

Once the verification is complete, the treatment plan is implemented in step 716. In one embodiment, this step comprises capturing temperature sensitive image sequences of the target mass as each step of the plan is being implemented. These images will illustrate the actual thermal dose distribution resulting from each successive thermal dose. An online feedback imager 502 may, for example, provide the temperature sensitive images that are used to construct the actual thermal dose distribution. In step 718, the actual thermal dose distribution is compared with the predicted thermal dose distribution in order to determine how closely the actual treatments are tracking the treatment plan. Then in step 724, it is determined if the treatment can proceed to the next step (repeat step 716), or if changes must be made to the treatment plan. (step 720). The changes may be accomplished manually or automatically and may comprise adding treatment sites, deleting treatment sites, repeating treatment sites, or modifying specific thermal dose properties for some or all of the treatment sites.

There are several methods that are used to change or update the treatment plan. For example, at the end of each thermal dose, there may be regions within the target layer that are not covered by accumulated dose contours. These untreated areas are separated into individual regions. Each of these regions is then sent through the process, beginning with step 708, resulting in an updated treatment plan constructed to treat the remaining regions. The process will repeat until there are no more untreated regions.

In order to accomplish the tracking of untreated regions, each treatment region may be maintained as a two-dimensional linked list of pixel ranges sorted by (y) and then (x) coordinates as illustrated in FIGS. 10A-C. As can be seen in FIG. 10A, the treatment region is a continuous region 802 represented by the lighter pixels. The pixel distribution is then represented by the data structure 804. This type of representation is called “run-length encoding.” The data structure 804 contains linked lists 806 by row indicating the pixels that contain treatment region 802. Thus, for row 1, list element 806a indicates that the pixel range from 1 to 2 contains a portion of treatment region 802, 806b indicates that the pixel range from 7 to 7 contains a portion of treatment region 802, and 806c indicates that the pixel range from 11 to 11 contains a portion of treatment region 802. It can also be seen that rows 0 and 5 do not contain any portion of treatment region 802; therefore, these rows in data structure 804 do not contain any pixel ranges.

Once a thermal dose is applied, the area of the target mass that is destroyed (the treated region) is represented in the same fashion as the untreated region shown in FIG. 10A. The treated region (FIG. 10B) is subtracted from the untreated region in order to define the remaining untreated region within treatment region 802. These areas can then be sent back to the planning stage (step 720) and the treatment plan can be updated.

Subtraction of the run-lengths representing untreated region and the treated-region follows the following rules:

For run-length segments [a,b] and [c,d],

[a,b] − [c,d] = c > b or d < a [a,b] (1)
c <= a and d >= b 0 (2)
c > a and d >= b [a, c − 1] (3)
c <= a and d < b [d + 1, b] (4)
c > a and d < b [a, c − 1] and [d + 1, b] (5)

The subtraction, therefore, of two regions involves traversing the lines in each region and subtracting a line in the first data structure from its corresponding line in the second data structure.

The above rules will be further explained by means of an example in which region 808 illustrated in FIG. 10B, and represented by data structure 810, will be subtracted from region 802 in FIG. 10A. Application of rules (1)-(5), for the given regions, results in the following:

(Step 1) Top Row:
[1,2] − [1,2] = 0 Rule (2)
[7,7] − [1,2] = [7,7], [7,7] − [6,11] = 0 Rules (1), (2)
[11,11] − [1,2] = [11,11], [11,11] − [6,11] = 0 Rules (1), (2)
(Step 2) Second Row:
[1,3] − [2,3] = [1,1], [1,1] − [7,7] = [1,1], [1,1] − Rules (3), (1), (1)
[11,11] = [1,1]
[7,11] − [2,3] = [7,11], [7,11] − [7,7] = [7,11], [7,11] − Rules (1), (1), (3)
[11,11] = [7,10]
(Step 3) Third Row:
[1,11] − [1,11] = 0 Rule (2)
(Step 4) Lower Row:
[1,10] − [4,9] = [1,3] and [10,10] Rule (5)

In performing the subtraction, each segment 806d and 806e in row 1 of data structure 810 is subtracted from each segment 806a, 806b, and 806c in row 1 of data structure 804. Thus, as can be seen for the top row under Step 1 above, segment 806d is subtracted from segment 806a using Rule (2). The application of Rule (2) results in a run-length segment that contains no pixels, i.e., a range of 0. Intuitively, it can be seen that segment 806d is the same as segment 806a and that subtraction of the two should result in 0, as it does under Rule (2). Next, segment 806d is subtracted from segment 806b, using Rule (1). Intuitively, because the pixel range described by segment 806d does not overlap the range described by segment 806b, subtracting 806d from 806b should have no effect. Indeed, application of rule (1) has no effect on segment 806b.

Now, however, segment 806e must be subtracted from segment 806b. As can be seen, segment 806e overlaps segment 806b entirely. Therefore, application of rule (2), which is the appropriate rule for these two segments, results in 0. In other words, if region 802 is a target mass, and region 808 defines an expected thermal dose, then the dose represented by segment 806e will completely ablate the portion of the target mass represented by segment 806b. The same result occurs for the subtraction of segments 806e and 806d from segment 806c. The subtraction then continues for each row as illustrated by steps 2, 3, and 4 above. The resulting region is illustrated in FIG. 10C, which actually consists of four separate regions 812, 814, 816, and 818. These regions 812, 814, 816, and 818 are represented by data structure 820 and associated linked lists of run-length segments 806. It is these untreated regions 812, 814, 816, and 818 that will require the treatment plan to be updated by returning to the planning stage in step 720.

An alternative method for updating the treatment plan involves eliminating steps 710 and 712 in FIG. 9. Instead, the system accepts a target mass 914 to be treated and follows the steps illustrated in FIG. 11. First, in step 902, it is determined if there is an untreated region 914. If there is, then treatment site 916 is selected in step 904, and thermal dose properties are estimated so as to deliver the appropriate thermal dose the treatment site 916. Then, in step 906, the thermal dose is applied to treatment site 916 resulting in a treated region 918. In step 908, the size of treated region is calculated and stored as a linked-list so that in step 910 the treated region can be subtracted from the untreated region 920 in order to determine the remaining untreated region. The process then reverts to step 902, and a new treatment site is selected. Once the entire target mass 914 is treated, there will not be any untreated regions and the process will exit.

