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MINERALIZATION AND CELLULAR PATTERNING ON BIOMATERIAL SURFACES
 The present application claims priority to second U.S. provisional application Serial No. 60/167,289, filed Nov. 24,1999, which claims priority to first U.S. provisional application Serial No. 60/125,118, filed Mar. 19, 1999, the entire text and figures of which applications are incorporated herein by reference without disclaimer.
 The U.S. Government owns rights in the present invention pursuant to grant numbers R01 DE13033 and T32 GM 08353 from the National Institutes of Health.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION  1. Field of the Invention
 The present invention relates generally to the diverse fields of lithography, chemistry, biomaterials and tissue engineering. More particularly, it concerns the patterning and/or mineralization of biopolymers. These methods provided are particularly suited to the generation of surface-modified three-dimensional biomaterials for use in cell culture, transplantation and tissue engineering.
 2. Description of Related Art
 Many biomedical procedures require the provision of healthy tissue to counteract the disease process or trauma being treated. This work is often hampered by the tremendous shortage of tissues available for transplantation and/or grafting. Tissue engineering may ultimately provide alternatives to whole organ or tissue transplantation.
 In order to generate engineered tissues, various combinations of biomaterials and living cells are currently being investigated. Although attention is often focused on the cellular aspects of the engineering process, the design characteristics of the biomaterials also constitute a major challenge in this field.
 In recent years, the ability to regenerate tissues and to control the properties of the regenerated tissue have been investigated by trying to specifically tune the mechanical or chemical properties of the biomaterial scaffold (Kim et al., 1997; Kohn et al. 1997). The majority of this work has involved the incorporation of chemical factors into the material during processing, or the tuning of mechanical properties by altering the constituents of the material.
 The foregoing methods have been used in an attempt to utilize chemical or mechanical signaling to affect changes in the proliferation and/or differentiation of cells during tissue regeneration. Despite such efforts, there remains in the art a need for improved biomaterials, particularly those with a better capacity to support complex tissue growth in vitro (in cell culture) and in vivo (upon implantation).
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention overcomes various drawbacks in the art by providing a range of improved methods, compositions and devices for use in cell culture, cell transplantation and tissue engineering. The methods, compositions and apparatus of the invention involve patterned and/or mineralized biomaterial surfaces. The techniques and products provided are particularly useful for generating three
dimensional or contoured bioimplant materials with modified surface features and for generating biomaterials incorporating bioactive factors and/or cells. The various methods of using the mineralized and/or patterned biomaterials in tissue engineering, including bone tissue engineering and vascularization, thus provide more control over the biological processes.
 Unifying aspects of the invention involve the surface modification, functionalization or treatment of biocompatible materials. Such modifications, functionalizations or treatment methods are preferably used to create reactive surfaces that may be further manipulated, e.g., patterned and/or mineralized. The patterned and/or mineralized biocompatible materials have a variety of uses, both in vitro and in vivo.
 A first general aspect of the present invention concerns the patterned treatment of polymer biomaterial surfaces using a unique "diffraction lithography" process. Prior lithographic methods of surface patterning have been limited to flat, two dimensional surfaces, which is a significant limitation overcome by the methods provided herein. The present invention is thus applicable to surface patterning on complex three dimensional biomaterials with surface contours.
 The development of these aspects of the overall invention is particularly surprising as it provides patterns of sufficient resolution to be useful in biological embodiments. Further advantages of the invention over the methods of the prior art include the ready incorporation of biologically active components into the patterned biomaterials and the reduced risk of contamination. Other significant features of the invention are the cost-effectiveness and laborsaving nature of the techniques.
 A second general aspect of the invention involves the surface treatment or functionalization of a biocompatible material, preferably a porous, degradable polymer, such as a film or sponge, to spur nucleation and growth of an extended mineral layer on the surface. Such treatment can be controlled to provide a homogeneous surface mineral layer or a patterned mineral layer, such as islands of minerals. Each of such extended mineral layers allow the growth of continuous bone-like mineral layers, even on inner pore surfaces of polymer scaffolds.
 Such extensively mineralized, patterned mineralized and/or hypermineralized polymers of the invention have advantageous uses in bone tissue engineering and regeneration and tissue vascularization. The formation of extended mineral islands and/or substantially homogeneous, "continuous" mineral layers, particularly those on the inner pore surfaces of three dimensional matrices, is advantageous as it can be achieved simply (a one step incubation), quickly (about five days), at room temperature, without leading to an appreciable decrease in total scaffold porosity or pore size, and is amenable to further incorporation of bioactive substances.
 The further incorporation of bioactive substances is exemplified by the formation and use of polymers, preferably, biodegradable polymers, that are both mineralized and provide for the sustained release of bioactive factors, such as protein growth factors. In these aspects of the invention, the type of mineral layer may be controlled by altering the
molecular weight of the polymer; the composition of the polymer; the processing technique (solvent casting, heat pressing, gas foaming) used to prepare the polymer; the type and/or density of defects on the polymer surface; and/or by varying the incubation time.
 The various improved biomaterials of the invention have advantageous uses in cell and tissue culture and engineering methods, both in vitro and in vivo. By way of example only, the present invention provides biomaterial methods and compositions with patterned mineral surfaces for use in patterning bone cell adhesion.
 Accordingly, the general methods of the invention are those suitable for the surface-modification of at least a first biocompatible material or device, comprising:
 (a) generating a patterned surface on a biocompatible material or device by a method comprising irradiating at least a first photosensitive surface of a biocompatible material or device with prepatterned electromagnetic radiation, thereby generating a pattern on at least a first surface of the biocompatible material or device; and/or
 (b) generating an extended mineralized surface on a biocompatible material or device by a method comprising functionalizing at least a first surface of a biocompatible material or device and contacting the functionalized surface with an amount of a mineral-containing solution, thereby generating extended mineralization on at least a first surface of the biocompatible material or device.
 The irradiation, lithographic or diffractive lithography methods generally comprise generating a patterned surface on a biocompatible material by a method comprising functionalizing at least a first photosensitive surface of a biocompatible material by irradiating the photosensitive surface with an amount of pre-patterned electromagnetic radiation effective to generate a patterned biocompatible material comprising a pattern on at least a first surface of the biocompatible material. In these methods, the functionalized surface is preferably functionalized to create a plurality of polar oxygen groups at the surface, generally so that the functionalized surface can be further modified, e.g., with minerals cells or the like.
 It will thus be noted that the methods for generating a patterned surface on a biomaterial or device, comprise "directly" applying pre-patterned radiation to a photosensitive surface of a biomaterial or device. The "direct" application of the pre-patterned radiation is a significant advantage as it occurs without the intervention of a "mask", which is a significant drawback in contact lithography. The present invention thus provides "mask-less" or "naked" lithography for biomaterial patterning in which pre-patterned radiation is impinging directly onto a photosensitive surface of a biomaterial in the absence of an intervening mask.
 "Electromagnetic radiation", as used herein, includes all types of radiation being electromagnetic in origin, i.e., being composed of perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. The pre-patterned radiation for use in the invention is preferably constructively and destructively interfering electromagnetic radiation.
 The present invention includes the use of all constructively and destructively interfering radiation, such as
constructive and destructive interference based on amplitude, as well as phase holograms that rely on constructive and destructive interference based on phase only. One advantage of phase only holograms is that more light gets through, and a more complex pattern can be formed. However, the use of diffraction gratings to provide constructive and destructive interference based on amplitude is advantageous in construction and cost.
 The pre-patterned radiation may be constructively and destructively interfering radiation from any effective part of the visible spectrum. Constructively and destructively interfering radiation in the UV, infrared and visible spectra are preferred examples, with UV and visible spectra being most preferred.
 The pre-patterned, constructively and destructively interfering radiation may be generated by impinging monochromatic radiation on a diffractive optical element that converts the monochromatic radiation into constructively and destructively interfering radiation.
 The monochromatic radiation may be generated from any suitable source. For example, one or more lasers or one or more mercury bulbs. The monochromatic radiation may be first generated from an electromagnetic radiation source and then passed through a suitable filter.
 A wide range of diffractive optical elements may be used in the invention. "Diffractive optical element" is a term that includes diffraction gratings, holograms, and other pattern generators. There is virtually no limitation to these aspects of the invention as any component of the spectrum can be patterned by any type of optical element by varying the design of the optical element. For example, there is a well defined relationship between the feature spacing in a diffraction pattern, and the spacing of the slits in the diffraction pattern plus the wavelength of the radiation. Thus, the slit widths can be varied to create any pattern spacing with any wavelength of radiation.
 Therefore, one may use in the invention one or more diffractive lenses, deflector/array generators, hemispherical lenslets, kinoforms, diffraction gratings, fresnel microlenses and/or a phase-only holograms. Those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that a "diffraction grating" actually produces an "interference pattern", not a "diffraction pattern", which is a matter of semantics resulting from the original naming of "diffraction gratings".
 The diffractive optical element(s) may also be fabricated from any suitable material, such as a transparent polymer or glass. Examples of transparent polymers are those selected from the group consisting of a poly(mefhyl methacrylate), poly(styrene), and a high density polyethylene). Examples of diffraction gratings are those fabricated from metal on glass, metal on polymer or metal with transmission apertures (slits or holes). Other suitable diffractive optical elements are those fabricated from fused silica or sapphire. The choice of element and matching of element to processing conditions will be routine to those of skill in the art.
 Those of ordinary skill in the art will understand that UV light is less suitable for use with cells. When using visible light, no compromise of cell function is expected. Solely as a precaution, an upper limit may be about 6 W/cm2