Referring back to FIG. 9, after the treatment is complete, it is determined in step 726 whether to restart a treatment or to exit. Additionally, if there is insufficient information or a fatal error occurs in any of steps 704-716, the process will automatically go to step 726, where it can be decide to proceed with a new treatment plan or to exit altogether.

Thus, on a most detailed and narrow aspect, the invention provides methods for constructing a three-dimensional thermal dose treatment plan, including:

    • (a) receiving diagnostic images;
    • (b) defining a target region;
    • (c) defining a treatment line that cuts through the target mass perpendicular to the surface of the heat applying element and extending from the nearest point within the target mass to the farthest;
    • (d) determining the maximal power required for a large and small focal spots at the furthest point;
    • (e) determining if the corresponding maximal temperatures for the large and small focal spots exceed the allowed limits;
    • (f) scaling the maximal power down until the maximal temperature is within the allowable limits, thus providing a scaled maximal power;
    • (g) using the scaled maximal power from the previous step to find maximal powers for any intermediate focal spot sizes;
    • (h) using the scaled maximal power to find the maximal powers for each focal spot size at the nearest point within the target mass along the treatment line;
    • (i) assuming the thermal dose is focused at a first point between the nearest point and farthest point, but preferably close to the nearest point;
    • (j) using the scaled maximal power to find maximal temperatures and a lesion size, corresponding to an appropriate focal spot size and required maximal power at the first point;
    • (k) determining if the maximal temperature at the first point is greater than the allowable limits;
    • (l) scaling down the maximal power at the first point so that the maximal temperature will not exceed the allowed limits;
    • (m) finding the corresponding lesion size at the first point;
    • (n) placing a first treatment slice using an overlap criterion with respect to a boundary defined by the nearest point in the target mass;
    • (o) placing an auxiliary treatment slice on top of the first treatment using an inter-layer overlap criterion; and
    • (p) replacing the nearest point with the first point and returning to step (h) to repeat the process until the target region is covered from the nearest point to the farthest point along the treatment line.

Although many aspects and features of the present invention have been described and illustrated in the above description and drawings of the preferred embodiments, it is understood that numerous changes and modifications can be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the invention concepts disclosed herein.

The invention, therefore, is not to be restricted, except by the following claims and their equivalents.

Citations de brevets
Brevet cité Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US279570921 déc. 195311 juin 1957Bendix Aviat CorpElectroplated ceramic rings
US31420354 févr. 196021 juil. 1964Harris Transducer CorpRing-shaped transducer
US394215012 août 19742 mars 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyCorrection of spatial non-uniformities in sonar, radar, and holographic acoustic imaging systems
US397447528 août 197410 août 1976Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.Method of and apparatus for focusing ultrasonic waves in a focal line
US39926934 déc. 197216 nov. 1976The Bendix CorporationUnderwater transducer and projector therefor
US40004933 nov. 197528 déc. 1976Eastman Kodak CompanyAcoustooptic scanner apparatus and method
US407456429 déc. 197521 févr. 1978Varian Associates, Inc.Reconstruction system and method for ultrasonic imaging
US42066536 oct. 197810 juin 1980E M I LimitedUltrasonic apparatus
US43399524 avr. 198020 juil. 1982Ontario Cancer InstituteCylindrical transducer ultrasonic scanner
US4441486 *27 oct. 198110 avr. 1984Board Of Trustees Of Leland Stanford Jr. UniversityHyperthermia system
US44545973 mai 198212 juin 1984The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavyConformal array compensating beamformer
US447808313 juin 198323 oct. 1984Siemens AktiengesellschaftPlane reconstruction ultrasound tomography device
US450515621 juin 198319 mars 1985Sound Products Company L.P.Method and apparatus for switching multi-element transducer arrays
US452616826 avr. 19822 juil. 1985Siemens AktiengesellschaftApparatus for destroying calculi in body cavities
US453707412 sept. 198327 août 1985Technicare CorporationAnnular array ultrasonic transducers
US454953330 janv. 198429 oct. 1985University Of IllinoisApparatus and method for generating and directing ultrasound
US455492527 juin 198326 nov. 1985Picker International, Ltd.Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging method
US4586512 *27 mars 19856 mai 1986Thomson-CsfDevice for localized heating of biological tissues
US463696420 avr. 198313 janv. 1987Krautkramer-Branson, Inc.Method and system for generating and adjusting a predetermined quantity of mutually independent direct current voltages
US466222221 déc. 19845 mai 1987Johnson Steven AApparatus and method for acoustic imaging using inverse scattering techniques
US48585975 oct. 198822 août 1989Richard Wolf GmbhPiezoelectric transducer for the destruction of concretions within an animal body
US48650428 août 198612 sept. 1989Hitachi, Ltd.Ultrasonic irradiation system
US488874614 sept. 198819 déc. 1989Richard Wolf GmbhFocussing ultrasound transducer
US488912211 avr. 198826 déc. 1989Aberdeen UniversityDivergent ultrasound arrays
US489328427 mai 19889 janv. 1990General Electric CompanyCalibration of phased array ultrasound probe
US489362421 juin 198816 janv. 1990Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyDiffuse focus ultrasound hyperthermia system
US493776724 déc. 198726 juin 1990Hewlett-Packard CompanyMethod and apparatus for adjusting the intensity profile of an ultrasound beam
US520922120 sept. 199111 mai 1993Richard Wolf GmbhUltrasonic treatment of pathological tissue
US521116019 mars 199118 mai 1993Interpore Orthopaedics, Inc.Ultrasonic orthopedic treatment head and body-mounting means therefor
US524793519 mars 199228 sept. 1993General Electric CompanyMagnetic resonance guided focussed ultrasound surgery
US52714001 avr. 199221 déc. 1993General Electric CompanyTracking system to monitor the position and orientation of a device using magnetic resonance detection of a sample contained within the device
US52751656 nov. 19924 janv. 1994General Electric CompanyMagnetic resonance guided ultrasound therapy system with inclined track to move transducers in a small vertical space
US529189029 août 19918 mars 1994General Electric CompanyMagnetic resonance surgery using heat waves produced with focussed ultrasound
US530781226 mars 19933 mai 1994General Electric CompanyHeat surgery system monitored by real-time magnetic resonance profiling
US530781621 août 19923 mai 1994Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaThrombus resolving treatment apparatus
US53180251 avr. 19927 juin 1994General Electric CompanyTracking system to monitor the position and orientation of a device using multiplexed magnetic resonance detection
US53237798 déc. 199328 juin 1994General Electric CompanyHeat surgery system monitored by real-time magnetic resonance temperature profiling
US53278848 déc. 199312 juil. 1994General Electric CompanyHeat surgery system monitored by real-time magnetic resonance temperature profiling
US532993012 oct. 199319 juil. 1994General Electric CompanyPhased array sector scanner with multiplexed acoustic transducer elements
US536803124 sept. 199329 nov. 1994General Electric CompanyMagnetic resonance surgery using heat waves produced with a laser fiber
US53680329 nov. 199329 nov. 1994General Electric CompanyManually positioned focussed energy system guided by medical imaging
US537964219 juil. 199310 janv. 1995Diasonics Ultrasound, Inc.Method and apparatus for performing imaging
US539114027 déc. 199321 févr. 1995Siemens AktiengesellschaftTherapy apparatus for locating and treating a zone in the body of a life form with acoustic waves
US541355021 juil. 19939 mai 1995Pti, Inc.Ultrasound therapy system with automatic dose control
US5435304 *24 mars 199325 juil. 1995Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod and apparatus for therapeutic treatment with focussed acoustic waves switchable between a locating mode and a therapy mode
US543531225 avr. 199425 juil. 1995Spivey; Brett A.Acoustic imaging device
US544306826 sept. 199422 août 1995General Electric CompanyMechanical positioner for magnetic resonance guided ultrasound therapy
US547407122 févr. 199412 déc. 1995Technomed Medical SystemsTherapeutic endo-rectal probe and apparatus constituting an application thereof for destroying cancer tissue, in particular of the prostate, and preferably in combination with an imaging endo-cavitary-probe
US5485839 *2 sept. 199423 janv. 1996Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod and apparatus for ultrasonic wave medical treatment using computed tomography
US549084026 sept. 199413 févr. 1996General Electric CompanyTargeted thermal release of drug-polymer conjugates
US5501655 *15 juil. 199426 mars 1996Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus and method for acoustic heat generation and hyperthermia
US550779021 mars 199416 avr. 1996Weiss; William V.Method of non-invasive reduction of human site-specific subcutaneous fat tissue deposits by accelerated lipolysis metabolism
US55201882 nov. 199428 mai 1996Focus Surgery Inc.Annular array transducer
US552681417 mai 199518 juin 1996General Electric CompanyAutomatically positioned focussed energy system guided by medical imaging
US5526815 *10 déc. 199318 juin 1996Siemens AktiengesellschatTherapy apparatus for locating and treating a zone located in the body of a life form with acoustic waves
US554963817 mai 199427 août 1996Burdette; Everette C.Ultrasound device for use in a thermotherapy apparatus
US555361814 mars 199410 sept. 1996Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod and apparatus for ultrasound medical treatment
US557349728 févr. 199512 nov. 1996Technomed Medical Systems And Institut NationalHigh-intensity ultrasound therapy method and apparatus with controlled cavitation effect and reduced side lobes
US55825781 août 199510 déc. 1996Duke UniversityMethod for the comminution of concretions
US55906539 mars 19947 janv. 1997Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasonic wave medical treatment apparatus suitable for use under guidance of magnetic resonance imaging
US55906576 nov. 19957 janv. 1997The Regents Of The University Of MichiganPhased array ultrasound system and method for cardiac ablation
US560152621 déc. 199211 févr. 1997Technomed Medical SystemsUltrasound therapy apparatus delivering ultrasound waves having thermal and cavitation effects
US56051546 juin 199525 févr. 1997Duke UniversityTwo-dimensional phase correction using a deformable ultrasonic transducer array
US56173718 févr. 19951 avr. 1997Diagnostic/Retrieval Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for accurately determing the location of signal transducers in a passive sonar or other transducer array system
US56178576 juin 19958 avr. 1997Image Guided Technologies, Inc.Imaging system having interactive medical instruments and methods
US564317928 déc. 19941 juil. 1997Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaMethod and apparatus for ultrasonic medical treatment with optimum ultrasonic irradiation control
US566217029 févr. 19962 sept. 1997Baker Hughes IncorporatedMethod of drilling and completing wells
US566505419 janv. 19959 sept. 1997Technomed Medical Systems S.A.Control method for hyperthermia treatment apparatus using ultrasound
US56669547 juin 199516 sept. 1997Technomed Medical Systems Inserm-Institut National De La Sante Et De La Recherche MedicaleTherapeutic endo-rectal probe, and apparatus constituting an application thereof for destroying cancer tissue, in particular of the prostate, and preferably in combination with an imaging endo-cavitary-probe
US567667324 avr. 199614 oct. 1997Visualization Technology, Inc.Position tracking and imaging system with error detection for use in medical applications
US568772920 juin 199518 nov. 1997Siemens AktiengesellschaftSource of therapeutic acoustic waves introducible into the body of a patient
US569493614 sept. 19959 déc. 1997Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasonic apparatus for thermotherapy with variable frequency for suppressing cavitation
US571130016 août 199527 janv. 1998General Electric CompanyReal time in vivo measurement of temperature changes with NMR imaging
US572241123 juil. 19963 mars 1998Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasound medical treatment apparatus with reduction of noise due to treatment ultrasound irradiation at ultrasound imaging device
US57396255 mai 199514 avr. 1998The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majesty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern IslandSegmented ring transducers
US57438632 oct. 199628 avr. 1998Technomed Medical Systems And Institut NationalHigh-intensity ultrasound therapy method and apparatus with controlled cavitation effect and reduced side lobes
US575251521 août 199619 mai 1998Brigham & Women's HospitalMethods and apparatus for image-guided ultrasound delivery of compounds through the blood-brain barrier
US575916220 déc. 19962 juin 1998Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod and apparatus for ultrasound tissue therapy
US576261615 mars 19969 juin 1998Exogen, Inc.Apparatus for ultrasonic treatment of sites corresponding to the torso
US576979025 oct. 199623 juin 1998General Electric CompanyFocused ultrasound surgery system guided by ultrasound imaging
US58100083 déc. 199622 sept. 1998Isg Technologies Inc.Apparatus and method for visualizing ultrasonic images
US581703620 févr. 19976 oct. 1998General Electric CompanySystem and method for treatment of a prostate with a phase fresnel probe
US5823962 *2 sept. 199720 oct. 1998Siemens AktiengesellschaftUltrasound transducer for diagnostic and therapeutic use
US587384517 mars 199723 févr. 1999General Electric CompanyUltrasound transducer with focused ultrasound refraction plate
US58974958 oct. 199627 avr. 1999Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasonic wave medical treatment apparatus suitable for use under guidance of magnetic resonance imaging
US59386009 déc. 199617 août 1999U.S. Philips CorporationMethod and device for heating by means of ultrasound
US593860819 févr. 199617 août 1999Siemens AktiengesellschaftTherapy apparatus for carrying out treatment with focused ultrasound
US594790013 avr. 19987 sept. 1999General Electric CompanyDynamic scan plane tracking using MR position monitoring
US598488129 mars 199616 nov. 1999Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasound therapeutic apparatus using a therapeutic ultrasonic wave source and an ultrasonic probe
US60042697 juin 199521 déc. 1999Boston Scientific CorporationCatheters for imaging, sensing electrical potentials, and ablating tissue
US602363617 juin 19988 févr. 2000Siemens AktiengesellschaftMagnetic resonance apparatus and method for determining the location of a positionable object in a subject
US60425564 sept. 199828 mars 2000University Of WashingtonMethod for determining phase advancement of transducer elements in high intensity focused ultrasound
US607123927 oct. 19976 juin 2000Cribbs; Robert W.Method and apparatus for lipolytic therapy using ultrasound energy
US611355829 sept. 19975 sept. 2000Angiosonics Inc.Pulsed mode lysis method
US611355929 déc. 19975 sept. 2000Klopotek; Peter J.Method and apparatus for therapeutic treatment of skin with ultrasound
US612852222 mai 19983 oct. 2000Transurgical, Inc.MRI-guided therapeutic unit and methods
US612895811 sept. 199710 oct. 2000The Regents Of The University Of MichiganPhased array system architecture
US619365931 mars 199927 févr. 2001Acuson CorporationMedical ultrasonic diagnostic imaging method and apparatus
US624291527 août 19995 juin 2001General Electric CompanyField-frequency lock system for magnetic resonance system
US624689624 nov. 199812 juin 2001General Electric CompanyMRI guided ablation system
US62632306 nov. 199817 juil. 2001Lucent Medical Systems, Inc.System and method to determine the location and orientation of an indwelling medical device
US626773418 juin 199931 juil. 2001Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasound therapeutic apparatus
US628923325 nov. 199811 sept. 2001General Electric CompanyHigh speed tracking of interventional devices using an MRI system
US630935522 déc. 199830 oct. 2001The Regents Of The University Of MichiganMethod and assembly for performing ultrasound surgery using cavitation
US631761929 juil. 199913 nov. 2001U.S. Philips CorporationApparatus, methods, and devices for magnetic resonance imaging controlled by the position of a moveable RF coil
US632252718 oct. 199927 nov. 2001Exogen, Inc.Apparatus for ultrasonic bone treatment
US633484618 juin 19991 janv. 2002Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaUltrasound therapeutic apparatus
US63741329 août 200016 avr. 2002Transurgical, Inc.MRI-guided therapeutic unit and methods
US63923305 juin 200021 mai 2002Pegasus Technologies Ltd.Cylindrical ultrasound receivers and transceivers formed from piezoelectric film
US63970948 janv. 199928 mai 2002Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.MR method utilizing microcoils situated in the examination zone
US641321622 déc. 19992 juil. 2002The Regents Of The University Of MichiganMethod and assembly for performing ultrasound surgery using cavitation
US641964821 avr. 200016 juil. 2002Insightec-Txsonics Ltd.Systems and methods for reducing secondary hot spots in a phased array focused ultrasound system
US642459725 nov. 199923 juil. 2002Commissariat A L'energie AtomiqueMultielements ultrasonic contact transducer
US642586717 sept. 199930 juil. 2002University Of WashingtonNoise-free real time ultrasonic imaging of a treatment site undergoing high intensity focused ultrasound therapy
US642853214 déc. 19996 août 2002The General Hospital CorporationSelective tissue targeting by difference frequency of two wavelengths
US64613142 févr. 20008 oct. 2002Transurgical, Inc.Intrabody hifu applicator
US64751501 déc. 20005 nov. 2002The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaSystem and method for ultrasonic tomography
US647873911 mai 200112 nov. 2002The Procter & Gamble CompanyUltrasonic breast examination system
US650615428 nov. 200014 janv. 2003Insightec-Txsonics, Ltd.Systems and methods for controlling a phased array focused ultrasound system
US650617127 juil. 200014 janv. 2003Insightec-Txsonics, LtdSystem and methods for controlling distribution of acoustic energy around a focal point using a focused ultrasound system
US651142822 oct. 199928 janv. 2003Hitachi, Ltd.Ultrasonic medical treating device
US652214214 déc. 200118 févr. 2003Insightec-Txsonics Ltd.MRI-guided temperature mapping of tissue undergoing thermal treatment
US654327221 avr. 20008 avr. 2003Insightec-Txsonics Ltd.Systems and methods for testing and calibrating a focused ultrasound transducer array
US655482621 avr. 200029 avr. 2003Txsonics-LtdElectro-dynamic phased array lens for controlling acoustic wave propagation
US655964430 mai 20016 mai 2003Insightec - Txsonics Ltd.MRI-based temperature mapping with error compensation
US65668788 sept. 200020 mai 2003Hitachi Medical CorporationMagnetic resonance imaging device and method therefor
US658238131 juil. 200024 juin 2003Txsonics Ltd.Mechanical positioner for MRI guided ultrasound therapy system
US659925611 sept. 200029 juil. 2003Transurgical, Inc.Occlusion of tubular anatomical structures by energy application
US661298815 déc. 20002 sept. 2003Brigham And Women's Hospital, Inc.Ultrasound therapy
US661300421 avr. 20002 sept. 2003Insightec-Txsonics, Ltd.Systems and methods for creating longer necrosed volumes using a phased array focused ultrasound system
US661300528 nov. 20002 sept. 2003Insightec-Txsonics, Ltd.Systems and methods for steering a focused ultrasound array
US661860824 oct. 20009 sept. 2003Txsonics, Ltd.Thermal imaging of fat and muscle using a simultaneous phase and magnitude double echo sequence
US661862028 nov. 20009 sept. 2003Txsonics Ltd.Apparatus for controlling thermal dosing in an thermal treatment system
US662685427 déc. 200030 sept. 2003Insightec - Txsonics Ltd.Systems and methods for ultrasound assisted lipolysis
US662685522 nov. 200030 sept. 2003Therus CorpoationControlled high efficiency lesion formation using high intensity ultrasound
US66299298 nov. 20027 oct. 2003Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Method and apparatus for automatically setting the transmit aperture and apodization of an ultrasound transducer array
US664516211 juin 200111 nov. 2003Insightec - Txsonics Ltd.Systems and methods for ultrasound assisted lipolysis
US665246114 avr. 200025 nov. 2003F.R.A.Y Project Ltd.Ultrasound device for three-dimensional imaging of internal structure of a body part
US666683328 nov. 200023 déc. 2003Insightec-Txsonics LtdSystems and methods for focussing an acoustic energy beam transmitted through non-uniform tissue medium
US667660126 mai 200013 janv. 2004Technomed Medical Systems, S.A.Apparatus and method for location and treatment using ultrasound
US667985529 mai 200120 janv. 2004Gerald HornMethod and apparatus for the correction of presbyopia using high intensity focused ultrasound
US67059948 juil. 200216 mars 2004Insightec - Image Guided Treatment LtdTissue inhomogeneity correction in ultrasound imaging
US671969422 déc. 200013 avr. 2004Therus CorporationUltrasound transducers for imaging and therapy
US673345027 juil. 200011 mai 2004Texas Systems, Board Of RegentsTherapeutic methods and apparatus for use of sonication to enhance perfusion of tissue
US673546119 juin 200111 mai 2004Insightec-Txsonics LtdFocused ultrasound system with MRI synchronization
US676169119 juil. 200113 juil. 2004Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Image forming method used in ultrasonic diagnosis, ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus, signal processing apparatus, and recording medium for recording signal processing program
US677003126 août 20023 août 2004Brigham And Women's Hospital, Inc.Ultrasound therapy
US67700398 nov. 20023 août 2004Duke UniversityMethod to reduce tissue injury in shock wave lithotripsy
US67886194 sept. 20027 sept. 2004Shell Oil CompanyConcentrating seismic energy in a selected target point in an underground formation
US67901803 déc. 200114 sept. 2004Insightec-Txsonics Ltd.Apparatus, systems, and methods for measuring power output of an ultrasound transducer
US682451611 mars 200330 nov. 2004Medsci Technologies, Inc.System for examining, mapping, diagnosing, and treating diseases of the prostate
US69515409 mai 20034 oct. 2005Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaUltrasound imaging system and method using non-linear post-beamforming filter
US696160619 oct. 20011 nov. 2005Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Multimodality medical imaging system and method with separable detector devices
US700137912 janv. 200421 févr. 2006Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Method and system for heating solid tissue
US707782021 oct. 200218 juil. 2006Advanced Medical Optics, Inc.Enhanced microburst ultrasonic power delivery system and method
US70942055 avr. 200222 août 2006Alfred E. Mann Institute For Biomedical Engineering At The University Of Southern CaliforniaHigh-resolution 3D ultrasonic transmission imaging
US712871125 mars 200231 oct. 2006Insightec, Ltd.Positioning systems and methods for guided ultrasound therapy systems
US715527128 avr. 200326 déc. 2006Johns Hopkins University School Of MedicineSystem and method for magnetic-resonance-guided electrophysiologic and ablation procedures
US717559629 oct. 200113 févr. 2007Insightec-Txsonics LtdSystem and method for sensing and locating disturbances in an energy path of a focused ultrasound system
US71755999 avr. 200413 févr. 2007Brigham And Women's Hospital, Inc.Shear mode diagnostic ultrasound
US726459227 juin 20034 sept. 2007Alfred E. Mann Institute For Biomedical Engineering At The University Of Southern CaliforniaScanning devices for three-dimensional ultrasound mammography
US72645974 oct. 20024 sept. 2007Institut National De La Sante Et De LacrecherchedmedicaleDevice and method for producing high-pressure ultrasonic pulses
US726765016 déc. 200211 sept. 2007Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Ultrasound directed guiding catheter system and method
US73445099 avr. 200418 mars 2008Kullervo HynynenShear mode therapeutic ultrasound
US73779002 juin 200327 mai 2008Insightec - Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Endo-cavity focused ultrasound transducer
US745235722 oct. 200418 nov. 2008Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc.System and method for planning treatment of tissue
US75058059 juil. 200417 mars 2009Foundation For Biomedical Research And InnovationSelf-referencing/body motion tracking non-invasive internal temperature distribution measurement method and apparatus using magnetic resonance tomographic imaging technique
US750580827 avr. 200517 mars 2009Sunnybrook Health Sciences CentreCatheter tracking with phase information
US751053616 déc. 200431 mars 2009University Of WashingtonUltrasound guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of nerves
US751150111 mai 200731 mars 2009General Electric CompanySystems and apparatus for monitoring internal temperature of a gradient coil
US753579429 janv. 200719 mai 2009Insightec, Ltd.Transducer surface mapping
US75532842 févr. 200530 juin 2009Vaitekunas Jeffrey JFocused ultrasound for pain reduction
US760316228 janv. 200513 oct. 2009Siemens AktiengesellschaftImaging tomography apparatus with fluid-containing chambers forming out-of-balance compensating weights for a rotating part
US761146222 mai 20033 nov. 2009Insightec-Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Acoustic beam forming in phased arrays including large numbers of transducer elements
US76524101 août 200626 janv. 2010Insightec LtdUltrasound transducer with non-uniform elements
US769978011 août 200420 avr. 2010Insightec—Image-Guided Treatment Ltd.Focused ultrasound system with adaptive anatomical aperture shaping
US2001003192222 déc. 200018 oct. 2001Therus CorporationUltrasound transducers for imaging and therapy
US2002003577911 juin 200128 mars 2002Robert KriegMethod for three-dimensionally correcting distortions and magnetic resonance apparatus for implementing the method
US2002008258911 juin 200127 juin 2002Insightec - Image Guided Treatement Ltd.Systems and methods for ultrasound assisted lipolysis
US2002018822911 mars 200212 déc. 2002Ryaby John P.Method and apparatus for cartilage growth stimulation
US2003000443927 août 20022 janv. 2003Transurgical, Inc.Intrabody HIFU applicator
US2003006082021 oct. 200227 mars 2003Maguire Mark A.Tissue ablation device assembly and method for electrically isolating a pulmonary vein ostium from an atrial wall
US2003018737127 mars 20022 oct. 2003Insightec-Txsonics Ltd.Systems and methods for enhanced focused ultrasound ablation using microbubbles
US200400302519 mai 200312 févr. 2004Ebbini Emad S.Ultrasound imaging system and method using non-linear post-beamforming filter
US2004006818622 janv. 20028 avr. 2004Kazunari IshidaUltrasonic therapeutic probe and ultrasonic device
US2004012232323 déc. 200224 juin 2004Insightec-Txsonics LtdTissue aberration corrections in ultrasound therapy
US2004014791912 janv. 200429 juil. 2004Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Method and system for heating solid tissue
US200402101349 avr. 200421 oct. 2004Kullervo HynynenShear mode therapeutic ultrasound
US2004023625322 mai 200325 nov. 2004Insightec-Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Acoustic beam forming in phased arrays including large numbers of transducer elements
US2004026712616 juin 200430 déc. 2004Aloka Co., Ltd.Ultrasound diagnosis apparatus
US2005003320128 juil. 200410 févr. 2005Olympus CorporationUltrasonic surgical system
US2005009654217 févr. 20045 mai 2005Lee WengUltrasound transducers for imaging and therapy
US200501313018 déc. 200416 juin 2005Michael PeszynskiUltrasound probe receptacle
US2005020344425 févr. 200515 sept. 2005Compex Medical S.A.Ultrasound therapeutic device
US2005024012616 déc. 200427 oct. 2005University Of WashingtonUltrasound guided high intensity focused ultrasound treatment of nerves
US2005025104629 mars 200510 nov. 2005Yuko YamamotoProbe array producing method
US2006005266122 janv. 20049 mars 2006Ramot At Tel Aviv University Ltd.Minimally invasive control surgical system with feedback
US2006005270118 août 20059 mars 2006University Of WashingtonTreatment of unwanted tissue by the selective destruction of vasculature providing nutrients to the tissue
US2006005270619 août 20059 mars 2006Kullervo HynynenPhased array ultrasound for cardiac ablation
US2006005867826 août 200416 mars 2006Insightec - Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Focused ultrasound system for surrounding a body tissue mass
US2006010630024 oct. 200518 mai 2006Universiteit Utrecht Holding B.V.Selective MR imaging of magnetic susceptibility deviations
US200601733854 juin 20043 août 2006Lars LidgrenUltrasound probe having a central opening
US200601840692 févr. 200517 août 2006Vaitekunas Jeffrey JFocused ultrasound for pain reduction
US200602061059 mars 200514 sept. 2006Rajiv ChopraTreatment of diseased tissue using controlled ultrasonic heating
US200602295949 déc. 200512 oct. 2006Medtronic, Inc.Method for guiding a medical device
US2007001603921 juin 200518 janv. 2007Insightec-Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Controlled, non-linear focused ultrasound treatment
US200700551409 juil. 20048 mars 2007Kagayaki KurodaSelf-referencing/body motion tracking non-invasive internal temperature distribution measurement method and apparatus using magnetic resonance tomographic imaging technique
US2007006689713 juil. 200622 mars 2007Sekins K MSystems and methods for performing acoustic hemostasis of deep bleeding trauma in limbs
US2007007313521 févr. 200629 mars 2007Warren LeeIntegrated ultrasound imaging and ablation probe
US2007009823214 sept. 20063 mai 2007University Of WashingtonUsing optical scattering to measure properties of ultrasound contrast agent shells
US2007016778122 nov. 200619 juil. 2007Insightec Ltd.Hierarchical Switching in Ultra-High Density Ultrasound Array
US2007019791817 avr. 200723 août 2007Insightec - Image Guided Treatment Ltd.Endo-cavity focused ultrasound transducer
US200702194708 mars 200720 sept. 2007Talish Roger JSystem and method for providing therapeutic treatment using a combination of ultrasound, electro-stimulation and vibrational stimulation
US2008002734228 juil. 200631 janv. 2008Mattias RouwPrioritized Multicomplexor Sensing Circuit
US2008003109029 janv. 20077 févr. 2008Insightec, LtdTransducer surface mapping
US2008003327815 févr. 20077 févr. 2008Insightec Ltd.System and method for tracking medical device using magnetic resonance detection
US2008008202628 sept. 20063 avr. 2008Rita SchmidtFocused ultrasound system with far field tail suppression
US2008010890027 sept. 20078 mai 2008Chih-Kung LeeUltrasound transducer apparatus
US2008018307718 oct. 200731 juil. 2008Siemens Corporate Research, Inc.High intensity focused ultrasound path determination
US2008022808122 mars 200518 sept. 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Ultrasonic Intracavity Probe For 3D Imaging
US200803125627 déc. 200618 déc. 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Method and Apparatus for Guidance and Application of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Control of Bleeding Due to Severed Limbs
US200900886231 oct. 20072 avr. 2009Insightec, Ltd.Motion compensated image-guided focused ultrasound therapy system
US2009009645010 oct. 200816 avr. 2009Joerg RolandBo field drift correction in a temperature map generated by magnetic resonance tomography
US2010005696215 sept. 20094 mars 2010Kobi VortmanAcoustic Beam Forming in Phased Arrays Including Large Numbers of Transducer Elements
CN1257414A22 mai 199821 juin 2000外科器械股份有限公司MRI-guided therapeutic unit and method
DE4345308C212 juil. 19931 févr. 2001Fukuda Denshi KkMedical ultrasonic diagnosis system
DE10102317A119 janv. 200114 août 2002Hmt AgVerfahren und Vorrichtung zur Beaufschlagung des Körpers eines Lebeswesens mit Druckwellen
EP0031614A19 déc. 19808 juil. 1981North American Philips CorporationCurved array of sequenced ultrasound transducers
EP0558029B126 févr. 19934 déc. 2002Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaApparatus for ultrasonic wave medical treatment using computed tomography
EP0875203A22 avr. 19984 nov. 1998SonoSight, Inc.Ultrasonic array transducer for a hand held diagnostic instrument
EP1132054A122 oct. 199912 sept. 2001Hitachi Medical CorporationUltrasonic medical treating device
EP1582886B12 avr. 200415 août 2012Universität ZürichMagnetic resonance apparatus with magnetic field detectors
EP1591073A429 janv. 200417 nov. 2010Hitachi Medical CorpUltrasonic probe and ultrasonic device
EP1774920A418 mars 20055 janv. 2011Hiroshi FuruhataUltrasonic brain infarction treating device
EP1790384A120 nov. 200630 mai 2007Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.Contrast agent augmented ultrasound therapy system with ultrasound imaging guidance for thrombus treatment
FR2806611A1 Titre non disponible
WO2004093686A112 avr. 20044 nov. 2004The Brigham & Women's Hospital, Inc.Shear mode diagnostic ultrasound
WO2006025001A125 août 20059 mars 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Magnetic resonance marker based position and orientation probe
WO2006087649A16 févr. 200624 août 2006Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Method and apparatus for the visualization of the focus generated using focused ultrasound
WO2006119572A112 mai 200616 nov. 2006Compumedics Medical Innovation Pty LtdUltrasound diagnosis and treatment apparatus
WO2007073551A119 déc. 200628 juin 2007Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.Device and method for determining the location of a vascular opening prior to application of hifu energy to seal the opening
WO2007093998A115 févr. 200723 août 2007Syneron Medical Ltd.Method and apparatus for treatment of adipose tissue
WO2008039449A125 sept. 20073 avr. 2008Siemens Medical Solutions Usa, Inc.Automated contrast agent augmented ultrasound therapy for thrombus treatment
WO2008050278A119 oct. 20072 mai 2008Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.Symmetric and preferentially steered random arrays for ultrasound therapy
WO2008119054A127 mars 20082 oct. 2008Abqmr, Inc.System and method for detecting labeled entities using microcoil magnetic mri
WO2009055587A123 oct. 200830 avr. 2009Abqmr, Inc.Microcoil magnetic resonance detectors
Citations hors brevets
Référence
1"Abstract" Focus Surgery, http://www.focus-surgery.com/Sanghvi.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
2"How does HIFU create a lesion?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/2d-hifu-lesion.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
3"How does HIFU create a lesion?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/2d—hifu—lesion.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
4"How is Ablatherm treatment performed?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/3c-treatment-treat-description.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
5"How is Ablatherm treatment performed?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/3c—treatment—treat-description.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
6"Prostate Cancer Phase I Clinical Trials Using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)," Focus Surgery, http://www.focus-surgery.com/PCT%20Treatment%20with%20HIFU.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
7"What are the physical principles?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/2c-hifu-physical.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
8"What are the physical principles?" http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu/2c—hifu—physical.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
9"What is HIFU? HIFU: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound," http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu2a-hifu-overview.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
10"What is HIFU? HIFU: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound," http://www.edap-hifu.com/eng/physicians/hifu2a—hifu—overview.htm, accessed Jan. 3, 2003.
11Botros et al., "A hybrid computational model for ultrasound phased-array heating in presence of strongly scattering obstacles," IEEE Trans. On Biomed. Eng., vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 1039-1050 (Nov. 1997).
12Charles A. Cain, et al., "Concentric-Ring and Sector-Vortex Phased-Array Applicators for Ultrasound Hyperthermia", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, MTT-34, pp. 542-551, 1986.
13Chen et al., "MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging: Comparison of Encoding Gradients."
14Cline et al., "MR Temperature mapping of focused ultrasound surgery," Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 628-636 (1994).
15Cline et al., "Simultaneous magnetic resonance phase and magnitude temperature maps in muscle," Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 309-315 (Mar. 1996).
16CN Notice of Allowance and Issuance with English translation, dated Jan. 30, 2007 for related CN application serial No. 01819665.9, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (4 pages).
17CN Office Action with English translation, dated Mar. 24, 2006 for related CN application serial No. 01819665.9, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (10 pages).
18CN Response to Office Action with English translation, dated Aug. 8, 2006 for related CN application serial No. 01819665.9, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (12 pages).
19Daum et al., "Design and evaluation of a feedback based phased array system for ultrasound surgery," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Control, vol. 45, No. 2, pp. 431-434 (1998).
20de Senneville et al., "Real-time adaptive methods for treatment of mobile organs by MRI-controlled high-intensity focussed Ultrasound," Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 57:319-330 (2007).
21Decision from oral proceedings of Feb. 20, 2008 for European Application No. 01 998 377.4.
22EP Amendment and Response to Office Action, dated Aug. 21, 2007 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (5 pages).
23EP Amendment and Response to Office Action, dated Jan. 8, 2007 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (8 pages).
24EP Amendment and Response to Office Action, dated Mar. 27, 2007 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (10 pages).
25EP Amendment and Response to Office Action, dated May 19, 2006 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (12 pages).
26EP Office Action, dated Apr. 19, 2007 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (4 pages).
27EP Office Action, dated Jan. 23, 2007 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (3 pages).
28EP Office Action, dated Jun. 29, 2006 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (3 pages).
29EP Office Action, dated Nov. 21, 2005 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (2 pages).
30EP Supplemental Amendment and Response to Office Action, dated May 22, 2006 for related EP application serial No. 01998377.4, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (2 pages).
31Exablate 2000 Specification, InSightec, Ltd. (2 pages).
32FDA Approves Exablate 2000 as Non-invasive surgery for Fibroids, Oct. 22, 2004.
33Frederic C. Vimeux MS. et al., "Real-Time Control of Focused Ultrasound Heating Based on Rapid MR Thermometry", Investigative Radiology, vol. 34, No. 3, 190-193, (c) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Inc.
34Harvey E. Cline, Ph.D., et al., "Focused US System for MR Imaging-Guide Tumor Ablation", Radiology vol. 194, No. 3, pp. 731-738, Mar. 1995.
35Herbert et al., "Energy-based adaptive focusing of waves: application to ultrasonic transcranial therapy," 8th Intl. Symp. On Therapeutic Ultrasound.
36Huber et al., "A New Noninvasive Approach in Breast Cancer Therapy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focussed Ultrasound Surgery," Cancer Research 61, 8441-8447 (Dec. 2001).
37International Preliminary Report on Patentability in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2004/001512, mailed Dec. 8, 2005.
38International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2004/001498, dated Aug. 31, 2004.
39International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2005/002273, mailed Dec. 20, 2005.
40International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2005/002413, mailed Nov. 22, 2005.
41International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2006/001641, mailed Sep. 25, 2006.
42International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2006/003300, mailed Feb. 14, 2008.
43International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2007/001079, mailed Dec. 10, 2007.
44International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2007/002134, mailed Dec. 13, 2007.
45International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2007/002140, mailed Dec. 29, 2008.
46International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2008/003069, mailed Apr. 27, 2009.
47Jolesz et al., "Integration of interventional MRI with computer-assisted surgery," J. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 12:69-77 (2001).
48JP Office Action with English translation, dated Apr. 17, 2007 for related JP application serial No. 2002-545773, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (5 pages).
49Kohler et al., "Volumetric HIFU Ablation guided by multiplane MRI thermometry," 8th Intl. Symp. On Therapeutic Ultrasound, edited by E.S. Ebbini, U. of Minn. (Sep. 2009).
50Kowalski et al., "Optimization of electromagnetic phased-arrays for hyperthermia via magnetic resonance temperature estimation," IEEE Trans. On Biomed. Eng., vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 1229-1241 (Nov. 2002).
51Kullervo Hynyen et al., "Principles of MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound", Chapter 25, pp. 237-243.
52Kullervo Hynynen et al., "Principles of MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound", Chapter 25, pp. 237-243.
53Maxwell et al., "Noninvasive thrombolysis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy-Histotripsy," Abstract, U.S. Natl. Lib. Of Med., NIH, Ultrasound Med. Biol. (Oct. 23, 2009).
54Maxwell et al., "Noninvasive thrombolysis using pulsed ultrasound cavitation therapy—Histotripsy," Abstract, U.S. Natl. Lib. Of Med., NIH, Ultrasound Med. Biol. (Oct. 23, 2009).
55McDannold et al., "Magnetic resonance acoustic radiation force imaging," Med. Phys. vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 3748-3758 (Aug. 2008).
56McDannold, et al., "Quality Assurance and System Stability of a Clinical MRI-guided focused ultrasound system: Four-year experience," Medical Physics, vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 4307-4313 (Oct. 2006).
57McGough, et al., "Direct Computation of Ultrasound Phased-Array Driving Signals from a Specified Temperature Distribution for Hyperthermia," IEEE Trans. On Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 825-835 (Aug. 1992).
58Medel et al., "Sonothrombolysis: An emerging modality for the management of stroke," Neurosurgery, vol. 65, No. 5, pp. 979-993.
59Minutes of oral proceedings before the Examining Division on Feb. 20, 2008 for European Application No. 01 998 377.4.
60Mougenot et al., "MR monitoring of the near-field HIFU heating," 8th Intl. Symp. On Therapeutic Ultrasound, edited by E.S. Ebbini, U. of Minn. (Sep. 2009).
61Nathan McDannold, et al., "MRI Evaluation of Thermal Ablation of Tumors and Focused Ultrasound", JMRI vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 91-100, Jan./Feb. 1998.
62Partial International Search Report and Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB2007/001079, dated Sep. 25, 2007.
63PCT International Preliminary Examination Report (IPER), form PCT/IPEA/416, dated Mar. 2003, for related International Application No. PCT/IL01/01084, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (5 pages).
64PCT International Search Report (ISR), form PCT/ISA/210 & 220, dated Mar. 26, 2002, for related International Application No. PCT/IL01/01084, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (7 pages).
65PCT Reply to Written Opinion, dated Nov. 28, 2002, for related International Application No. PCT/IL01/01084, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (7 pages).
66PCT Written Opinion, form PCT/IPEA/408, dated Aug. 28, 2002, for related International Application No. PCT/IL01/01084, Applicant Insightec-TxSonics, Ltd (4 pages).
67Todd Fjield, et al., "The Combined Concentric-Ring and Sector-Vortex Phased Array for MRI Guided Ultrasound Surgery", IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectriccs and Frequency Control, vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 1157-1167, Sep. 1997.
68Todd Fjield, et al., "The Combined Concentric-Ring and Sector-Vortex Phased Array for MRI Guided Ultrasound Surgery", IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 1157-1167, Sep. 1997.
69Vykhodtseva et al., "MRI detection of the thermal effects of focused ultrasound on the brain," Ultrasound in Med. & Biol., vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 871-880 (2000).
70Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IB03/05551, mailed Sep. 10, 2004.
71Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IL01/00340, mailed Feb. 24, 2003.
72Written Opinion in International Patent Application No. PCT/IL02/00477, mailed Feb. 25, 2003.
Référencé par
Brevet citant Date de dépôt Date de publication Déposant Titre
US8867811 *27 mai 201021 oct. 2014Koninklijke Philips N.V.MR imaging guided therapy
US897987115 mars 201317 mars 2015Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US92111571 déc. 201415 déc. 2015Monteris Medical CorporationProbe driver
US92717941 déc. 20141 mars 2016Monteris Medical CorporationMonitoring and noise masking of thermal therapy
US933303818 mars 201410 mai 2016Monteris Medical CorporationHyperthermia treatment and probe therefore
US93870421 juil. 201312 juil. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationHyperthermia treatment and probe therefor
US943338318 mars 20156 sept. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US948617018 mars 20158 nov. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US949212118 mars 201515 nov. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US950448418 mars 201529 nov. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US951090916 mars 20156 déc. 2016Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guide therapy of a tissue
US9687681 *9 janv. 200927 juin 2017Koninklijke Philips N.V.Therapy system with temperature control
US970034218 mars 201511 juil. 2017Monteris Medical CorporationImage-guided therapy of a tissue
US20100280356 *9 janv. 20094 nov. 2010Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Therapy system with temperature control
US20120070058 *27 mai 201022 mars 2012Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Mr imaging guided therapy
US20150141874 *18 nov. 201321 mai 2015Kitchener Clark WilsonMulti-beam Ultrasound Device
Classifications
Classification aux États-Unis606/27, 607/115, 600/437, 604/22, 607/96, 600/407, 607/27, 601/3, 607/89, 128/898
Classification internationaleA61N5/02, A61B19/00, A61N7/02, A61N5/06, A61B18/04, A61F7/00, A61B18/00, A61B17/00, A61B18/18, A61B18/20
Classification coopérativeA61N7/02, A61B2017/00084, A61B34/10, A61B2090/374
Classification européenneA61N7/02
Événements juridiques
DateCodeÉvénementDescription
5 mars 2015FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12